Kruger National Park

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Kruger National Park
Kruger Zebra.JPG
Burchell's zebra in a Kruger landscape
Kruger National Park locator map.svg
Location of the park (red area) in South Africa
Location Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, South Africa
Nearest city Nelspruit (southern)
Phalaborwa (central)
Coordinates 24°0′41″S 31°29′7″E / 24.01139°S 31.48528°E / -24.01139; 31.48528Coordinates: 24°0′41″S 31°29′7″E / 24.01139°S 31.48528°E / -24.01139; 31.48528
Area 19,485 km2 (7,523 sq mi)[1][2][3]
Established 31 May 1926[4][5](1898)
Visitors 1,336,981 (in 2004)
Governing body South African National Parks
www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/

Kruger National Park is one of the largest game reserves in Africa. It covers an area of 19,485 square kilometres (7,523 sq mi) in the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga in northeastern South Africa, and extends 360 kilometres (220 mi) from north to south and 65 kilometres (40 mi) from east to west. The administrative headquarters are in Skukuza. Areas of the park were first protected by the government of the South African Republic in 1898, and it became South Africa's first national park in 1926.

To the west and south of the Kruger National Park are the two South African provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga. In the north is Zimbabwe, and to the east is Mozambique. It is now part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, a peace park that links Kruger National Park with the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe, and with the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique.

The park is part of the Kruger to Canyons Biosphere an area designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as an International Man and Biosphere Reserve (the "Biosphere").[6]

The park has nine main gates allowing entrance to the different camps.

History[edit]

Pre-Reserve (–1898)[edit]

The area that the park covers today was part of the last wild frontier in the eastern half of Transvaal before the Second Anglo-Boer War. Paul Kruger, President of the Republic of South Africa at the time, proclaimed the area, which was inhabited by the Tsonga people, a sanctuary for the protection of its wildlife. James Stevenson Hamilton noted many kraals along the Sabi River and also further north beyond the Letaba River[7] although the north was sparsely populated compared to the south. Many of the local natives were employed by railway companies for construction of rail connections, notably that between Pretoria and Lorenço Marques during the end of the 19th century. Abel Chapman, one of the hunters who noted that the area was over-hunted by the end of the 19th century, brought this fact to wider attention.

Sabi Game Reserve (1898–1926)[edit]

In 1895, Jakob Louis van Wyk introduced in the Volksraad of the old South African Republic a motion to create the game reserve. The area proposed extended from the Olifants River to the Sabi River in the north. That motion, introduced together with another Volksraad member by the name of R. K. Loveday, and accepted for discussion in September 1895 by a majority of one vote, resulted in the proclamation by Paul Kruger, president of the Transvaal Republic (South African Republic), on 26 March 1898, of a "Government Wildlife Park." This park would later be known as the Sabi Game Reserve.

The park was initially created to control hunting[8] and to protect the diminished number of animals in the park.

James Stevenson-Hamilton became the first warden of the reserve in 1902.[8] The reserve was located in the southern one-third of the modern park.[9] Shingwedzi Reserve, named after the Shingwedzi River and now in northern Kruger National Park, was proclaimed in 1903.[10] During the following decades all the native tribes were removed from the reserve and during the 1960s the last were removed at Makuleke in the Pafuri triangle. In 1926, Sabie Game Reserve, the adjacent Shingwedzi Game Reserve, and farms were combined to create Kruger National Park.[11]

During 1923, the first large groups of tourists started visiting the Sabie Game Reserve, but only as part of the South African Railways' popular "Round in Nine" tours. The tourist trains used the Selati railway line between Komatipoort on the Mozambican border and Tzaneen in Limpopo Province. The tour included an overnight stop at Sabie Bridge (now Skukuza) and a short walk, escorted by armed rangers, into the bush. It soon became a highlight of the tour and it gave valuable support for the campaign to proclaim the Sabie Game Reserve as a national park.[12][13]

Kruger National Park (1926–1946)[edit]

After the proclamation of the Kruger National Park in 1926, the first three tourist cars entered the park in 1927, jumping to 180 cars in 1928 and 850 cars in 1929.[5]
Warden James Stevenson-Hamilton retired on 30 April 1946, after 44 years as warden of the Kruger Park and its predecessor, the Sabi Sabi Game Reserve.

1946–1994[edit]

Plaque in the park. Now and then people do get killed, however, this is extremely rare.

