The Hiker (Kitson)

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For the statue of the same name by Allen George Newman, see The Hiker (Newman).
The original, at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, in 1906.

The Hiker is a statue created by Theo Alice Ruggles Kitson. It commemorates the American soldiers who fought in the Spanish–American War, the Boxer Rebellion and the Philippine–American War. The first version of it was made for the University of Minnesota in 1906,[1] but at least 50 copies were made, and were erected very widely across the United States.

"The Hiker depicts a hero stripped of his parade uniform and shown as a soldier reacting to the challenges of the battlefield." [2]

Original[edit]

When she created The Hiker, Kitson already had a reputation for sculpting war memorial statues. For the title of her work, Kitson used the term that American soldiers in both the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War gave themselves: "hikers". Leonard Sefing, Jr., a Spanish–American War veteran from Allentown, Pennsylvania, was selected as the model for the statue after a photograph of him was entered into a national contest.[3]

The original statue was unveiled at the University of Minnesota on Memorial Day, 1906.[4] The statue stands in front of the armory at 15 Church Street. Also known as the "Student Soldier Memorial", it is a monument to the 218 University of Minnesota students who served in the Spanish–American War.[5] The statue is 9 feet (2.7 m) tall and stands on a 6-foot (1.8 m) granite base, depicting a soldier clad in a period uniform with a campaign hat and a Krag-Jørgensen rifle. Today this statue, now missing its gun tip,[6] is popularly known as Iron Mike.[5]

Locations[edit]

Kitson's Hikers are attractive corrosion monitors because of their fixed geometry, reasonably consistent alloy chemistry, wide distribution, and long period of exposure.[6]

"Hiker Study - In Situ Measurement of Long-Term Monumental Bronze Corrosion", 2009

Kitson's work proved to be very popular,[4] largely because of its realism and historical accuracy.[7] In 1921, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, located in Providence, Rhode Island, bought the rights to the statue, and over the next 44 years Gorham cast at least 50 Hiker statues.[7] The earliest installations tended to be in the northeastern United States, with post-World War II statues installed mostly in the South and West.[6]

Because of the wide distribution of the statues, they were used in a 2009 study measuring the effects of air pollution over the last century.[6]

Date Location City & state Coordinates Unique features Photo Reference
1906 In front of the University of Minnesota Armory, facing Church Street Minneapolis 44°58′37.9″N 93°13′57.82″W / 44.977194°N 93.2327278°W / 44.977194; -93.2327278 (Minneapolis, Minnesota) This is the original casting Hiker.jpg [8]
1911 Kennedy Plaza Providence, Rhode Island 41°49′30.66″N 71°24′40.68″W / 41.8251833°N 71.4113000°W / 41.8251833; -71.4113000 (Providence, Rhode Island) This Monument Erected by The City of Providence to her sons who on land and sea defended the Nation's honor in the war with Spain, the Insurrection in the Philippines and the China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Dedicated July 12, 1925 under the aspices of Capt. Allyn K Capron Camp No. 1 and Sidney F. Hoar Camp No. 4 United Spanish War Veterans. Hiker at Kennedy Plaza in Providence RI.JPG [9]
June 14, 1913 North Andover Police Department North Andover, Massachusetts,
May 30, 1921 Central Park located on Monument Hill east of Bradley Boulevard Schenectady, New York 42°48′04″N 73°54′49″W / 42.801234°N 73.913602°W / 42.801234; -73.913602 (Schenectady, New York) The Hiker statue overlooks Iroquois Lake. Dedicated under the auspices of General Eugene Griffin Camp No 11 United Spanish War Veterans and the Board of Supervisors of Schenectady County. The Hiker was rededicated June 15, 1996. Hiker at Central Park in Schenectady NY.JPG
May 30, 1923 Pine Grove Cemetery,145 Boston Street Lynn, Massachusetts Freedom - Patriotism - Humanity

Erected by the City of Lynn to Commemorating the Valor and Patriotism of the Men of this City who Served in the War with Spain, Philippine Insurrection and China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Dedicated May 30, 1923 under the Auspices of General Joseph P. Sanger Camp No. 15. United Spanish War Veterans Dept. of Mass.

