Wang (surname)

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Wáng
王-order.gif
RomanizationWáng ([wǎŋ]) (Mandarin)
Wong (surname) (Hong Kong, Macau, Cantonese, Hakka)
Waan (Shanghainese)
Ong, Bong (Hokkien)
Heng (Teochew)
Uōng (Gan)
Wang (Korean)
Ō (Japanese)
Vang, Vaj, Vaaj (Hmong)
Vương, Vong (Vietnamese)
Heng (Thai)
PronunciationWong4 (Cantonese)
Language(s)Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese
Origin
Language(s)Old Chinese
Meaning"King"[1]
Other names
Derivative(s)Vuong
Popularitysee popular names
Wāng
汪姓 - 楷体.svg
PronunciationWāng ([wáŋ]) (Mandarin)
Wong (Cantonese)
Waan (Shanghainese)
Ong, Ang (Hokkien)
Wang (Korean)
Uông (Vietnamese)
Language(s)Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese
Origin
Language(s)Chinese
Meaning"Vast"

Wang (/wɑːŋ/) is the pinyin romanization of the common Chinese surnames (Wáng) and (Wāng). It is currently the most common surname in mainland China, as well as one of the most common surnames in the world, with more than 100 million worldwide.[2][3]

Wáng () was listed as 8th on the famous Song Dynasty list of the Hundred Family Surnames.

Wāng () was 104th of the Hundred Family Surnames; it is currently the 58th-most-common surname in mainland China.

Wang is also a surname in several European countries.

Romanizations[edit]

is also romanized as Wong in Hong Kong, Macau, Cantonese, Hakka and Hainanese; Waan or Waon in Shanghainese; Ong or Bong in Hokkien; Heng in Teochew; Uōng in Gan; Vang, Vaj, or Vaaj in Hmong; Vương or Vong in Vietnamese; Wang () in Korean; and Ō or Oh in Japanese.

Population and distribution[edit]

Wáng is one of the most common surnames in the world and was listed by the People's Republic of China's National Citizen ID Information System as the most common surname in mainland China in April 2007, with 92.88 million bearers and comprising 7.25% of the general population.[4][5]

A 2018 survey found that there were over 100 million Wang in China, ranking first.[3]

Wáng was also the most common surname in Mainland China in 2019.[6]

A 2013 study found the province with the most people sharing the name was Henan. Overall the name is more prevalent in Northern China.[7] In 2019 it was the most common surname in nearly every northern province or province-level division: Xinjiang, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shandong, Beijing, Tianjin, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, as well as the southern province of Hainan.[6]

It was the 6th most common surname in Taiwan in 2005, comprising 4.12% of the general population.[8]

Ong is the 5th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans and Wang the 6th, although Wong also includes the surname 黃 (Huang in Mandarin).[9] Singaporean Wangs are 78,000 and 1.5% of Singapore's population and 2.5% of Singapore's Chinese population.

There are 143,000 recorded Wangs in the United States, as of 2014.[10] This is a double increase from 2000, when 63,800 Wangs ranked 10th most common amongst Asian Americans and 440th amongst all Americans, respectively.[11] There are 51,000 Wangs in California, 17,000 New York, 10,400 Texas, 5,900 New Jersey, 5,700 Illinois. Californian Wangs rank 55th in state, highest in rank as well by state of any state. Wang and Wong are sometimes interchangeable, as well as other Wang-based surnames so the number could vary.

Wang (Hangul: ) is a fairly rare surname in South Korea. The year 2000 South Korean Census listed only 23,447 Wangs.[12]

Origins of Wáng[edit]

Wang is the Chinese word for "king". William Baxter and Laurent Sagart reconstructed the Old Chinese form of Wáng as *ɢʷaŋ and the Middle Chinese as hjwang.[1]

The modern bearers of the name Wáng come from many different backgrounds, but there are four principal origins of the modern surname: Zi, Ji, Gui, and the adoption of the name from ethnic groups outside the Han Chinese.[13][better source needed]

Zi house[edit]

The most ancient family name of Wáng was originated from the surname Zi (子). The Chinese legend mentions that near the end of Shang Dynasty, King Zhou of Shang's uncle Bi Gan, Ji Zi, and Wei Zi were called "The Three Kindhearted Men of Shang". King Zhou was violent in his rule, and Bi Gan repeatedly remonstrated to the king regarding his behavior. The king shunned his comments and killed Bi Gan instead. Bi's descendants used Wáng as their surname as they are descendants of a prince and were known as "The Bi clan of the Wáng family".[14][better source needed] The Zi clan has existed for about 3100 years through Qin Dynasty to Tang Dynasty and exists today. The Zi clan of Wáng lived predominantly in modern-day Henan[where?] during these times and developed into the famous Wáng family of Ji prefecture.[15]

House of Ji[edit]