Stevenson-Hamilton was replaced by Colonel J. A. B. Sandenbergh of the South African Air Force.[12] During 1959, work commenced to completely fence the park boundaries. Work started on the southern boundary along the Crocodile River and in 1960 the western and northern boundaries were fenced, followed by the eastern boundary with Mozambique. The purpose of the fence was to curb the spread of diseases, facilitate border patrolling and inhibit the movement of poachers.[12]

The Makuleke area in the northern part of the park was forcibly taken from the Makuleke people by the government in 1969 and about 1500 of them were relocated to land to the south so that their original tribal areas could be integrated into the greater Kruger National Park.[14][15]

1994–present[edit]

Pride of lions on a tourist road

In 1996 the Makuleke tribe submitted a land claim for 19,842 hectares (198.42 km2), namely the Pafuri or Makuleke region in the northernmost part of the park.[16] The land was given back to the Makuleke people, however, they chose not to resettle on the land but to engage with the private sector to invest in tourism. This resulted in the building of several game lodges from which they earn royalties.[17][18]

In the late 1990s, the fences between the Kruger Park and Klaserie Game Reserve, Olifants Game Reserve and Balule Game Reserve were dropped and incorporated into the Greater Kruger Park with 400 000 hectares added to the Reserve. In 2002, Kruger National Park, Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe, and Limpopo National Park in Mozambique were incorporated into a peace park, the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.[11]

In 2009 SANParks envisaged a four-star hotel northeast of Malelane on the bank of the Crocodile River, as part of a survival strategy to make the park less dependent on state subsidies.[19] Eventually Radisson Blu was mandated to operate a 104 room safari resort starting 2019,[20][21] which promises a smaller ecological footprint than that of prior, existing camps. The three-star, 128-room Skukuza Safari Lodge, to be completed by late 2018,[22] was necessitated by the adjacent Nombolo Mdhluli conference center, opened in 2011, which draws guests arriving by charter flights or in tour busses.[22] Former head of the park Salomon Joubert warned that these developments threaten the character, ethos and original objectives of the park,[19] but minister of environmental affairs, Edna Molewa, deemed development of 0.3% of the park as acceptable.[22]

Location and geography[edit]

Geography of the Kruger National Park
Luvuvhu and Limpopo rivers at Crookes Corner in Pafuri triangle

The park lies in the north-east of South Africa,[9] in the eastern parts of Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. Phalaborwa, Limpopo is the only town in South Africa that borders the Kruger National Park. It is one of the largest national parks in the world, with an area of 19,485 square kilometres (7,523 sq mi). The park is approximately 360 kilometres (220 mi) long,[9] and has an average width of 65 kilometres (40 mi).[11] At its widest point, the park is 90 kilometres (56 mi) wide from east to west.[9]

To the north and south of the park two rivers, the Limpopo and the Crocodile respectively, act as its natural boundaries. To the east the Lebombo Mountains separate it from Mozambique. Its western boundary runs parallel with this range, roughly 65 kilometres (40 mi) distant. The park varies in altitude between 200 metres (660 ft) in the east and 840 metres (2,760 ft) in the south-west near Berg-en-Dal. The highest point in the park is here, a hill called Khandzalive. Several rivers run through the park from west to east, including the Sabie, Olifants, Crocodile, Letaba, Luvuvhu and Limpopo Rivers.

Climate[edit]

Skukuza
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
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40
 
 
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63
 
 
31
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32
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SAWS[23]

The climate of the Kruger National Park and Lowveld is subtropical. Summer days are humid and hot. The rainy season is from September until May. The Kruger National Park website lists September and October as the driest periods, culminating in rains late in October. The dry winter season is the ideal time to visit this region for various reasons. There is less chance of contracting malaria and the days are milder. Viewing wildlife is more rewarding as the vegetation is more sparse and animals are drawn to the waterholes to drink every morning and evening. The later in the dry season one visits, the more desperate the water and food situation becomes for the wildlife. This results in an even greater concentration of the animals around the remaining water sources, and allows those visitors desiring to see wildlife interaxting an easier time.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Vegetation[edit]

Plants life in the park consists of four main areas:

Natural landscape for much of the Park

Thorn trees and red bush-willow veld[edit]

This area lies between the western boundary and roughly the centre of the park south of the Olifants River. Combretums, such as the red bush-willow (Combretum apiculatum), and Acacia species predominate while there are a great number of marula trees (Sclerocarya caffra). The Acacias are dominant along the rivers and streams, the very dense Nwatimhiri bush along the Sabie River between Skukuza and Lower Sabie being a very good example.

