The Baltic Highway in Velikoluksky District
Location of Velikoluksky District in Pskov Oblast
|Federal subject||Pskov Oblast|
|Established||9 September 1927|
|Administrative center||Velikiye Luki|
|• Total||2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||7.5/km2 (19/sq mi)|
|• Inhabited localities||452 Rural localities|
|• Municipally incorporated as||Velikoluksky Municipal District|
|• Municipal divisions||0 Urban settlements, 11 Rural settlements|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
Velikoluksky District (Russian: Великолу́кский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Loknyansky District in the north, Toropetsky District of Tver Oblast in the northeast, Kunyinsky District in the east, Usvyatsky District in the south, Nevelsky District in the southwest, and with Novosokolnichesky District in the west. The area of the district is 2,960 square kilometers (1,140 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Velikiye Luki (which is not administratively a part of the district). Population: 22,121 (2010 Census); 24,035 (2002 Census); 31,911 (1989 Census).
The district is elongated from north to south and lies completely in the basin of the Lovat River, which crosses it from south to north. The biggest tributary of the Lovat within the limits of the district is the Kunya River. The northern part of the district is a flat depression, whereas the southern one is a hilly plain of glacial origin, filled with lakes, the biggest of which is Lake Uritskoye.
The Lovat River was a part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, one of the oldest trading routes passing through Rus'. The area was populated since the Middle Ages and Velikiye Luki was first mentioned in the chronicles under 1166. It was a part of the Novgorod Republic and had a strategic importance, defending Novgorod and Pskov from the south. In the end of the 15th century, Velikiye Luki was included into the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, it was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, and in 1772, Pskov Governorate (which between 1777 and 1796 existed as Pskov Viceroyalty) was established. The area was a part of Velikoluksky and Toropetsky Uyezds of Pskov Governorate.
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, and Velikoluksky District was established, with the administrative center in the town of Velikiye Luki. It included parts of former Velikoluksky and Toropetsky Uyezds. Pskov Governorate was abolished as well, and the district became a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On June 17, 1929, the district was transferred to Western Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were also abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935, the district was transferred to Kalinin Oblast, and on February 5 of the same year, Velikoluksky District became a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Kalinin Oblast, one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union. On May 4, 1938, the district was subordinated directly to the oblast. Between 1941 and 1944, Velikoluksky District was occupied by German troops. On August 22, 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Velikiye Luki Oblast. On October 2, 1957, Velikiye Luki Oblast was abolished and Velikoluksky District was transferred to Pskov Oblast.
On August 1, 1927, Porechyevsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Porechye was created on the territories which previously belonged to Nevelsky Uyezd. It was a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On June 17, 1929, the district was transferred to Western Oblast, and on September 20, 1930, Porechyevsky District was abolished and split between Velikoluksky, Nevelsky, and Usvyatsky Districts. On March 10, 1945, it was re-established as Porechensky District, a part of Velikiye Luki Oblast, from the areas belonging to Velikoluksky and Nevelsky Districts. On October 2, 1957, the district was transferred to Pskov Oblast. On March 23, 1959, Porechensky District was abolished and merged into Velikoluksky District.
Another district established on August 1, 1927 was Nasvinsky District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Nasva. It included parts of former Velikoluksky Uyezd. The district was a part of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On June 17, 1929 the district was transferred to Western Oblast. On January 1, 1932, Nasvinsky District was abolished and split between Loknyansky, Velikoluksky, and Novosokolnichesky Districts.
On March 10, 1945, Podberezinsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Podberezye was established. It included parts of Loknyansky, Kholmsky, and Ploskoshsky Districts. The district was a part of Velikiye Luki Oblast. On October 2, 1957, the district was transferred to Pskov Oblast. On January 14, 1958, the district was abolished and split between Kholmsky, Loknyansky, Velikoluksky, and Ploskoshsky Districts.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Velikoluksky District is one of the twenty-four in the oblast. The town of Velikiye Luki serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
49% of the district's territory is occupied by agricultural lands. There are twenty-five large- and mid-size farms in the district. The main agricultural specializations in the district are cattle breeding with meat and milk production, poultry breeding with egg production, and potato and crops growing. Velikoluksky District produces more potatoes than any other district of Pskov Oblast.
Velikiye Luki is an important railway hub and all four railway lines originating from Velikiye Luki cross Velikoluksky District. One railway connects Moscow via Velikiye Luki with Riga and runs in the east-west direction. Another railway, running to the northwest, connects Velikiye Luki via Toropets and Ostashkov with Bologoye. Yet another railway connects Velikiye Luki to Nevel, where it splits into two railway lines, both running southeast into Belarus: one line to Vitebsk, and another one to Grodno via Polotsk and Maladzyechna.
The M9 Highway, which connects Moscow and Riga, crosses the district from east to west. The roads connecting Velikiye Luki with Novosokolniki, with Nevel, and with Porkhov via Loknya all cross the district. There are also local roads.
Culture and recreation
The district contains 11 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of federal significance and 132 monuments of local significance. The federal monuments are the Korvin-Krukovsky Estate in the village of Polibino and ten archeological sites.
The two museums located in the district are the Ivan Vasilyev Museum of history of Great Patriotic War in Borki, and the Sofia Kovalevskaya Museum, located in the village of Polibino in the former Korvin-Krukovsky Estate, where Sofia Kovalevskaya was born.
- Law #833-oz
- According to Article 6 of Law #833-oz, the structure and composition of the administrative districts match those of the municipal districts. The municipal aspect is described by Laws #419-oz and #420-oz.
- О районе (in Russian). Портал муниципальных образований Псковской области. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Law #419-oz
- Law #420-oz
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 63. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Герасимёнок, Т. Е.; Н. В. Коломыцева, И. С. Пожидаев, С. М. Фёдоров, К. И. Карпов (2002). Территориальное деление Псковской области (in Russian). Pskov. ISBN 5-94542-031-X.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Географическая характеристика (in Russian). Портал муниципальных образований Псковской области. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Экономика (in Russian). Портал муниципальных образований Псковской области. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Литературно-художественный музей истории Великой Отечественной Войны им. И.А.Васильева (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Полибинский мемориальный музей-усадьба С.В.Ковалевской (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №833-оз от 5 февраля 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Псковской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №20, 10 февраля 2009 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #833-oz of February 5, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Pskov Oblast. Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №419-оз от 28 февраля 2005 г. «О границах и статусе действующих на территории области муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №41–43, 4 марта 2005 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #419-ы. of February 28, 2005 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations Existing on the Oblast Territory. Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №420-оз от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области», в ред. Закона №1542-ОЗ от 5 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Псковской области "Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №41–43, №44–46, №49–51, 4 марта 2005 г., 5 марта 2005 г., 11 марта 2005 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #420-oz of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast, as amended by the Law #1542-OZ of June 5, 2015 On Amending the Law of Pskov Oblast "On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).