|Private (subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation)|
|Predecessor||Electro-Motive Division of General Motors Corporation|
|Founded||Cleveland, Ohio, United States (August 31, 1922 )|
|Founder||Harold L. Hamilton
|Headquarters||La Grange, Illinois[note 1], United States of America|
Number of employees
|Parent||Progress Rail Services Corporation|
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc., also referred to as "EMD", designs, manufactures and sells diesel-electric locomotives and diesel power engines. The company is owned by Caterpillar through its wholly owned subsidiary Progress Rail Services Corporation. EMD offers an extensive range of locomotive products in the rail industry.
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. traces its roots to the Electro-Motive Engineering Corporation, founded in 1922. In 1930, General Motors Corporation purchased the Winton Engine Co. and Winton's primary customer of gasoline engines, the Electro-Motive Company (a manufacturer of gasoline-electric self-propelled rail cars), combining the two to form GM's Electro-Motive Division (EMD) on January 1, 1941.
In 2005, GM sold EMD to Greenbriar Equity Group LLC and Berkshire Partners LLC, which formed Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc., to facilitate the purchase. On August 2, 2010, Progress Rail Services Corporation completed the purchase of Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. from Greenbriar, Berkshire, et al. making Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation (itself a subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc).
EMD's headquarters, engineering facilities and parts manufacturing operations are physically located in McCook, Illinois.[note 1] EMD's final locomotive assembly operations are located in Muncie, Indiana. EMD operates a traction motor maintenance, rebuild and overhaul facility in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
- 1 History
- 2 Manufacturing and assembly facilities
- 3 Maintenance and support facilities
- 4 Engines
- 5 Reporting marks
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
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Harold L. Hamilton and Paul Turner founded the Electro-Motive Engineering Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1922, soon renaming it to Electro-Motive Company (EMC). The company developed internal combustion-electric propulsion systems for customers in the rail industry. In 1923, EMC sold two gasoline-powered rail motor cars, one to the Chicago Great Western and the other to the Northern Pacific. EMC subcontracted the body construction to St. Louis Car Company and the prime mover to Winton Engine Company. The motorcars were delivered in 1924 and worked well, fortunate for the fledgling company, because the sales were conditional on satisfactory performance. In 1925, EMC entered full-scale production, selling 27 railcars.
Harold L. Hamilton was one of the original pioneers of the internal-combustion locomotive industry. Starting his railroading career as a fireman on the Southern Pacific Railroad, he became a locomotive engineer on passenger and freight trains. He eventually became a manager with the Florida East Coast Railway. On leaving railroading for an automotive marketing position in Denver, Hamilton, aware of early electric propulsion experiments, the needs of railroads, and his most recent exposure to heavy vehicles, recognized and integrated the idea of more efficient (over steam) internal combustion power with railroading. Financing himself, he quit his truck sales position, set up shop in a hotel with his partner and a designer, and created a product in 1923 that eventually became the successful version of diesel-electric railway propulsion.
In 1930 General Motors (GM), purchased EMC and the Winton Engine Company, who had as a major part of their business selling motors for EMC-developed propulsion systems, The combined resources of GM and their new Winton subsidiary were focused on developing Diesel motors with improved power-to-weight ratios, responsiveness, and reliability suitable for mobile use. In the early 1930s EMC developed systems for the Zephyr and M-10000 streamliners, built by the Budd Company and the Pullman Company, respectively. The Zephyr used the first major product of the new GM-Winton venture, the 600 hp Winton 201A 2-stroke Diesel engine.
Seeing the imminent prospect of regular Diesel-electric locomotive production, GM invested in a new factory for EMC-GM designed locomotives, upgrading EMC to a design-and-production subsidiary renamed Electro-Motive Corporation (EMC). The new headquarters on 55th Street in McCook, Illinois, west of Chicago, remains the corporate headquarters.[note 1] In 1935, the new factory was producing development design locomotives such as the EMC 1800 hp B-B boxcab units, which used twin 900 hp Winton Diesel motors in each power unit. That arrangement was adopted for the Budd-built Zephyr power units in 1936 and EMC's new E series streamlined passenger locomotives in 1937. In 1938, EMC started production of locomotives using GM's new 567 motor, which upgraded the horsepower to 2000 per locomotive unit and increased reliability.