Knob-thorn and marula veld[edit]

South of the Olifants River in the eastern half of the park, this area provides the most important grazing-land. Species such as red grass (Themeda triandra) and buffalo grass (Panicum maximum) predominate while the knob-thorn (Acacia nigrescens), leadwood (Combretum imberbe) and marula (Sclerocarya caffra) are the main tree species.

Red bush-willow and mopane veld[edit]

This area lies in the western half of the park, north of the Olifants River. The two most prominent species here are the red bush-willow (Combretum apiculatum) and the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane).

Shrub mopane veld[edit]

Shrub mopane covers almost the entire north-eastern part of the park.

There are a number of smaller areas in the park which carry distinctive vegetation such as Pretoriuskop where the sickle bush and the silver cluster-leaf (Terminalia sericea) are prominent. The sandveld communities near Punda Maria are equally definitive, with a wide variety of unique species.

Mammals[edit]

Mammals
Male lion
Elephant crossing a road. A photoshopped version of this photo was used as an April Fool's prank in 2018.[24]

All the big five game animals are found at Kruger National Park, which has more species of large mammals than any other African game reserve (at 147 species). There are webcams set up to observe the wildlife.[25]

The park stopped culling elephants in 1994 and tried translocating them, but by 2004 the population had increased to 11,670 elephants, by 2006 to approximately 13,500, by 2009 to 11,672, and by 2012 to 16,900. The park's habitats may only be able to sustain about 8,000 elephants, though this is not entirely clear. Elephants do change plant growth and density in the park, and some species, such as wildebeests, clearly benefit from an increase in grasslands. The park started an attempt at using contraception in 1995, but has stopped that due to problems with delivering the contraceptives and upsetting the herds.

Kruger supports packs of the endangered African wild dog, of which there are thought to be only about 400 in the whole of South Africa.[26]

Wildlife Population As of 2010
Species Count (2009) Count (2010)[27]
Black rhinoceros 350 590-660
Blue wildebeest 9,612 11,500
Burchell's zebra 17,797 26,500
Bushbuck 500 500
Cape buffalo 27,000 37,500
Eland 300 460
Elephant 11,672 13,700
Giraffe 5,114 9,000
Greater kudu 5,798 9,500
Hippopotamus 3,000 3,100
Impala 150,000 120,000
Lichtenstein's hartebeest 50
Mountain reedbuck 150
Nyala 300
Roan antelope 90
Sable antelope 290
Warthog 3,500
Waterbuck 5,000 5,500
White rhinoceros 7,000 to 12,000[28] 10,500
African wild dog 240
Cheetah 120 120
Crocodile 4,420
Leopard 2,000 1,000
Lion 2,800 1,600
Spotted hyena 2,000 3,500

Birds[edit]

Out of the 517 species of birds found at Kruger, 253 are residents, 117 non-breeding migrants, and 147 nomads. Some of the larger birds require large territories or are sensitive to habitat degradation. Six of these species, which are by and large restricted to Kruger and other extensive conservation areas, have been assigned to a fanciful grouping called the "Big Six Birds".[29] They are the lappet-faced vulture, martial eagle, saddle-billed stork, kori bustard, ground hornbill and the reclusive Pel's fishing owl, which is localized and seldom seen. There are between 25 and 30 breeding pairs of saddle-billed storks in the park, besides a handful of non-breeding individuals.[29] In 2012 178 family groups of ground hornbills roamed the park and 78 nests were known, of which 50% were active.[30]

Other vertebrates[edit]

Kruger is inhabited by 114 species of reptile, including black mamba, african rock pythons, and 3,000 crocodiles. Thirty-three species of amphibians are found in the Park,[31] as well as 50 fish species. A Zambesi shark, Carcharhinus leucas, also known as the bull shark, was caught at the confluence of the Limpopo and Luvuvhu Rivers in July 1950. Zambezi sharks tolerate fresh water and can travel far up rivers like the Limpopo.[32]

Invertebrates[edit]

219 species of butterfly and skipper are native to the park.[33] As of 2018, 350 species of arachnids, excluding ticks and mites, are known from Kruger.[34] These are mostly true spiders, including 7 species of baboon spider, but also 9 scorpion species, 7 pseudoscorpion species, and 18 solifugid species (sun and roman spiders), 2 species of harvestmen and 1 species of tailless whip scorpion.[35]

Anti-poaching measures[edit]

