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For example, the 1960s EMD SD45 diesel-electric locomotive is fitted with a 20-cylinder EMD 645E3 two-stroke turbocharged engine. The engine name is based on the displacement of each cylinder in cubic inches. In this case, it is 645 cubic inches (10.6 L) for each of 20 cylinders for a total of 211 L. Power output is 3,600 horsepower (2.7 MW), net for traction, with the maximum gross power output being closer to 5,000 HP when operated in self-test mode, with the generated output being dissipated by resistors.
EMD produced an upgraded/special version of SD45 later, EMD SD45-2 and EMD SD45T-2, still powered by 20-cylinder EMD 645E3, but EMD SD45-2 had some changes on the rear of the locomotive's long hood,while the EMD SD45T-2 has a locomotive cooling system modifications, known as a "tunnel motor". A 20-cylinder 710 series diesel engine was also built for the EMD SD80MAC locomotive. EMD still manufactures these engines, which are primarily used in the power production and marine industries. An EMD 20-710 can produce over 5,000 horsepower.
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- Pinkpank, Jerry A (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter’s Guide. Kalmbach Books. pp. 26, 77–84. ISBN 0-89024-026-4.
- Pinkepank, Jerry A.; Marre, Louis A. (1979). Diesel Spotters Guide Update. Kalmbach Books. pp. 50–51, 59–62. ISBN 0-89024-029-9.
- Ross, David, ed. (2003). The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives. Barnes & Nobel. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-7607-9679-5.
- Conrail Cadillacs: The SD80MAC (Lance R. Myers; 2005)
- Ross (2003), pp. 368-369.