The 567, named for its displacement-per-cylinder of 567.45 in³ (bore 8½ inches, stroke 10 inches), was a two-cycle (or two-stroke) Roots-blown, Uniflow-scavenged, Unit-injected engine with overhead camshafts and four exhaust valves per cylinder. It was built as a V-6, V-8, V-12 and V-16. Charles F. Kettering and the General Motors Research Corporation were in charge of its development. The technology was first used in passenger locomotives, but EMC's eye was on freight service. Passenger trains made little money for the railroads, but replacement of steam engines with reliable diesel units could provide railroads with a crucial difference for profitability. It also gave EMC experience and future contacts for capturing the ultimate prize: freight service.
The company built a four-unit freight locomotive demonstrator, the EMD FT, and began a tour of the continent's railroads. The tour was a success. Western railroads, in particular, saw that the diesels could free them from dependence on scarce water supplies for steam locomotives. By 1940 EMC was producing a locomotive a day, with 600 in service.
General Motors merged EMC and part of Winton Engine to create the Electro-Motive Division (EMD) on January 1, 1941. All GM locomotives built prior to 1941 were built by EMC. Winton's nonlocomotive products (large submarine, marine, and stationary diesel engines) continued under the title of the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division for another twenty years.
World War II temporarily slowed EMD locomotive production; the diesel engines were instead required in Navy ships, but in 1943, locomotive production regained momentum. More locomotives were needed to haul wartime supplies. By the time the FT model was replaced in 1945, 555 cab units and 541 booster units were produced. The restrictions on new passenger equipment remained throughout the war; the last E6 unit was produced in 1942. The war was, in the end, a godsend for EMD. It was allowed to continue to develop and sell the diesel freight locomotive. Its competitors, principally the American Locomotive Company (Alco) and the Baldwin Locomotive Works, were allowed minimal developmental work with diesel road locomotives. They were ordered to produce mainly diesel switchers and steam locomotives to pre-existing designs as fast as possible. This delayed EMD's competition and dealt them a fatal blow. By the end of the war, EMD's diesel production was in full swing, with new passenger EMD E-units and the new improved freight locomotive the EMD F3 following in late 1946. Baldwin Locomotive was crippled by its incorrect belief that people desired travel on trains pulled by steam locomotives. To meet post-war demands, EMD opened another locomotive production facility in 1948 at Cleveland, Ohio.
By the early 1950s, the majority of American railroads had decided to transition from steam to diesel power, known as dieselization. While other builders had entered the diesel locomotive field, whether old steam builders like Baldwin, Alco and Lima, or newer competitors like Fairbanks-Morse (also a producer of Navy diesels in the war), EMD's extra years of experience told. Most railroads ordered a few units from several builders in their first, trial purchase, but the second, volume order usually went to EMD. Most of these were sales of its freight F-Unit platform. The economic arguments for diesel passenger power over steam were a bit shakier than those for freight service, but it hardly mattered— passenger service was more a matter of rolling advertisements and publicity machines than actual profit by this late date.
In 1949, EMD opened a new plant in London, Ontario, Canada, which was operated by subsidiary General Motors Diesel (GMD), producing existing EMD as well as unique GMD designs for the Canadian domestic and export markets. That same year, EMD introduced a new, revolutionary locomotive, the EMD GP7. Called a road switcher type, its design was that of an expanded diesel switcher, with the diesel engine, main generator and other equipment in a covered, but easily removed, hood (thus the other name for these locomotives, hood units). This hood being narrower than the locomotive, the crew had visibility in both directions from a cab placed near one end. The structural strength in the road-switcher was in the frame, rather than in a carbody as in earlier locomotives. The maintenance ease of this new type of locomotive won over the railroads quickly. Most locomotives produced in the North America for domestic use since the 1960s have been hood units. Starting in the late 1960s, some structurally similar but flush-sided cowl units have been produced. In the 1990s, streamlined carbody construction was revived for increased fuel efficiency with the GE Genesis locomotives for passenger service.
EMD's competition was unable to keep pace. Lima failed first, merging with Baldwin and engine builder Hamilton in Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton, but the Baldwin-led company did not endure. Fairbanks-Morse, after producing a series of innovative locomotives that sold poorly, left the locomotive field (the company remains in business, in its original markets). Then, only Alco remained, aided by the industrial might of General Electric, which manufactured the electrical gear used in Alco diesel-electric locomotives. GE entered the locomotive market in the early 1950s with the introduction of gas turbine-electric locomotives. By 1956 GE was marketing its own line of diesel-electrics in its Universal series as export locomotives. The U25B started GE's domestic line of diesel-electric road locomotives.