Kruger is not exempt from the threat of poaching that many other African countries have faced. Many poachers are in search of ivory from rhino and elephant tusks.[36] The park's anti-poaching unit consists of 650[37] SANParks game rangers, assisted by the SAPS and the SANDF (including the SAAF). As of 2013, the park is equipped with two drones borrowed from Denel and two Aérospatiale Gazelle helicopters, donated by the RAF to augment its air space presence.[38][39] Automated movement sensors relay intrusions along the Mozambique border to a control center,[40] and a specialist dog unit has been introduced.[41] Buffer zones have been established along the border with Mozambique,[42] from where many poachers have infiltrated the park, as an alternative to costly new fences.[43] The original 150 km long fences were dropped in 2002 to establish the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.[37][44] The national anti-poaching committee oversees all activities and coordinates interested parties.[45][46]

Poachers[edit]

Kruger's big game poachers operate with night vision instruments and large caliber rifles, fitted with suppressors and sophisticated telescopic sights.[47][48] They are mostly Mozambique citizens that initiate their carefully planned incursions from the border region of South Africa and Mozambique.[47][49][50] In 2012 some 200 poachers were apprehended,[51] while about 30 were killed in skirmishes.[52][53]

In July 2012, a Kruger game ranger and policeman were the first to die in an anti-poaching operation,[54] while other employees reported intimidation by poachers.[55][56][57][58] A Kruger personnel strike affected some anti-poaching operations,[59] and a few employees have been directly implicated.[55][60][61][62][63] Rangers in and around the park have been pressured or blackmailed by poaching syndicates to provide intelligence on the whereabouts of rhinos and anti-poaching operations.[64]

In December 2012, Kruger started using a Seeker II drone against rhino poachers. The drone was loaned to the South African National Parks authority by its manufacturer Denel Dynamics, South Africa.[65][66]

In February 2018, a head belonging to a suspected poacher appeared in Kruger National Park near Hoedspruit, with the body dragged off and eaten by lions, it is assumed. Officials had assumed at first that it was the head of a park employee that had gone missing days before, but it was later determined the man was, in fact, a suspected poacher after the park employee had been found alive. The head belonging to the suspected poacher had been found in an area highly trafficked by lions, along with a loaded hunting rifle.

Ivory stocks[edit]

Rhino[edit]

Poachers mostly operate at or near full moon[50][67][68] and make no distinction between white and black rhinos.[56][69] Losses of black rhino are however low due to their reclusive and aggressive nature.[70] With rhino horn fetching around $66,000 (and up to $82,000) per kilogram,[50][57][70][71][72] the CITES ban on the trade in rhino horn has proved largely ineffectual.[73][74] The second horn is sometimes hacked from the skull to obtain about 100 ml of moisture that is sold locally as traditional medicine.[70]

Poaching related to rhino horn escalated in the 21st century with 949 rhinos killed in Kruger in the first twelve years (2001 to 2012),[38] and over 520 in 2013 alone.[75][76] A planned memorandum of agreement between South Africa and Vietnam, in addition to the one with China,[43] are seen as necessary milestones in stemming the tide,[77][78] while negotiations with Thailand have not yet started.[79] The amount of rhino horn held in storage is not publicly known.[80] Since 2009 some Kruger rhinos have been fitted with invisible tracing devices in their bodies and horns which enable officials to locate their carcasses and to track the smuggled horns by satellite.[81] South Africa's 22,000 white and black rhinos, of which 12,000 are found in Kruger, represent some 93% of these species' world population.[56][74]

Elephant[edit]

Kruger experienced significant elephant poaching in the 1980s,[81] which has since abated. It holds over 48 tons of ivory in storage. According to Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), it is allowed to sell 30 tons.

Following approval by CITES, 47 metric tons of stockpiled ivory from Kruger were auctioned on 6 November 2008. The sale fetched approximately US$6.7 million which will be used towards increasing anti-poaching activity. The average price for the 63 lots on auction was US$142/kg.