More Wáng were originated from the royal family of Zhou Dynasty. The original surname of the royal family of Zhou Dynasty was Ji (姬). However, many of them have separated out of the family due to the loss of power and land. Because they once belonged to the royal family, they used Wáng as their surname. This family of Wáng traced its ancestry to Wang Ziqiao.[16]

According to the classical records, after King Wu of Zhou defeated the Shang Dynasty, he established the Western Zhou Dynasty. During the reign of the 21st king, King Ling of Zhou (571 - 545 BCE), the capital was in Chengzhou, which is the present day Luoyang, Henan. A son of King Ling, Wangzi Qiao or Prince Qiao, was reduced to civilian status due to his remonstration to the king. His son Zong Jin remained as a Situ in the palace, and because of the people at the time recognized him as the descendant of the royal family, they called his family the "Wáng family".[17]

Another origin is that the surname is from Crown Prince Jin, son of King Ling of Zhou of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Jin criticized plans to divert the Gu and Luo rivers and was disinherited by his father. His descendants adopted the surname Wang in commemoration of his royal status.[18]

In other cases, the name can also be traced back to Tian He, who usurped the throne of the Qi in 391 BC. After the annihilation of Qi by Qin in 221 BC, some descendants of nobles of Qi adopted the surname Wang in commemoration of royal ancestry.

Wang was also used as a surname by descendants of royal families in certain other states, like Wei, during the Warring States period.

The surname has also been adopted by some families of minorities like the Ke Yi (可颐) families of the Xianbei during the Northern Wei dynasty.

In some families, this surname is traced back to ancestors who either were endowed with it by an emperor or changed their original surname, claiming royal status.[which?]

During the Tang dynasty the Li clan of Zhaojun 赵郡李氏, the Cui clan of Boling 博陵崔氏, the Cui clan of Qinghe 清河崔氏, the Lu clan of Fanyang 范陽盧氏, the Zheng clan of Xingyang 荥阳郑氏, the Wang clan of Taiyuan 太原王氏, and the Li clan of Longxi 隴西李氏 were the seven noble families between whom marriage was banned by law.[19] Moriya Mitsuo wrote a history of the Later Han-Tang period of the Taiyuan Wang. Among the strongest families was the Taiyuan Wang.[20] The prohibition on marriage between the clans issued in 659 by the Gaozong Emperor was flouted by the seven families since a woman of the Boling Cui married a member of the Taiyuan Wang, giving birth to the poet Wang Wei.[21] He was the son of Wang Chulian who in turn was the son of Wang Zhou.[22]

The marriages between the families were performed clandestinely after the prohibition was implemented on the seven families by Gaozong.[23] The Zhou dynasty King Ling's son Prince Jin is assumed by most to be the ancestor of the Taiyuan Wang.[24] The Longmen Wang were a cadet line of the Zhou dynasty descended Taiyuan Wang, and Wang Yan and his grandson Wang Tong hailed from his cadet line.[25] Both Buddhist monks and scholars hailed from the Wang family of Taiyuan such as the monk Tanqian.[26] The Wang family of Taiyuan included Wang Huan.[27] Their status as "Seven Great surnames" became known during Gaozong's rule.[28] The Taiyuan Wang family produced Wang Jun who served under Emperor Huai of Jin.[29] A Fuzhou-based section of the Taiyuan Wang produced the Buddhist monk Baizhang.[30]

The surname in other countries[edit]

East Asia[edit]

Korea[edit]

Wang
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationWang
McCune–ReischauerWang

The surname Wang has a Goguryeo origin and was the royal surname of Goryeo dynasty which was founded by Wang Geon. It is said that when Goryeo fell, many changed their surname to Jeon (全) / Jeon (田) / Ok (玉) to avoid severe persecution from the succeeding Joseon Dynasty. The Kaesong Wang lineage traces its ancestry to the Goryeo rulers.

Japan[edit]

Ō (Japanese: ) is a rare Japanese name, mostly held by those of Chinese descent, such as the baseball player Sadaharu Oh (王貞治), also known as Wang Chen-chih.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

In Indonesia, the surname is often romanized as "Heng", "Bong" or "Ong" for people of Hokkien descent,[citation needed] and more commonly as Ong by Chinese Peranakan. In some cases, the meaning of the names were translated into a name that sounds more like the area where these immigrant families settled in such as the surname Suraja, where in this case raja means king in Indonesian and Javanese and Su- is a common prefix within javanese surnames.

Europe[edit]

Scandinavia[edit]

Wang is also an unrelated surname in Sweden and Norway. It is a variant spelling of the name Vang which is derived from the Old Norse word vangr, meaning field or meadow.

Germany and Netherlands[edit]

Wang is also a surname in the German and Dutch languages. The name is derived from Middle German wang/ Middle Dutch waenge, which is literally "cheek". However, in southern German, its meaning, "grassy slope" or "field of grass", is similar to the Scandinavian surname.