The 567 engine was continuously improved and upgraded. The original six-cylinder 567 produced 600 hp (450 kW), the V-12 1,000 hp (750 kW), and the V-16 1,350 hp (1,010 kW). EMD began turbocharging the 567 around 1958; the final version, the 567D3A (built from October, 1963, to about January, 1966) produced 2,500 hp (1,900 kW) in its V-16 form.
In late 1965, EMD introduced the enlarged 645 engine. Power ratings were 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-12 nonturbocharged, 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-8 turbocharged, 2,300 hp (1,700 kW) V-12 turbocharged, 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) V-16 nonturbocharged, and 3,000 hp (2,200 kW) V-16 turbocharged. In late 1965 EMD built their first twenty-cylinder engine, a turbocharged 3,600 hp (2,700 kW) V20 for the EMD SD45. The final variant of the sixteen cylinder 645 (the 16-645F) produced 3,500 hp (2,600 kW).
In 1972, EMD introduced modular control systems with the Dash-2 line; the EMD SD40-2 became one of the most successful diesel locomotive designs in history. A total of 3,945 SD40-2 units were built; if the earlier SD40 class locomotives are included, the total increases to 5,752 units.
EMD introduced their new 710 engine in 1984 with the 60 Series locomotives (EMD SD60 and EMD GP60), the EMD 645 engine continued to be offered in certain models (such as the 50 Series) until 1988. The 710 is produced as an eight-, twelve-, sixteen-, and twenty-cylinder engine for locomotive, marine and stationary applications. Concurrently with the introduction of the 710, EMD's control systems on locomotives changed to microprocessors, with computer-controlled wheel slip prevention, among other systems.
After the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement came into effect in 1989, EMD decided to consolidate all locomotive production at the GMD plant in London, Ontario, a development which ended locomotive production at the La Grange, Illinois plant in 1991,[note 1] although the Illinois facility continued to produce engines and generators. EMD's North American market share dropped below that of its main competitor General Electric in the 1980s.
In the late 1980s and 1990s EMD introduced AC induction motor drive in EMD locomotives using Siemens technology. In the early 1990s, EMD introduced the radial steering truck, which reduced wheel and track wear. In the 1990s, locomotive power increased to 6,000 hp (4,500 kW) from a single, sixteen-cylinder 265H prime mover in the EMD SD90MAC-H locomotive.
In 1998, EMD introduced the four-stroke 265H-Engine. Instead of completely replacing the 710 series engine, the H-engine was concurrently produced alongside EMD's two stroke engines, although mainly for export. Post-1995 710 engines have electronically controlled unit injectors (EUIs) in the same position and space as the former (1938–1995) unit injectors (UIs).
In 1999, Union Pacific placed the largest single order for diesel locomotives in North American railroad history when they ordered 1,000 units of the EMD SD70M. Union Pacific's fleet of SD70Ms has since been expanded by more than 450 additional units. In addition, Union Pacific also owns nearly 500 EMD SD70ACe's, a number of which have been painted in "Fallen Flags" (acquired/merged railroads) commemorative liveries. All of these locomotives are 710G-powered.
The year 2004 saw CSX Transportation take delivery of the first SD70ACe units, which were advertised by EMD as more reliable, fuel efficient, and easier to maintain than predecessor model SD70MAC. The model meets the EPA Tier 2 emission requirements using the two-stroke 710 diesel engine.
The following year Norfolk Southern became the first carrier to receive the new SD70M-2 - successor to the SD70M. Like its sister roadswitcher, the SD70ACe, the SD70M-2 meets EPA Tier 2 requirements using the same engine. And like the "ACe", the "M-2" is certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004.
In June 2004, The Wall Street Journal published an article indicating EMD was being put up for sale. On January 11, 2005, Reuters published a story indicating a sale to "two private U.S. equity groups" was likely to be announced "this week". Confirmation came the following day, with a press release issued by General Motors, stating it had agreed to sell EMD to a partnership led by Greenbriar Equity Group LLC and Berkshire Partners LLC. The newly spun-off company was called Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc., thus retaining the famous "EMD" initials. The sale closed on April 4, 2005.
On June 1, 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it had agreed to buy Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. from Greenbriar, Berkshire et al. for $820 million. Caterpillar's wholly owned subsidiary, Progress Rail Services Corporation, completed the transaction on August 2, 2010, making Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation. Although Caterpillar announced that John S. Hamilton would continue in his roles of president and CEO of EMD after the close of the transaction, Mr. Hamilton left EMD for unspecified reasons in late August 2010.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Tier-4 locomotive emissions regulations on new locomotives went into effect on January 1, 2015. As of that date EMD's 710-engined locomotives (e.g. SD70ACe's) could be built only for use outside the contiguous United States (i.e. Canada, Alaska, Mexico, and overseas). EMD had originally thought the 710 engine could be modified or "tuned-up" to meet Tier-4 standards, but it was not able to meet those requirements while maintaining optimum performance and reliability during rigorous "real world conditions" tests. So for the time being, production of domestic (U.S.) SD70ACe's has ended. Although EMD currently has no "new-built" freight locomotives available for the American market, Canadian, Mexican, and export demands for 710-powered locomotives, as well as the modernizing of older locomotives with their "ECO" upgrade package should be adequate to sustain the company until a Tier-4 compliant engine can be developed. According to Trains Magazine, EMD hoped to have a Tier-4 locomotive available for sale in late 2017. Since then, they have, reportedly, ramped-up development to where they may have a prime-mover ready for testing in early 2016.
Manufacturing and assembly facilities
EMD currently maintains major facilities in McCook, Illinois,[note 1] and Muncie, Indiana in the United States, Sete Lagoas, Brazil and San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The company operated a manufacturing facility in London, Ontario, Canada until its closure in 2012.
EMD La Grange (McCook)
Since its ground breaking in 1935, the La Grange facility has been the headquarters for EMD. In addition to the corporation's administrative offices, La Grange houses design engineering, emissions testing, rebuild operations, and manufacturing of major components, including prime mover engines, traction alternators, electrical cabinets, and turbochargers. The La Grange facility includes three main buildings, with over 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of office and manufacturing space. Ancillary buildings are used to provide maintenance and testing capabilities. EMD La Grange is ISO 9001:2008 Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management.
The EMD London plant opened in 1950 as part of General Motors Diesel Division (GMDD) to produce locomotives. The facility was at times used to produce a variety of products in the General Motors family, including transit buses, and military vehicles. Situated on a 100-acre (0.40 km2) site, the EMD London facility included two main buildings and multiple ancillary buildings with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of office and manufacturing space, as well as a locomotive test track. London was the primary site for the assembly, painting and testing of EMD locomotives. The facility also manufactured components, such as locomotive underframes, traction motors, truck assemblies, and locomotive equipment racks. EMD London was ISO 9001:2000 Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management.
EMD London's Canadian location was useful for General Motors' when attempting to procure Canadian federal contracts.
In January 2012, 450 Canadian Auto Workers union workers were locked out of the EMD London facility, after refusing to ratify EMD's proposed new contract which included a pay cut of 50% for some workers - labour costs at the Canadian plant were much greater than in some of the company's US plants. In February 2012 Progress Rail Services announced the closure of the plant; Caterpillar's actions were criticised in Canada; the company stated it would relocate production to other sites in North and South America, including the un-unionised plant in Muncie. At the time of closure the plant employed approximately 775 people directly.
EMD San Luis Potosí
On April 14, 2010, Electro-Motive opened a facility in San Luis Potosí, Mexico for the maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul of traction motors and other electrical equipment.
In October 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it was investing US$50 million to acquire and to renovate an existing 740,000-square-foot (69,000 m2) building for assembly of EMD brand locomotives and to build a locomotive test track on a 75-acre (0.30 km2) site located in Muncie, Indiana. The Muncie facility allows EMD to supply locomotives to publicly funded passenger rail agencies that require their rail equipment be assembled in the United States exclusively. (see Buy America Act (1983).)
On July 25, 2011, it was announced that production at the facility was planned to begin by the end of the year, with 125 workers having been hired and plans to add more. On October 28, the plant was officially opened, and the first locomotive produced at the plant, a Ferromex SD70ACe #4092, was rolled out.
Subcontractors and licensees
The company also entered into subcontracting and licensing arrangements, both for whole locomotives, and diesel and electrical drivetrains (genset plus traction motors and control electronics)
In Europe licensees included Henschel (Germany), 1950s-80s which manufactured locomotives for export to African, South Asian, and Scandinavian counties as well as Austria; NOHAB (Sweden), 1950s-70s, and after NOHAB's closure Kalmar Verkstad (KVAB) (Sweden), 1980s. When the KVAB and Henschel factories were acquired by ABB Group in 1990 EMD-license manufacture ended.
In Spain MACOSA and its successors assembled and manufactured EMD locomotives including standard EMD export designs as well as variants for the domestic market, as of 2011 EMD-engined diesels are still manufactured in Spain as the Vossloh Euro series.
By 2000 EMD had produced with its collaborators around 300 locomotives using EMD technology in Scandinavia, 500 in western Europe, and 400 in eastern Europe. Approximately 75% of EMD's European locomotives sold by 2000 were license built in Europe. The company also entered into a collaboration (early 2000s) with Lyudinovsky Locomotive Plant (Russia) (Людиновский тепловозостроительный завод), (now part of Sinara Group) creating a single-body eight axle 3MW (Bo'Bo')'(Bo'Bo')' diesel locomotive ТЭРА1, powered by an EMD 710 16-cylinder engine. In the early 2010s the company began a collaboration with Croatian rolling stock company TŽV Gredelj.
Locomotives were also assembled by General Motors Industria Argentina, General Motors South African (Pty) Ltd, and under license by Delta Motor Corporation (South Africa), Equipamentos Villares S.A. (Brazil), and Hyundai (Korea). Bombardier Transportation has also acted as subcontrator, manufacturing units at its plant in Sahagun, Mexico since 1998; with over one-thousand locomotives completed by 2007. The manufacturing agreement continued under Progress Rail ownership.
In India the Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) has manufactured EMD designs since the late 1990s. In 2010 EMD announced its intention to establish its own manufacturing facility in India, potentially in Bihar through a PPP project with the state government, or in Uttar Pradesh. As of 2011 EMD's cooperative development association with Indian Railways is ongoing.
In 2012 the EMD formed a joint venture with Barloworld, Electro-Motive Diesel Africa (Proprietary) Limited, to supply locomotive and rail related products to the sub-saharan African market. In September 2012, EMD also signed a deal with Bombardier Transportation; Bombardier's factory in Savli, in India, would assemble EMD products for Asian customers.
Maintenance and support facilities
EMD also provides maintenance services, technical support, parts inventory, and sales and marketing services from many other locations spread throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, China, India, Pakistan, Australia, Germany, Switzerland, Brazil, Egypt, and South Africa.
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EMD has produced the following series of engines:
- EMD 567 — no longer in production; 567AC, 567BC, 567C, 567D and "567E" engines may be retrofitted with 645 Power assemblies and other major components, mainly for so-called "life-extension" programs; 567E engines are actually 645E blocks which were originally manufactured with 567 power assemblies
- EMD 645 — "E- and F-Engines"; Currently in production by request; most 645 major assemblies remain in new production for replacement purposes
- EMD 710 — "G-Engine"; Currently in production, but restricted to use outside the U.S. due to EPA Tier 4 emissions regulations taking effect in 2015; unit injectors on pre-1995 engines, electronically-controlled unit injectors on post-1995 engines
- EMD 265 — "H-Engine"; no longer in domestic production, and most existing 265-powered locomotives in North America have been removed from service.
- EMD 1010 — "J-Engine"; Currently in production. First introduced at the Railway Interchange Expo 2015 at BNSF North Town Yard, Minneapolis, Minnesota, from October 4 to October 7, 2015. This new engine is first used on SD70ACe-T4, the new Tier 4 freight locomotive from EMD. This engine features a two-stage turbocharging system consisting of three turbochargers: one turbo (the primary/high pressure turbo) for low-mid RPM range and two turbos (the secondary/low pressure turbos) for mid-high RPM range. The results are bigger power throughout a broader RPM range, better fuel efficiency, and lower emission.
Stationary and marine engines
Most of the above locomotive engines were available, in modified form, for stationary and marine work. Marine engines differ from railroad and stationary engines mainly in the shape and depth of the engine's oil sump, which has been altered to accommodate the rolling and pitching motions encountered in marine applications.
EMD Pancake Diesels
A new aluminum block lightweight compact engine was designed that ran at a higher rpm. These engines feature a vertical crankshaft and the cylinders were arranged in an X pattern of four cylinder banks in four cylinder rows. These were the 16-184 and 16-338 "pancake" engines. The 16-388 engine was 13.5 feet (4.1 m) from the base of the generator to the top of the air intake filter and 4 feet (1.2 m) wide. It is a mechanically injected two-stroke diesel engine that used a roots blower. The 16-184A was installed in some 110-foot (34 m) subchasers of the SC-497 class during World War II. The two 1,540 bhp (1,150 kW) 16-184A diesel engines driving two shafts produced a faster subchaser that achieved 21 knots.
The EMD 16-338 developed 1,090 bhp (810 kW) at 1600 rpm. On the top was an air intake then four layers of four cylinders each. Each cylinder had a 6-inch (15 cm) bore and a 6 1⁄2-inch (17 cm) stroke. On the bottom of the crank shaft was an Elliot generator which developed 817 kW at a maximum of 710 volts DC. This proved problematic as the engine fluids ran down into the generator. The whole engine weighed just over eight tons. Being 4 feet wide it allowed for four engines in an engine room only 22 feet (6.7 m) long and also allowed design engineers to eliminate a submarine engine room. The Tang-class submarine and the research submarine USS Albacore used the troublesome EMD 16-338. The unreliability and lack of spares led to the decommissioning of USS Albacore in 1972 as further cannibalized parts became unavailable.
The following reporting marks are listed for rolling stock:
- EMDX — Electro-Motive Division Leasing
- EMLX — Electro-Motive Division Leasing
- GMCX — General Motors Corporation
- GMDX — General Motors Diesel Canada
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2008 Employees 3,260
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- EMD:ISO Certifications
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Greenbriar Equity Group LLC, Berkshire Partners LLC and certain related parties today announced the completion of the acquisition of Electro-Motive Division from General Motors.
- "BREAKING: Electro-Motive President John Hamilton resigns". Trains magazine. Kalmbach Publishing Co. 2010-08-27.
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- James R. Hagerty; Alistair MacDonald (18 March 2012), "As Unions Lose Their Grip, Indiana Lures Manufacturing Jobs", online.wsj.com
- Shruti Date Singh (6 February 2012), "Caterpillar to Close Canadian Locomotive Plant Due to Costs", www.businessweek.com
- "EMD Launches New Traction Motor MRO Facility" (Press release). Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. 201-04-14. Archived from the original on 2010-10-29.
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. today held a ribbon cutting ceremony at its new traction motor maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul (MRO) facility in San Luis Potosí Mexico.Check date values in:
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Caterpillar Inc. (CAT) said Friday it will open a railroad locomotive assembly plant in Muncie, Ind.,...
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- ТЭРА-1, www.tdltz.ru (in Russian) (ТД Людиновотепловоз)
- Gredelj signes export deals amounting to 34 million kunas, TŽV Gredelj, 20 February 2012,
For the company Electro-Motive Diesel – EMD .. TŽV Gredelj will construct 88 bogie frames for locomotives ... this deal is the first concrete result of the recently signed agreement on joint development and promotion with the aforementioned American company, and TŽV Gredelj hopes that the collaboration with EMD will also be successful in the futureline feed character in
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- Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", GMIC, GMSA, Hyundai, Villares
- "Bombardier awarded contract to assemble 100 locomotives", www.transportweekly.com, 3 April 2007
- "Bombardier Unveils the First Progress Rail Locomotive to be Assembled in Ciudad Sahagún, Mexico", www.bombardier.com (Bombardier Transportation), 9 Sep 2011
- "Diesel Traction (Chapter 7, page 473)". Technology in Australia 1788–1988. www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2009-09-06.
- Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", EDI
- "DLW Official Website : Current products : Locomotives : EMD", www.dlw.indianrailways.gov.in, retrieved 5 February 2012
- Anandita Singh Mankotia (14 August 2010), "EMD set to build manufacturing base, supply hub in India", www.financialexpress.com
- Virendra Singh Rawat (17 September 2010), "US-based EMD to invest $100 Million in India", www.business-standard.com
- "US Locomotive maker EMD plans to set up india plant", www.hindustandtimes.com (Hindustan Times), 16 August 2010
- Jagdish-Kumar (13 October 2011), "EMD & Indian Railways to develop high-power locomotive", www.rail.co
- "和谐"型大功率交流传动内燃机车下线, news.xinhuanet.com (in Chinese), 2 July 2008
- "EMD and Barloworld form African locomotive joint venture", www.railwaygazette.com, 2 July 2012
- Mark Allix (26 June 2012), "Barloworld offers EMD locomotives", www.businessday.co.za
- "Bombardier to assemble EMD locomotives for southeast Asia - Railway Gazette". Railway Gazette International. 19 September 2012.
- Lolke Bijlsma (ed.), "GM Locomotives in Europe", www.lolkebijlsma.com
- Larry Russell (ed.), "EMD Export Page", emdexport.railfan.net
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