Other[edit]

It is foreseen that the placement of wire traps to procure meat would eventually become the most challenging form of poaching.[82] A scheme has been proposed to reward adjacent communities with the proceeds of game sales in return for their cooperation in game preservation.[82] The larger communities include Bosbokrand, Acornhoek, Hazyview, Hoedspruit, Komatipoort, Malelane, Marloth Park, Nelspruit and Phalaborwa.[74]

Accommodation and facilities[edit]

The Kruger National Park has 21 rest camps, as well as two private lodge concessions, and 15 designated private safari lodges. The concessions are parcels of land operated by private companies in partnership with communities, who outsource the operation of private lodges. Camping in the park has become popular with tourists and backpackers because it is much less expensive, and open to anyone, requiring no special permission to partake.[83]

Rest camps[edit]

Mopani's view over Pioneer Dam
Orpen Rest Camp
A tent in Tamboti Tented Camp

Visitors have access to the following camps in Kruger:[84]

  • Bateleur Bushveld Camp
  • Berg-en-Dal Camp
  • Biyamiti Bushveld Camp
  • Boulders Bush Camp
  • Balule Camp, near Olifants Camp
  • Crocodile Bridge Camp
  • Letaba Camp
  • Lower Sabie Camp
  • Malelane Camp
  • Maroela Camp, near Orpen
  • Mopani Camp
  • Olifants Camp
  • Orpen Camp
  • Pretoriuskop Camp
  • Punda Maria Camp
  • Roodewal Bush Lodge
  • Satara Camp
  • Shimuwini Bushveld Camp
  • Shingwedzi Camp
  • Sirheni Bushveld Camp
  • Skukuza Camp
  • Talamati Bushveld Camp
  • Tamboti Tented Camp, near Orpen
  • Tsendze Rustic Camp

Designated private lodges[edit]

The following camps are managed by private operators:[85]

  • Camp Shawu near Crocodile Bridge Gate
  • Camp Shonga near Crocodile Bridge Gate
  • Hamiltons Tented Camp
  • Hoyo Hoyo Tsonga Lodge
  • Imbali Safari Lodge
  • Jocks Safari Lodge & Spa
  • Lukimbi Safari Lodge
  • Pafuri Camp, near Pafuri Gate
  • Plains Camp
  • Rhino Post Camp
  • Shishangeni Lodge near Crocodile Bridge Gate
  • Singita Lebombo Lodge
  • Singita Sweni Lodge
  • The Outpost Lodge, near Pafuri Gate
  • Tinga Game Lodges

Bushveld camps[edit]

Restaurants[edit]

On 30 October 2013, South African National Parks (SANParks) announced the establishment of franchise restaurants in several rest camps. Mugg & Bean restaurants have been established at Lower Sabie, Olifants and Letaba rest camps. Wimpy restaurants have been established at Pretoriuskop and Satara rest camps. Skukuza's Selati Station Grill House has been replaced by Ciao! and Skukuza’s main camp restaurant and take away will be run by Cattle Baron and Bistro.[86] This decision was controversial, with some people welcoming the improvement in food services, and others viewing the introduction of franchises as detracting from the purpose of the Kruger Park.[87][88]

Gates to the Kruger Park[edit]

North & South Gates
Kruger National Park
Pafuri Gate
(northernmost entrance to the park)
Crocodile Bridge
(a southern entrance to the park)
A signpost in the park

The Kruger Park has the following gates:

Name Road From Town Coordinates
Crocodile Bridge Gate on the extension of Rissikstreet from Komatipoort 25°21′30″S 31°53′37″E / 25.35833°S 31.89361°E / -25.35833; 31.89361 (Crocodile Bridge Gate)
Malelane Gate on the R570 off the N4 near Malelane 25°27′43″S 31°31′59″E / 25.46194°S 31.53306°E / -25.46194; 31.53306 (Malelane Gate)
Numbi Gate on the R569 road from Hazyview 25°9′19″S 31°11′51″E / 25.15528°S 31.19750°E / -25.15528; 31.19750 (Numbi Gate)
Phabeni Gate on the road off the R536 from Hazyview 25°01′30″S 31°14′29″E / 25.02500°S 31.24139°E / -25.02500; 31.24139 (Phabeni Gate)
Paul Kruger Gate on the R536 road from Hazyview 24°58′53″S 31°29′7″E / 24.98139°S 31.48528°E / -24.98139; 31.48528 (Paul Kruger Gate)
Orpen Gate on the R531 road from Klaserie 24°28′33″S 31°23′27″E / 24.47583°S 31.39083°E / -24.47583; 31.39083 (Orpen Gate)
Phalaborwa Gate on the R71 road from Phalaborwa 23°56′44″S 31°9′54″E / 23.94556°S 31.16500°E / -23.94556; 31.16500 (Phalaborwa Gate)
Punda Maria Gate on the R524 road from Thohoyandou 22°44′18″S 31°0′33″E / 22.73833°S 31.00917°E / -22.73833; 31.00917 (Punda Maria Gate)
Pafuri Gate on the R525 road from Musina 22°24′1″S 31°2′29″E / 22.40028°S 31.04139°E / -22.40028; 31.04139 (Pafuri Gate)

