United States Senate elections, 1852 and 1853

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United States Senate elections, 1852 and 1853
United States
1850 / 1851 ←
Various dates → 1854 / 1855

20 of the 62 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
32 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Whig
Last election 33 seats 22 seats
Seats before 37 22
Seats won 10 4
Seats after 35 18
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 4
Seats up 10 9

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Free Soil Know Nothing
Last election 2 seats
Seats before 3 [New party]
Seats won 2 1
Seats after 2 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 1
Seats up 1

Majority Party before election

Democratic

Elected Majority Party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1852 and 1853 were elections which had the Democratic Party gain two seats in the United States Senate, and which coincided with the 1852 Presidential election. Only six of the twenty Senators up for election were re-elected.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 33rd Congress (1853–1855)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (35–38)
  • Minority Party: Whig Party (19–17)
  • Other Parties: Free Soiler (2–5); Know Nothing (1)
  • Vacant: 5–1
  • Total Seats: 62

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the July 6, 1852 appointment in Kentucky.

D1
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Ran
D28
Ran
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D31
Ran
Majority → D32
Unknown
W22
Retired
FS1 FS2 FS3
Retired
D37
Retired
D36
Retired
D35
Retired
D34
Unknown
D33
Unknown
W21
Retired
W20
Retired
W19
Retired
W18
Unknown
W17
Unknown
W16
Ran
W15
Ran
W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1

As a result of the elections[edit]

D1
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
Majority → D32
Hold
KN1
Gain
FS1 FS2 V1
D Loss
V2
D Loss
D36
Gain
D35
Gain
D34
Hold
D33
Hold
V3
W Loss
V4
W Loss
V5
W Loss
W18
Gain
W17
Hold
W16
Hold
W15
Re-elected
W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1

At the beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30 D31
Majority → D32
FS1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 D35 D34 D33
FS2 KN1 W19
Gain
W18 W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1

At the beginning of the first session, December 5, 1853[edit]

D1
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30 D31
Majority → D32
FS2 V2 V2 V3 D37
Gain
D36
Gain
D35 D34 D33
FS1 KN1 W19 W18 W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 32nd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1852 or in 1853 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature failed to elect.
Winner elected January 30, 1852.
Democratic gain.
John B. Weller (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Henry S. Foote Democratic 1846 or 1847 Incumbent resigned January 8, 1852 to become Governor of Mississippi.
Winner elected February 18, 1852.
Whig gain.
Winner then retired at the end of the term, see below.
Walker Brooke (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi
(Class 1)
John J. McRae Democratic 1851 (Appointed) Interim appointee replaced by an elected successor.
Winner elected March 17, 1852.
Democratic hold.
Stephen Adams (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature failed to elect.
Winner elected May 12, 1852.
Democratic gain.
Isaac Toucey (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
David Meriwether Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected September 1, 1852.
Whig gain.
Archibald Dixon (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
William F. De Saussure Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 29, 1852.[1]
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
William F. De Saussure (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana
(Class 3)
Charles W. Cathcart Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Incumbent retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected January 18, 1853.
Democratic hold.
John Pettit (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 33rd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1853; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama Jeremiah Clemens Democratic 1849 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until November 29, 1853, see below.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas William K. Sebastian Democratic 1848 (Appointed)
1848 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1853. William K. Sebastian (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Presley Spruance Whig 1846 or 1847 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853.
Whig hold.
John M. Clayton (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Robert M. Charlton Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852.
Democratic hold.
Robert Toombs (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois Stephen A. Douglas Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected in 1852. Stephen A. Douglas (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa George W. Jones Democratic 1848 Incumbent re-elected in 1852. George W. Jones (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Joseph R. Underwood Whig 1846 or 1847 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1852 or 1853.
Know Nothing gain.
John B. Thompson (Know Nothing)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Solomon W. Downs Democratic 1847 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852.
Whig gain.
Judah P. Benjamin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine James W. Bradbury Democratic 1846 Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1854.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts John Davis Whig 1835
1841 (Resigned)
1845 (Special)
1847
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853.
Whig hold.
Edward Everett (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Alpheus Felch Democratic 1847 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853.
Democratic hold.
Charles E. Stuart (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Walker Brooke Whig 1852 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1854.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire John P. Hale Free Soil 1846 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. President.
Winner elected in 1852.
Democratic gain.
Charles G. Atherton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Jacob W. Miller Whig 1840
1846
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852 or 1853.
Democratic gain.
William Wright (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Willie Mangum Whig 1830
1840 (Special)
1841
Incumbent lost re-election.
Leglislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1854.
Willie Mangum (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island John Hopkins Clarke Whig 1846 or 1847 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Leglislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
Seat would remain vacant until July 20, 1853, see below.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina William F. De Saussure Democratic 1852 (Appointed)
1852 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852 or 1853.
Democratic hold.
Josiah J. Evans (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee John Bell Whig 1847 Incumbent re-elected in 1853. Spencer Jarnagin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Sam Houston Democratic 1846
1847
Incumbent re-elected in 1853. Sam Houston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia Robert M. T. Hunter Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected in 1852. Robert M. T. Hunter (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Race leading to the 34th Congress[edit]

In this general election, the winner was elected for the term beginning March 4, 1855.

This election involved a Class 3 seat.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Archibald Dixon Whig 1852 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853, far in advance of the term beginning March 4, 1855.
Whig hold.
John J. Crittenden (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 33rd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1853 on or after March 4; ordered by date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Robert F. Stockton Democratic 1851 Incumbent resigned January 10, 1853 to become president of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company.
Winner elected March 4, 1853.
Democratic hold.
John Renshaw Thomson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected July 20, 1853.
Democratic gain.
Philip Allen (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Alabama
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected November 29, 1853.
Democratic gain.
Clement Claiborne Clay (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Alabama
(Class 3)
Benjamin Fitzpatrick Democratic 1848 (Appointed)
1849 Elected successor qualified
1853 (Appointed)
Interim appointee elected December 12, 1853.[2] Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Pierre Soulé Democratic 1847 (Special)
1847 (Left office)
1848
Incumbent resigned to become U.S. Minister to Spain.
Winner elected December 5, 1853.
Democratic hold.
John Slidell (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

Alabama[edit]

Class 2: Late election[edit]

The legislature failed to elect a Senator for the other seat, previously held by Jeremiah Clemens (Democratic). On November 29, 1853, Clement Claiborne Clay (Democratic) was finally elected late to the seat.

Class 3: Special[edit]

On December 20, 1852, Senator William R. King (Democratic) resigned due to poor health. On January 14, 1853, Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic) was appointed to continue the term, and he was elected December 12, 1853 to finish the term.[2]

Connecticut[edit]

Senate (May 11, 1852)[3]

House (May 12, 1852)[4]

Massachusetts[edit]

Texas[edit]

Virginia[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Byrd, page 164
  2. ^ a b Byrd, page 76.
  3. ^ Journal of the Senate of the State of Connecticut, May session 1852, pages 41-42.
  4. ^ "Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Connecticut (May session 1852)". pp. 54, 58.