Upazila Nirbahi Officer
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In Bangladesh the Upazila Nirbahi Officer often abbreviated UNO, (Bengali: উপজেলা নির্বাহী অফিসার) is the chief executive of an upazila (sub-district) and a junior-level officer of the Bangladesh Civil Service (Administration Cadre). A Senior Assistant Secretary is usually assigned to this post.
The role of the UNO was created in accordance with a decision by the military regime of Lieutenant General Hussain Muhammad Ershad. In 1982, the Ershad government constituted a committee for administrative reorganization and reform. One of the committee's major recommendations was to create a representative body called Upazila Porishod (council) under a directly elected chair. The government created the position of Thana Nirbahi Officer or TNO (thana executive officer) later renaming it Upazila Nirbhahi Officer (UNO)—in each of the existing thanas (later upgraded and renamed upazila) outside the metropolitan areas.
About the same time subdivisions were upgraded and converted into districts, responsibility for all development activities at the local level was transferred to the Upazila Porishads. It was also decided that the UNO should continue to chair the Upazila Porishads until an elected chair took office.
UNOs were normally posted from among the officers ranked as "Senior Assistant Secretary" of the BCS Administration cadre.
Charter of duties
- assisting the chair in supervising administrative/development work and in preparing an upazila development plan;
- exercising powers under section 144 of criminal procedure code, sitting in court to take cognizance of cases, hearing bail matters, granting adjournment, etc., when the upazila magistrate is unable to attend the court;
- initiating the annual confidential reports (ACR) of Assistant Commissioner (land);
- aiding relief work following natural disasters and receive food and other materials for distribution under the direction of the upazila parishad/chair;
- supervising and controlling revenue and budget administration;
- ensuring the observance of all government directives on upazila administration;
- coordinating all upazila level training activities;
- granting casual leave and countersigning the traveling allowance bills of the heads of all functional departments except munsiff;
- acting as drawing and disbursing officer in respect of officers and staff working directly under him;
- supervising activities of the officers and staff working under him;
- enforcing protocol
- other functions that are entrusted to him by the government or the upazila porishod/chair.
The designation 'upazila nirbahi officer' changed to 'thana nirbahi officer' upon the abolition of the upazila system in the early 1990s. This changed designation again, reverting to 'upazila nirbahi officer' in the late 1990s.