Venda people

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Vha-Venda
Total population
~2.5 million
Regions with significant populations
 South Africa[1][2]
 Zimbabwe[3]
Languages
Tshi-Venda
Religion
Christianity, Traditional African religion
Related ethnic groups
Sotho-Tswana peoples, Makua people, Shona and Kalanga people
Venda
PersonMuVenda
PeopleVhaVenda
LanguageTshiVenda
CountryVenda

The Venda (VhaVenda or Vhangona) are a Southern African Bantu people living mostly near the South African-Zimbabwean border.

The history of the Venda starts from the Kingdom of Mapungubwe (9th Century) where King Shiriyadenga was the first king of Venda and Mapungubwe. The Mapungubwe Kingdom stretched from the Soutpansberg in the south, across the Limpopo River to the Matopos in the north. The Kingdom declined from 1240, and power moved north to the Great Zimbabwe Kingdom. The first Venda settlement in the Soutpansberg was that of the legendary chief Thoho-ya-Ndou (Head of the Elephant). His royal kraal was called D’zata, the remains of this have been declared a National Monument. The Mapungubwe Collection is a museum collection of artifacts found at the archaeological site and is housed in the Mapungubwe Museum in Pretoria. Venda people share ancestry with Lobedu people and Kalanga people. They are also related to Sotho-Tswana and Shona groups.

History[edit]

Venda woman singing about a successful trip to collect stinkbugs.

The Venda of today are Vhangona, Takalani (Ungani), Masingo and others. Vhangona are the original inhabitants of Venda, they are also referred as Vhongwani wapo; while Masingo and others are originally from central Africa and the East African Rift, migrating across the Limpopo river during the Bantu expansion, Venda people originated from central and east Africa, just like the other South African tribes. [4][5]

The Venda of today are descendants of many heterogeneous groupings and clans such as:

  • Dzindou dza Hakhomunala Mutangwe / Dzatshamanyatsha
  • Dzindou dza Vharundwa / Dza Mitshetoni /Dza Manenzhe
  • Vhafamadi;
  • Vhadau vhatshiheni
  • Vhadau Madamani
  • Rambuda;
  • Vha Ha-Ramavhulela (Vhubvo Dzimauli)
  • Vhakwevho;
  • Vhambedzi;
  • Vhania;
  • Vhagoni;
  • Vhalea;
  • Gebebe
  • Vhaluvhu;
  • Vhatavhatsindi;
  • Vhalovhedzi
  • VhaMese
  • Vha Ha-Nemutudi
  • Vhatwanamba;
  • Vhanzhelele/Vhalembethu;
  • VhaDzanani
  • Vhanyai;
  • Vhalaudzi;
  • Masingo; and
  • Vhalemba.
  • Runganani (marungadzi nndevhelaho)
  • Takalani(Ungani)

Vhadau, Vhakwevho, Vhafamadi, Vhania, Vhalea, and Vhaluvhu were collectively known as Vhangona. The Vhangona and Vhambedzi are considered to be the original inhabitants of Venda and the first people to live there.

The land of Vhangona was later settled by Karanga-Rodzvi clans from Zimbabwe: Vhatwanamba, Vhanyai, Vhatavhatsindi, and Vhalembethu. Masingo, Vhalaudzi, and Vhalemba are late arrivals in Venda.

According to one version of Vhangona oral history the capital of Vhangona was Mapungubwe with the Raphulu Royal House as the most senior royal house of the Vhangona. According to this version the Vhangona Kingdom had approximately 145 chiefdoms and a King (Thovhele). It is said that the Kingdom was divided into seven districts:

  • Dzanani
  • Mbilwi
  • Tswime
  • Tshiendeulu
  • Tshakhuma
  • Tshamanyatsha
  • Lwamondo

These districts were ruled by District Paramount Chiefs (Mahosi Mahulu), as follows:

  • MuDzanani/Nesongozwi (Dzanani)
  • Nembilwi (Mbilwi)
  • Netswime (Tswime)
  • Netshiendeulu (Tshiendeulu)
  • Netshakhuma (Tshakhuma)
  • Netshamanyatsha (Tshamanyantsha)
  • Makhahani (Thulamela)
  • NELWAMONDO (Lwamondo)

Each district had Chiefs (Khosi) who paid tribute to Mahosi Mahulu (Paramount Chiefs), then there were Headmen (VhaMusanda) and then Petty Headmen (Vhakoma). This tradition states that one of the Vhangona kings was King Shiriyadenga whose royal kraal was at Mapungubwe. It is not clear if this Shiriyadenga is the same Shiriyedenga of the Sanga dynasty, a Karanga-Rozvi branch. The Sanga dynasty, in Zimbabwe's eastern highlands, was founded by Chiphaphami Shiriyedenga who died in 1672. Could it be that at one point the Karanga-Rodzvi Empire extended beyond the Vhembe (Limpopo) River, and that the Vhangona, though not Karanga-speaking, were at one point under Karanga-Rodzvi rule.

The other version of Vhangona history disputes that the Vhangona were ever united under one chief or king. It says that the Vhangona had different independent chiefdoms and that the Vhangona chief of Nzhelele valley was Tshidziwelele of the Mudau clan. What is clear, however, is that the Vhatwanamba, who were of Karanga-Rodzvi origin, conquered Vhangona clans who lived in Mapungubwe, Musina, Ha-Tshivhula, Ha-Lishivha, Ha-Matshete, Ha-Mulambwane, and Ha-Madzhie (the areas of Ha-Tshivhula, Ha-Lishivha, Ha-Matshete, and Ha-Mulambwane are known today as Alldays and Waterpoort).

Mapungubwe was the center of a kingdom with about 5,000 people living at its center. Mapungubwe as a trade center lasted between 1030 and 1290 AD. The people of Mapungubwe mined and smelted copper, iron and gold, spun cotton, made glass and ceramics, grew millet and sorghum, and tended cattle, goats and sheep.

The people of Mapungubwe had a sophisticated knowledge of the stars, and astronomy played a major role not only in their tradition and culture, but also in their day-to-day lives. Mapungubwe traded with ancient Ethiopia through the ports of Adulis on the Red Sea and the ports of Raphta (now Quelimani) and Zafara (now Sofala) in Mozambique.

Mapungubwe predates the settlements at Great Zimbabwe, Thulamela and Dzata. It is believed that people left Mapungubwe for Great Zimbabwe because Great Zimbabwe was judged to have a more suitable climate.

The Venda were recognised as a traditional royal house in 2010 and Toni Mphephu Ramabulana has been acting king since 2012. In September 2016 Princess Masindi Mphephu, daughter of Tshimangadzi Mphephu (Venda Chief during 1993-1997), challenged her uncle Ramabulana for the throne. She claimed that she wasn't considered a candidate because of her sex.[6]

On December 14, 2016 she initially lost this battle in court when the Thohoyandou High Court dismissed the case.[7]

In May 2019, the Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the Thoyoyandou High Court decision and declared that Toni Mphephu-Ramabulana's appointment as king of the Venda nation was unlawful. [8] Ramubulana has since appealed this ruling and the matter is now before the Constitutional Court of South Africa. [9]

Venda Education Transformation[edit]

In the 1970s the Vhavenda people were among the poorest in South Africa. To entice them to accept independence as a Bantustan the South African government built a parliament, administrative offices and cabinet ministers' houses.

The old government under Mphephu heavily subsidized education in the form of free text books and near zero school fees, even though the government lacked sufficient funds to build proper schools and more emphasis was on excellence and hard work.

Notable Venda people[edit]

The following is a list of notable Venda people who have their own Wikipedia articles

Musangwe[edit]

Musangwe is a Venda tradition of bare-knuckle fist fighting. Musangwe is a sport which was developed not only for entertainment but also for gaining respect within your peers. Vhavenda never allowed violence and fighting, but with this sport you could challenge the person you deemed disrespectful towards you, and the rule is if you are challenged to fight you are to fight or there will be consequences such as a fine or even been beaten up by the elders. The winners of this sport were often compensated with whatever the Khosi (chief) or Vhamusanda (headman) deemed right. [10][11][12] The fights have no set time limit and only end when one fighter concedes defeat. No medical staff are on standby to help those injured in the flurry of blows that boxers trade, only village elders watching to guard against indiscretions such as biting or kicking. Importantly, gambling on the outcome of the fights is banned and the winners take nothing away other than a sense of pride in representing their village or family.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "South africa – Tsonga and Venda". Country Studies. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  2. ^ "Vhavenda People". Pilot Guides. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  3. ^ "INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ARCHIVE - VHAVENDA". Intercontinental Cry. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  4. ^ "Venda | African Tribes". Kruger National Park. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  5. ^ "Vha Venda Culture". Alliance Française. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  6. ^ "Battle for VhaVenda throne continues". enca.com. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  7. ^ "Princess Masindi Mphephu loses court bid". msn.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  8. ^ https://www.sowetanlive.co.za/news/south-africa/2019-05-15-mphephu-royal-family-accepts-court-ruling/
  9. ^ https://sundayworld.co.za/news/vhavenda-royal-fight-heads-to-constitutional-court/
  10. ^ Wende, Hamilton (5 February 2011). "South African boxing that 'makes the heart strong'". BBC. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  11. ^ eDuzeNet. "Musangwe -The Mysterious Venda Combat". Bulawayo24 News. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  12. ^ Shalati Nkhwashu (21 February 2011). "It's jaw-breaking time as musangwe hits Soweto". Archived from the original on 15 October 2014.
  13. ^ "Bare-knuckle boxers fight to keep South African custom". Retrieved 27 October 2017 – via AA.