Velizhsky District

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Velizhsky District
Велижский район (Russian)
Location Velizhsky District Smolensk Oblast.svg
Location of Velizhsky District in Smolensk Oblast
Coordinates: 55°36′N 31°12′E / 55.600°N 31.200°E / 55.600; 31.200Coordinates: 55°36′N 31°12′E / 55.600°N 31.200°E / 55.600; 31.200
Velizh-centre.JPG
Velizh in winter, Velizhsky District
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Smolensk Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of February 2013)
Administrative center town of Velizh[1]
Administrative divisions:[1]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 8
Inhabited localities:[1]
Cities/towns 1
Rural localities 157
Municipal structure (as of November 2011)
Municipally incorporated as Velizhsky Municipal District[2]
Municipal divisions:[2]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 8
Statistics
Area (administrative district) (February 2013) 1,473.19 km2 (568.80 sq mi)[1]
Population (2010 Census) 12,248 inhabitants[3]
• Urban 62.2%
• Rural 37.8%
Density 8.31/km2 (21.5/sq mi)[4]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[5]
Official website
Velizhsky District on WikiCommons

Velizhsky District (Russian: Ве́лижский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[2] district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Vitebsk District, Vitebsk Region of Belarus in the west, Usvyatsky and Kunyinsky Districts of Pskov Oblast in the northwest, Zapadnodvinsky and Zharkovsky Districts of Tver Oblast in the northeast, Demidovsky District in the east, and with Rudnyansky District in the south. The area of the district is 1,473.19 square kilometers (568.80 sq mi).[1] Its administrative center is the town of Velizh.[1] Population: 12,248 (2010 Census);[3] 14,329 (2002 Census);[6] 17,239 (1989 Census).[7] The population of Velizh accounts for 62.2% of the district's total population.[3]

Geography[edit]

The whole area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Western Dvina. The Western Dvina itself crosses the district from northwest to southeast, and its major left tributary, the Mezha, makes the border with Tver Oblast. There are many lakes within the district. 49.5% of district's territory is covered by forests.

History[edit]

A historical building in the center of Velizh

The area was settled in the prehistory, and, as the Western Dvina always has been an important waterway, there are multiple archaeological sites along its course. In the 12th century, it belonged to the Principality of Toropets. In the 14th century, together with the principality, it was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, where it became a part of the Principality of Vitebsk. In 1502, all lands east of the Mezha and the Western Dvina were transferred to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and in 1536 Tsar Ivan the Terrible ordered that a fortress for border protection, later the town of Velizh, be built. In 1580, during the Livonian War, Polish army took Velizh, and after the war, the area was transferred to Poland, where it was included into Vitebsk Voivodeship. Until 1772, the area was transferred between Russia and Poland subject to short-term peace agreements.[8]

After the First Partition of Poland in 1772 the area was included into newly established Pskov Governorate, a giant administrative unit comprising what is currently Pskov Oblast and a considerable part of Belarus. After 1773, the area belonged to Velizhsky Uyezd of Pskov Governorate. In 1777, it was transferred to Polotsk Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and the area was transferred to Byelorussia Governorate; since 1802 to Vitebsk Governorate. Between July and October 1812, Velizh was occupied by the army of Napoleon advancing to Moscow. In 1924, Vitebsk Governorate was abolished, and Velizhsky Uyezds was transferred to Pskov Governorate.[8]

On 1 August 1927, Velizhsky Uyezd was abolished, and Velizhsky District with the center in Velizh was established. It belonged to Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On June 17, 1929, Velizhsky District was transferred to Western Oblast. On 23 July 1930, the okrugs were also abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On 17 September 1937, Western Oblast was abolished, and the district was transferred to Smolensk Oblast.[9] During WWII, between July 1941 and September 1943, Velizhsky District was occupied by German troops.[8] On 1 February 1963, during the abortive Khrushchyov administrative reform, Velizhsky District was merged into Demidovsky District, but on 12 January 1965 it was re-established.[9]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

In 2013, 35% of the industrial output of the district was made by enterprises of textile industry, 17% by timber industry, and 10% by food industry. Most of these enterprises are located in Velizh.[10]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specialization of the district is cattle breeding with meat and milk production.[10]

Transportation[edit]

Paved roads connect Velizh with Smolensk, Nevel via Usvyaty, and Vitebsk. There are also local roads with bus traffic originating from Velizh.

There are no railways in the district. The closest railway station is in Rudnya, on the railway connecting Smolensk with Vitebsk.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Velizh Museum

The district contains sixty-six cultural heritage monuments of federal significance (twenty-nine of them in Velizh), and additionally one object classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federally protected monument is an archaeological site located in Velizh.[11]

There is a local museum in Velizh.[12]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Resolution #261
  2. ^ a b c Law #88-z
  3. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value is only approximate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c "Историческая справка" (in Russian). Velizhsky District administration. Retrieved 9 May 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Парфенов, Борис; Ольга Хоренженкова. "К истории формирования Смоленской области" (in Russian). Smolensk. Retrieved 9 May 2016. 
  10. ^ a b "Инвестиционный паспорт Велижского района" (PDF) (in Russian). Velizhsky District Administration. 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2016. 
  11. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  12. ^ "Муниципальное бюджетное учреждение культуры «Велижский районный историко-краеведческий музей»" (in Russian). Velizh Historical Museum. Retrieved 9 May 2016. 

Sources[edit]

  • Администрация Смоленской области. Постановление №261 от 30 апреля 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области», в ред. Постановления №464 от 27 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области». Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс". (Administration of Smolensk Oblast. Resolution #261 of April 30, 2008 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #464 of June 27, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast. ).
  • Смоленская областная Дума. Закон №88-з от 2 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Велижский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом», в ред. Закона №117-з от 30 ноября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Велижский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Смоленской областной Думы и Администрации Смоленской области", №12, часть II, стр. 359, 5 декабря 2004 г. (Smolensk Oblast Duma. Law #88-z of December 2, 2004 On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Velizhsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Whose Territories It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status, as amended by the Law #117-z of November 30, 2011 On Amending the Oblast Law "On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Velizhsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Whose Territories It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status". Effective as of the official publication date.).