Wilderness trails[edit]

Nine different trails are on offer in the Kruger National Park. Some are overnight and they last several days in areas of wilderness virtually untouched by humans. There are no set trails in the wilderness areas; a visitor walks along paths made by animals or seeks out new routes through the bush.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rob East, ed. (1989). "Chapter 10: South Africa". Antelopes: Southern and South-Central Africa Pt. 2: Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, roughly the Size of Wales. Antelope Specialist Group. p. 60. ISBN 978-2-88032-970-9. 
  2. ^ Merriam Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia. Merriam-Webster. January 2001. p. 902. ISBN 978-0-87779-017-4. 
  3. ^ "The Official SADC Trade, Industry and Investment Review 2006" (PDF). Southern African Development Community. 2006. p. 217. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  4. ^ House of Assembly Debates, cols 4366-81, 31 May 1926.
  5. ^ a b Stevenson-Hamilton, James. (1937). South African Eden: The Kruger National Park 1902-1946. Struik Publishers, 1993.
  6. ^ UNESCO - Biosphere Reserve Information
  7. ^ Stevenson-Hamilton, James (1939). South African Eden. London. 
  8. ^ a b Kruger National Park Archived 31 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Lonely Planet, page 467.
  9. ^ a b c d Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; Richardson, DM; Wilson, JR (2008). "Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa". Environmental Management. 41 (1): 32–51. doi:10.1007/s00267-007-9027-9. PMID 17943344. 
  10. ^ McNeely, Jeffrey A., International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2001, The Great Reshuffling, IUCN, ISBN 2-8317-0602-5.
  11. ^ a b c Kruger National Park Archived 31 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Lonely Planet, page 468.
  12. ^ a b c Bulpin, T.V., Treasury of Travel Series: Kruger National Park, Creda Press, 1974.
  13. ^ Pienaar, U. de V., Neem uit die Verlede, Sigma Pers, 1990.
  14. ^ Steenkamp, C. (2000). "The Makuleke Land Claim" (PDF). IIED Evaluating Eden Programme. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Kruger National Park (2007). "Kruger History". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  16. ^ "COMMISSION ON THE RESTITUTION OF LAND RIGHTS MEDIA STATEMENT ON A CLAIM BY THE MAKULEKE TRIBE ON A PORTION OF THE KRUGER NATIONAL PARK AND OTHER AREAS". South African Commission on Restitution of Land Rights. 6 August 1996. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  17. ^ Siyabona Africa (2007). "Pafuri Camp". Kruger Park. Archived from the original on 2007-02-14. 
  18. ^ Siyabona Africa (2007). "Outpost". Kruger Park. 
  19. ^ a b Viljoen, Buks (4 March 2011). "Duur hotels 'sal einde van Krugerpark wees'". Beeld. 
  20. ^ "RADISSON BLU SAFARI RESORT KRUGER NATIONAL PARK" (PDF). www.sanparks.org. Retrieved 23 July 2018. 
  21. ^ "Radisson Blu Safari Resort Kruger Park". south-african-lodges.com. Retrieved 23 July 2018. 
  22. ^ a b c Lombard Steyn, Louzel (21 February 2017). "New R269.5m Skukuza Safari Lodge to open in Kruger in 2018". traveller24.com. Retrieved 23 July 2018. 
  23. ^ "Climate data for Skukuza". South African Weather Service. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2010. 
  24. ^ Wasserman, Helena (2018). "SA's biggest ever April Fool's joke reached 20 million people worldwide". The Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-05-30. 
  25. ^ Kruger National Park webcams
  26. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Archived 9 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ "Kruger Statistics & Animal Numbers » Big 5, Kruger National Park » Dreamfields Guesthouse". dreamfieldsguesthouse.com. Retrieved 2017-10-05. 
  28. ^ "Response from SANParks to Misleading Reports and Claims about Rhino Sales and Hunting in National Parks". 15 July 2009. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2009. 
  29. ^ a b Engelbrecht, Derek. "Kruger National Park's Big 6 Birds". Birders. Sanparks. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  30. ^ Jackson, Neels (27 December 2012). "Wildtuin help sy bromvoëls só". Beeld. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  31. ^ Pienaar, Passmore & Carruthers, Die Paddas van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin. Sigma Press, 1976
  32. ^ Pienaar, U. de V., The Freshwater Fishes of the Kruger National Park, Koedoe Vol 11, No 1 (1968)
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External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX