Vesperae solennes de confessore (Mozart)
|Vesperae solennes de confessore|
|Solemn Vespers by W. A. Mozart|
Salzburg Cathedral, for which the music was composed
|Vocal||SATB choir and soloists|
Vesperae solennes de confessore (Solemn vespers of the confessor), K. 339, is a sacred choral composition, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1780. It is scored for SATB choir and soloists, violin I, violin II, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones colla parte, 2 timpani, and basso continuo (violoncello, double bass, and organ, with optional bassoon obbligato).
The setting was composed for liturgical use in the Salzburg Cathedral. The title "de confessore" was not Mozart's own, and was added by a later hand to his manuscript. It suggests that the work was intended for vespers held on a specific day on the liturgical calendar of saints ("confessors"); however, the saint in question has not been conclusively established. This was Mozart's final choral work composed for the cathedral.
Structurally, it is very similar to Vesperae solennes de Dominica (K. 321), composed in 1779. The setting is divided into 6 movements; as in Dominica, a setting of the Minor Doxology (Gloria Patri) concludes all movements, each recapitulating the opening themes. The first three psalms are scored in a bold, exuberant manner, contrasting with the strict, stile antico counterpoint of the a cappella fourth psalm, and the tranquility of the fifth movement. The Magnificat sees a return to the style of the opening settings.
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- Dixit Allegro vivace, C major, 3/4
- Confitebor Allegro, E-flat major, common time
- Beatus vir Allegro vivace, G major, 3/4
- Laudate pueri Allegro, D minor, cut common time
- Laudate Dominum Andante, F major, 6/8
- Mozart departs from the structure of K. 321 in this movement. The earlier setting of Laudate Dominum is a highly melismatic soprano solo, with no choral interlude. In K. 339, the soprano solo is much simpler; the choir quietly enters at the conclusion of the psalm with the Gloria Patri, and the soloist rejoins them at the Amen.
- This movement is well-known outside the context of the larger work, and is often performed in isolation.
- Magnificat Andante, C major, common time
- —"Et exultavit..." Allegro, C major, common time
- "About: Vesperae solemnes de confessore (Vespers), for soloists, chorus, and orchestra, K.339". Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- J. Frank Henderson (2006). "Mozart's Vesperae Solennes de Confessore: Identification of the Saint and Date" (PDF). Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Mark Aaron Humphrey (2006). The Stylistic and Historical Significance of Mozart's Mass in C Major K. 337. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Michael Steinberg (2005). Choral Masterworks: A Listener's Guide. p. 211. Retrieved 21 February 2013.