Hiker at Pine Grove Cemetery in Lynn MA.JPG
October 21, 1923 Canal Square (formerly known as McKinley Square) Cohoes, New York 42°46′29″N 73°42′06″W / 42.774786°N 73.701640°W / 42.774786; -73.701640 (Cohoes, New York) Bears the inscription: "To the Men of Cohoes Who Served Their Country, in the War With Spain, The Philippine Campaign and the China Relief Expedition, 1898 and 1902." and containing the names of 203 Cohoes soldiers, sailors and marines. Hiker at Canal Square in Cohoes NY.JPG
November 11, 1925 Lucas County Courthouse Toledo, Ohio 41°39′20″N 83°32′13″W / 41.655637°N 83.536840°W / 41.655637; -83.536840 (Toledo, Ohio)
1923 Memorial Hall Dayton, Ohio 39°45′47″N 84°11′23″W / 39.762983°N 84.189737°W / 39.762983; -84.189737 (Dayton, Ohio) MemorialHallDayton.jpg
May 17, 1924 Deering Oaks Portland, Maine 43°39′28″N 70°16′06″W / 43.657758°N 70.268393°W / 43.657758; -70.268393 (Portland, Maine) In memoriam, United Spanish War Veterans of Cumberland County, 1898 - 1902 Deering Oaks (Portland, ME) - IMG 8122.JPG
May 10, 1924 North-east corner of Bronson Park Kalamazoo, Michigan 42°17′25.93″N 85°35′6.24″W / 42.2905361°N 85.5850667°W / 42.2905361; -85.5850667 (Kalamazoo, Michigan) The placard on the monument states "Erected by the citizens of Kalamazoo City and County to commemorate the valor and patriotism of those who served in the war with Spain, the Philippine Insurrection and the China Relief Expedition." [10]
May 30, 1924 Billings Park, South Salina & South Warren & East Adams Streets Syracuse, New York 43°02′33″N 76°09′04″W / 43.042524°N 76.151137°W / 43.042524; -76.151137 (Syracuse, New York) Erected by Onondaga County and Col. Butler Camp and Spanish War Veterans. The placard on the monument states "Erected by the County of Onondaga and Colonel John G. Butler Camp, Spanish War Veterans. To the memory of the soldiers and sailors of this country who volunteered and served in the war with Spain, Philippine Insurrection and Boxer Uprising in China. 1924" Hiker at Billings Park in Syracuse NY.JPG
September 1, 1924 Moran Square Fitchburg, Massachusetts The placard on the monument states "This Monument Erected by The City of Fitchburg to Commemorate the Valour and Patriotism of the Men who Served in the War with Spain, Philippine Insurrection and China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Dedicated September 1, 1924 under the Auspices of Guanica Camp No. 9 United Spanish War Veterans." Hiker at Moran Square in Fitchburg MA.JPG
September 19, 1925 Russell Sage College, looking toward Congress Street. Troy, New York 42°43′44″N 73°41′34″W / 42.728867°N 73.692755°W / 42.728867; -73.692755 (Troy, New York) Dedicated under the auspices of Marcus D. Russell Camp No. 2 United Spanish–American War Veterans and the Board of Supervisors of Rensselaer County. Hiker at Russell Sage College in Troy NY.JPG
October 12, 1926 Located at Main and Common Street Wakefield, Massachusetts, Hiker Wakefield, MA.JPG
October 24, 1926 Gale Park, Kenoza Avenue & Mill Street Haverhill, Massachusetts The placard on the monument states "This Monument Erected by the City of Haverhill to Commemorate the Valor and Patriotism of the Men who Served in the War with Spain, Philippine Insurrection and China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Dedicated October 24, 1926 under the Auspices of Sergeant Fred Thomas Camp No. 48 United Spanish War Veterans Department of Massachusetts." Hiker at Gale Park in Haverhill MA.JPG
September 26, 1926 Inside Bohemian National Cemetery Chicago 41°58′42″N 87°43′21″W / 41.978222°N 87.722612°W / 41.978222; -87.722612 (Chicago, Illinois) An additional plaque, in the ground at the base of the hiker, was dedicated May 17, 1964. The plaque, in the shape of a cross, was an honor roll of 147 names of comrades from American Camp No.30 United Spanish War Veterans dedicated by the last six members of the camp.
1927 Lt Joseph F Wehner Park on Lynn St Everett, Massachusetts, The placard on the monument states "Erected by the City of Everett" Hiker at Lt Joseph F Wehner Park in Everett MA.JPG
September 5, 1927 Garfield Square Market at 5th Street Pottsville, Pennsylvania 40°41′04″N 76°11′55″W / 40.684384°N 76.198636°W / 40.684384; -76.198636 (Pottsville, Pennsylvania) The placard on the monument states the following, "Dedicated Sept. 5, 1927" Hiker at Garfield Square in Pottsville, PA.jpg
October 12, 1927 Oak Grove Cemetery, 230 Playstead Road Medford, Massachusetts The placard on the monument states "This Monument Erected by The City of Medford to her sons who on land and sea defended the Nation's honor in the war with Spain, the Insurrection in the Philippines and the China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Dedicated Oct 12, 1927." Hiker at Oak Grove Cemetery in Medford MA.JPG
1928 At the north end of Waltham Common Waltham, Massachusetts 42°22′33.49″N 71°14′10.52″W / 42.3759694°N 71.2362556°W / 42.3759694; -71.2362556 (Waltham, Massachusetts) Theo Alice Ruggles Kitson - Monument in Waltham, MA - 1.JPG
1928 Located Foster Park, Bordered by State S.E., Cherry S.E., & Prospect S.E. Grand Rapids, Michigan 42°57′34″N 85°39′36″W / 42.959570°N 85.659920°W / 42.959570; -85.659920 (Grand Rapids, Michigan) Formerly located at Lookout Park from 1928-1957. The placard on the monument states, "Freedom, Patriotism and Humanity. Dedicated to the soldiers and sailors of the war with Spain, Philippine Insurrection and China Relief Expedition." [11]
May 27, 1928 In front of the Wichita Falls Memorial Auditorium. Wichita Falls, Texas 33°54′34″N 98°29′59″W / 33.909336°N 98.499641°W / 33.909336; -98.499641 (Wichita Falls, Texas) [12]
July 4, 1929 Bronstein Park facing Hanover Street Manchester, New Hampshire 42°59′29″N 71°27′21″W / 42.991348°N 71.455902°W / 42.991348; -71.455902 (Manchester, New Hampshire) The placard on the monument states "This Monument Erected by The City of Manchester to her sons who on land and sea defended the Nation's honor in the war with Spain, the Insurrection in the Philippines and the China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Dedicated July 4, 1929." Hiker at Bronstein Park in Manchester NH.JPG
1929 Wisner Park Elmira, New York 42°05′21″N 76°48′30″W / 42.089039°N 76.808308°W / 42.089039; -76.808308 (Elmira, New York) The placard on the monument states "In Memory of the Veterans who served during the Spanish American War, the Philippine Insurrection, the China Relief Expedition 1898 to 1902. Presented by the Citizens of Chemung County through the Honorable Board of Supervisors and the Honorable Mayor and Common Council of Elmira, N.Y.

Erected 1929 Veterans Committee Mayor John D. Driscoll, P.D.C., William H. Shay P.C., Sumner O. Smith P.C., William D. Gelder P.C., Leon A. Forrest P.C."

This Hiker was featured in a Post Card for Wisner Park in Elmira, New York in 1937.

Hiker at Wisner Park in Elmira, NY.jpg
June 7, 1931 South End of Forsythe Park Savannah, Georgia 32°03′54″N 81°05′51″W / 32.064915°N 81.097451°W / 32.064915; -81.097451 (Savannah, Georgia) Officially called "The Georgia Volunteer," it was erected in Savannah because that city contributed more Spanish-American War soldiers per capita than any other city in Georgia.
November 11, 1934 Chelsea City Hall,500 Broadway Chelsea, Massachusetts The placard on the monument states" This Memorial Erected by the Walter I. Chadbourne Camp No. 24 U.S.W.V. in Honor of the Men of Chelsea who served in the 1898 - Spanish–American War - 1902

Dedicated November 11, 1934

Volunteers all by their service and their lives they gave the blessings of liberty and justice to the oppressed people of Cuba and the Philippines"

Additionally, the placard lists the names of the citizens of Chelsea that were members of the 1st Mass. Heavy Artillery H Battery U.S. Volunteers, members of the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, Marine Corp, and identifies that Corp. Daniel J. Dempsey was killed in action July 1, 1898 at the Battle of El Caney.

Hiker at City Hall in Chelsea, MA.jpg
1934 Southeast corner of The Common Woburn, Massachusetts 42°28′45.75″N 71°9′7.44″W / 42.4793750°N 71.1520667°W / 42.4793750; -71.1520667 (Woburn, Massachusetts) Hiker Woburn.jpg [13]
1937 West side of Taunton Green Taunton, Massachusetts 41°54′6.61″N 71°5′37.16″W / 41.9018361°N 71.0936556°W / 41.9018361; -71.0936556 (Taunton, Massachusetts) Taunton Hiker.JPG
October 10, 1937 Greenspace located at College Heights Boulevard, North 28th and West Tilghman Street Allentown, Pennsylvania 40°35′58″N 75°31′10″W / 40.59944°N 75.51944°W / 40.59944; -75.51944 (Allentown, Pennsylvania) Leonard Sefing, Jr., a Spanish–American War veteran from Allentown, was the model for the statue.[3] The placard on the monument states, "Erected by the County of Lehigh, the City of Allentown and George H. Schwartz Camp, No. 2, United Spanish War Veterans - to commemorate the valor and patriotism of those who served in the war with Spain, the Philippine Insurrection, and the China Relief Expedition. Hiker Monument in Allentown PA Green Space.jpg [3]
1938 Traffic island at the intersection of Plymouth Avenue and Pleasant Street Fall River, Massachusetts 41°41′51″N 71°8′49″W / 41.69750°N 71.14694°W / 41.69750; -71.14694 (Fall River, Massachusetts) The base upon which statue stands is formed from the top of a column from the demolished Fall River Customs House and Post Office set on a slab of Fall River granite. In 1983, the local and state historical commissions nominated the statue for the National Register of Historic Places, but the listing was rejected.[14] The Hiker Fall River MA.jpg [15]
August 13, 1938 Intersection of Lincoln and Market Streets Shamokin, Pennsylvania 40°47′21″N 76°33′30″W / 40.789211°N 76.558415°W / 40.789211; -76.558415 (Shamokin, Pennsylvania) The placard states "This monument was erected by the patriotic people of Shamokin and vicinity and the members of Major General Guy V. Henry Camp No. 11, United Spanish War Veterans, to commemorate the valor and patriotism of the men who served in the war with Spain, the Philippine Insurrection and the China Relief Expedition. Dedicated August 13, 1938" Hiker in Shamokin PA.jpg
November 20, 1938 Located Pleasant & Highland Streets at the Oscar C Wallace Park Malden, Massachusetts The placard on the monument states "This Monument Erected by The City of Malden to her sons who on land and sea defended the Nation's honor in the war with Spain, Philippine Insurrection and the China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Dedicated November 20, 1938 under the auspices of Col. Moses B. Lakeman Camp No. 44 United Spanish War Veterans." Hiker at Oscar C Wallace Park in Malden MA.JPG
May 30, 1939 Loyola Avenue, facing north into the intersection with Poydras Street New Orleans 29°57′1.82″N 90°4′32.92″W / 29.9505056°N 90.0758111°W / 29.9505056; -90.0758111 (New Orleans, Louisiana) Originally located at North Claiborne and Canal Street NOCBDSpanishWarStatue.jpg
October 22, 1939 Hiker Park, at the intersection of Algoma Boulevard and Congress Avenue Oshkosh, Wisconsin 44°02′04″N 88°33′31″W / 44.034507°N 88.558546°W / 44.034507; -88.558546 (Oshkosh, Wisconsin) Made possible through the public spirit and generosity of the late Colonel John Hicks of Oshkosh under the auspices of Nelson A. Miles Camp No. 1 United Spanish War Veterans [16]
June 30, 1940 300 W. Main Street, Northside of courthouse lawn Knoxville, Tennessee 35°57′42″N 83°54′59″W / 35.961571°N 83.916448°W / 35.961571; -83.916448 (Knoxville, Tennessee) The base of the monument is a boulder from taken from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Dedicated under the auspices of the Jack Bernard Camp, United Spanish War Veterans of Knoxville. The Hiker-Knoxville,TN
October 18, 1940 Alabama Department of Archives and History-Statuary Hall,624 Washington Avenue Montgomery, Alabama 32°22′33″N 86°18′01″W / 32.375775°N 86.300380°W / 32.375775; -86.300380 (Montgomery, Alabama) This monument is located inside Statuary Hall and may be the only Hiker monument to be on display inside a climate controlled building.
September 7, 1940 Fisher Veterans' Memorial Park, near the intersection of South 10th and South 9th Streets Lebanon, Pennsylvania 40°19′55″N 76°25′34″W / 40.331827°N 76.425995°W / 40.331827; -76.425995 (Lebanon, Pennsylvania) The placard on the monument states, "Dedicated to the men of Lebanon County who gave their lives in the Spanish American War." There are eight names listed on the placard. Hiker at Fisher Veteran's Park in Lebanon, PA.jpg
April 20, 1941 Located in Arcadia Park in Los Angeles County, originally at the southwest corner of Huntington Drive at Santa Anita Avenue. It was moved to its present location in the park’s center and rededicated on June 21, 1993. Arcadia, California 34°08′16″N 118°02′01″W / 34.137689°N 118.033695°W / 34.137689; -118.033695 (Arcadia, California) Dedicated to those who served in the war with Spain, the Philippine Insurrection and China Relief Expedition 1898-1902. Presented by the county of Los Angeles, the United Spanish–American War Veterans of Southern California and Friends. [17]
October 22, 1941 State House Grounds next to Gervais Street Columbia, South Carolina 34°00′05″N 81°01′59″W / 34.001306°N 81.032917°W / 34.001306; -81.032917 (Columbia, South Carolina) Erected by the State of South Carolina and her citizens to honor the memory of her sons who served in the War with Spain,The Philippine Insurrection and the China Relief Expedition 1898-1902.Dedicated October 22, 1941 by the Department of South Carolina United Spanish War Veterans. Another plaque lists the regiments from South Carolina and the names of the men who volunteered for the yellow fever test in Cuba.
November 23, 1941 437 Broad Street Meriden, Connecticut 41°31′55″N 72°47′38″W / 41.531982°N 72.793852°W / 41.531982; -72.793852 (Meriden, Connecticut) Erected by the Meriden City Council in 1941 for $3,000 and includes a plaque listing 206 names of Spanish–American War veterans. Hiker at Broad Street Memorial Boulevard in Meriden CT.JPG [18]
May 23, 1942 Located near North Landing Park, at the intersection of North Street and Crawford Parkway. Portsmouth, Virginia 36°50′19″N 76°17′53″W / 36.838627°N 76.298017°W / 36.838627; -76.298017 (Portsmouth, Virginia) Erected by the citizens of Portsmouth and Norfolk County. Sponsored by the Austin R. Davis Camp No 4 – United Spanish War Veterans and Auxiliary to commemorate the valor and patriotism of those who voluntarily served in the war with Spain, the Philippine Insurrection and the China Relief Expedition. Hiker at Crawford St. in Portsmouth VA.JPG
June 11, 1943 North Lakewood and East Fayette street Baltimore 39°17′41″N 76°34′46″W / 39.294602°N 76.579387°W / 39.294602; -76.579387 (Baltimore, Maryland) The pedestal is engraved with "Dedicated to the United Spanish War Veterans 1898 - 1902" The base is engraved "Erected 1943, Present by the State of Maryland, William M. Miller, Dept. Comdr" Hiker Monument in Baltimore MD.jpg
June 4, 1944 At the North 20th Street entrance of Linn Park. Birmingham, Alabama 33°31′12″N 86°48′34″W / 33.520078°N 86.809350°W / 33.520078; -86.809350 (Birmingham, Alabama) Dedicated June 4, 1944, by the Ladies Auxiliary, United Spanish War Veterans, to the most unselfish mass act in history
September 15, 1946 Michigan State Capitol grounds on S. Capital Avenue Lansing, Michigan 42°44′04″N 84°33′15″W / 42.734370°N 84.554129°W / 42.734370; -84.554129 (Lansing, Michigan) Erected through the efforts of the various camps and auxiliaries of the United Spanish War Veterans of Michigan and presented to the State of Michigan. [19]
1947 Penn Valley Park Kansas City, Missouri, 39°4′35.71″N 94°35′15.64″W / 39.0765861°N 94.5876778°W / 39.0765861; -94.5876778 (Kansas City, Missouri)
1947 Arsenal Square Cambridge, Massachusetts The placard on the monument states "This Monument Erected by the city of Cambridge to her sons who on land and sea defended the nation's honor in the war with Spain, the insurrection in the Philippines, and the China Relief Expedition 1898 - 1902. Dedicated October 12, 1947 under the auspices of Leslie F. Hunting Camp No. 12 United Spanish War Veterans" Hiker Cambridge - DSC00381.JPG
October 5, 1948 Elm St. & Morris Ave. Morristown, New Jersey 40°47′46.7″N 74°28′25.94″W / 40.796306°N 74.4738722°W / 40.796306; -74.4738722 (Morristown, New Jersey) On the back are carved the names of the Morristown men who died in service. Sp Am War statue Morristn jeh.jpg [20]
1949 Capitol Park Sacramento, California 38°34′34.18″N 121°29′33.86″W / 38.5761611°N 121.4927389°W / 38.5761611; -121.4927389 (Sacramento, California)
August 12, 1949 Howard Park located at the corner of Parker and Okeechobee Blvd West Palm Beach, Florida 26°42′20″N 80°03′41″W / 26.705526°N 80.061346°W / 26.705526; -80.061346 (West Palm Beach, Florida)
1951 Texas State Capitol grounds, near the western corner of the Capitol building Austin, Texas 30°16′28.72″N 97°44′29.7″W / 30.2746444°N 97.741583°W / 30.2746444; -97.741583 (Austin, Texas) The Hiker is the last war memorial to be added on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol. Spanish War Veterans monument in front of Texas State Capitol.JPG [21]
1956 Spanish-American War Memorial Park, East Parkway Street and Central Avenue Memphis, Tennessee 35°07′32″N 89°59′07″W / 35.125683°N 89.985220°W / 35.125683; -89.985220 (Memphis, Tennessee) Inscription on plaque affixed to base reads: The Hiker Typifying the American Volunteer who fought Spain in Cuba, the Philippines, and Boxer Rebellion. Erected in 1956 with funds raised by Spanish War Veterans of Memphis under the leadership of Fred Bauer, Commander. Spanish War Memorial Park Central Ave Memphis TN 04.jpg
February 15, 1959 Armory Park Tucson, Arizona, 32°13′08″N 110°58′06″W / 32.218892°N 110.968343°W / 32.218892; -110.968343 (Tucson, Arizona) Installed January 22, 1959 The Hiker by Kitson in Tucson AZ USA.jpg
July 24, 1965 Memorial Drive, just outside Arlington National Cemetery Arlington, Virginia 38°53′4.57″N 77°3′44.73″W / 38.8846028°N 77.0624250°W / 38.8846028; -77.0624250 (Arlington National Cemetery) The United Spanish War Veterans Memorial, consisting of a casting of the statue atop a granite plinth, is one of several monuments "not formally part of Arlington Cemetery."[22] The Hiker - looking SW - Arlington National Cemetery - 2011.JPG

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Rubenstein, Charlotte Streifer, American Women Sculptors: A History of Women Working in Three Dimensions, G. K. Hall and Co. Boston, 1990 pp. 103–104 ISBN 978-0-8161-8732-4
  2. ^ Little, Carol Morris, A Comprehensive Guide to Outdoor Sculpture in Texas, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas 1996 p. 70
  3. ^ a b c "The Hiker, (sculpture)", Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian Institution, retrieved 2012-01-31, Allentown native and Spanish American War veteran, Leonard Sefing, Jr., was the model for the final design of the original "Hiker" sculpture, of which this sculpture is a reproduction. Sefing's photograph was submitted by a local photographer to a national contest seeking the ideal Spanish American War soldier. 
  4. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer (2009), "Theodora Alice Ruggles Kitson, "The Hiker" war memorial, 1906", The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history, ABC-CLIO, 1, p. 988, ISBN 1-85109-951-4, retrieved 2012-01-31 
  5. ^ a b Brady, Tim (2007), Gopher Gold: Legendary Figures, Brilliant Blunders, and Amazing Feats at the University of Minnesota, Minnesota Historical Society, p. 142, ISBN 0-87351-601-X, retrieved 2012-01-31 
  6. ^ a b c d "Hiker Study - In Situ Measurement of Long-Term Monumental Bronze Corrosion", The Effects of Air Pollution on Cultural Heritage, Springer, pp. 89–96, 2009, ISBN 0-387-84892-4 
  7. ^ a b Little, Carol Morris (1996), A comprehensive guide to outdoor sculpture in Texas, University of Texas Press, pp. 70–71, ISBN 0-292-76036-1, retrieved 2012-01-31 
  8. ^ Harris, Moira A., Monumental Minnesota: A Guide to Outdoor Sculpture, Pogp Press Inc., 1992 p. 33
  9. ^ "The Hiker" Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian Museum
  10. ^ Hendry, Fay, photos by Balthazar Korab, Outdoor Sculpture of Kalamazoo, iota press, Okemos, MI, 1980 p. 22-23
  11. ^ Hendry, Fay, photos by Balthazar Korab, Outdoor Sculpture of Grand Rapids, iota press, Okemos, MI, 1980 p. 68-69
  12. ^ Little, Carol Morris, ‘’A Comprehensive Guide to Outdoor Sculpture in Texas’’, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas 1996 p. 71
  13. ^ Dedicated November 11, 1934, stated on marker
  14. ^ Giza, Patricia (1984). A Guide Book to Fall River's National Register Properties. Fall River, Massachusetts: The City. 
  15. ^ "Lest we Forget: Veterans of Spanish-American War honored", The Herald News, 2009-01-04, retrieved 31 January 2012 
  16. ^ "Spanish-American War Monument". Wisconsin Historical Markers. M.A.Roberts Consulting. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  17. ^ Yom, Julie. "A Guide to Civic Art in LA County Parks" (PDF). Los Angeles County Department of Parks and Recreation. p. 9. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  18. ^ Hiker” Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian Museum
  19. ^ Hendry, Fay, photos by Balthazar Korab, Outdoor Sculpture of Lansing, iota press, Okemos, Michigan, 1980 p. 18-19
  20. ^ Bostick, Virginia L., ‘’The Public Monuments & Sculpture of Morristown, New Jersey’’, New Jersey State Council of the Arts, and the National Endowment for the Arts, 1978, p. 13-14
  21. ^ Little, Carol Morris, ‘’A Comprehensive Guide to Outdoor Sculpture in Texas’’, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas 1996 pp. 70-71
  22. ^ Monuments on Memorial Drive, National Park Service, Arlington National Cemetery, retrieved 2012-02-07, Also located along Memorial Drive are several memorials and monuments not formally part of Arlington Cemetery. These include the Seabees Memorial, the Armored Memorial, the United Spanish War Veterans Memorial (the Hiker), monument to Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, the 101st Airborne Division Memorial, and the 4 Infantry (IVY) Division Monument. 

External links[edit]

Media related to The Hiker (Kitson) at Wikimedia Commons