Notable people surnamed Wang[edit]

Historical figures[edit]

  • Wang Anshi (王安石), Song Dynasty politician
  • Wang Bao (王褒), Han Dynasty poet and author
  • Wang Bi (王弼), Three Kingdoms Taoist philosopher
  • Wang Bo (王勃), a Tang dynasty Chinese poet
  • Wong Chat Bong (王澤邦/王泽邦), founder of Wong Lo Kat (王老吉) a Chinese herbal tea
  • Wang Chong (王充), Chinese philosopher during Han Dynasty
  • Wang Chongyang (王重陽/王重阳), a Song Dynasty Taoist and founder of Quanzhen School
  • Wang Chuzhi (王處直/王处直), a regional military governor for Dingzhou during the 5 Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms era
  • Wang Cong'er (王聰兒/王聪儿), a female leader of the White Lotus Rebellion
  • Wang Dao (王導/王导), Jin Dynasty pre-eminent statesman, premier and advisor
  • Wang Dun (王敦), Jin Dynasty (266–420), a rebellious Jin general and later warlord
  • Empress Wang (王皇后), an empress of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
  • Wang Fangqing (王方慶/王方庆), real name Wang Lin, served during the Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty as a chancellor
  • Wang Fu (王符), a philosopher from Gansu in the Eastern Han Dynasty
  • Wang Fu (王甫), a Shu Han general serving under Liu Bei
  • Wang Fu (王甫), an influential eunuch in Han Dynasty
  • Wang Fu (王符), a painter from Ming Dynasty
  • Wang Fuzhi (王紱/王绂), Chinese philosopher and historian
  • Wang Gui (王珪) Chancellor of the Tang Dynasty
  • Wang Guowei (王國維/王国维), late Qing Dynasty and early Republican Chinese scholar
  • Wang Huizu (汪輝祖/汪辉祖), Chinese jurist.
  • Wang Jian (王翦), a greatest general from Qin Dynasty
  • Wang Jian (王儉/王俭), Liu Song and Southern Qi official
  • Wang Jian (王建), founding emperor of Former Shu, posthumously known as Gaozu
  • Wang Jian (王鑒/王鉴), a painter from Ming Dynasty
  • Wang Jinghong (王景弘), Chinese Muslim admiral
  • Wang Jishan (王及善), served during the Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty as a chancellor
  • Wang Jun (王濬), Jin dynasty general
  • Wang Jun (王晙), a chancellor during Tang Dynasty
  • Wang Lang (王朗), a Wei politician during the end of the Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms
  • Wang Mang (王莽), founder of the Xin Dynasty
  • Wang Meng (王猛), known as Marquess Wu of Qinghe is a prime minister for Former Qin
  • Wang Nangxian (王囊仙), another female leader of the White Lotus Rebellion
  • Wang Rong (王戎), known as the 3rd East General, he served during the Jin Dynasty
  • Wang Shenzhi (王審知/王审知), founder of the Min Kingdom in Fujian
  • Wang Shichong (王世充), a general serving under the Sui Dynasty
  • Wang Su (王肅/王肃), son of Wang Lang, adviser to Sima Shi
  • Wang Wei (王維/王维), Tang Dynasty poet
  • Wang Xianzhi (王仙芝), Tang Dynasty agrarian rebel
  • Wang Xianzhi (王獻之/王献之), calligrapher
  • Wang Xiaojie (王孝傑/王孝杰), a general served during Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty
  • Wang Xizhi (王羲之), calligrapher known as the Sage Calligrapher lived in Jin Dynasty
  • Wang Xuan (王璿), an official of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, briefly serving as chancellor
  • Wang Xuance (王玄策), a diplomat to India and guard that served during the Tang Dynasty
  • Wang Yanhan (王延翰), son of Wang Shenzhi, second king of the Min Kingdom ruled from 925 to 926
  • Wang Yanjun (王延鈞/王延钧), son of Wang Yanhan, third king of the Min Kingdom ruled from 926 to 935
  • Wang Yangming (王陽明/王阳明), Ming Dynasty Neo-Confucian
  • Wang Yi (王異/王异), official of Cao Wei
  • Wang Yuanji (王元姬), Wife of Sima Zhao and Empress Dowager of Jin Dynasty
  • Wang Zhaojun (王昭君), one of the Four Beauties of ancient China
  • Wang Zhen (王禎/王祯), an official and an inventor for Yuan Dynasty known for the first wooden movable type printing
  • Wang Zhen (王振), powerful eunuch during the Ming Dynasty
  • Wang Zhen (Wang Yiting) (王震(王一亭)), well-known painter of the "Shanghai school" in the Qing Dynasty
  • Wang Zhi (王直), a pirate leader in Ming Dynasty
  • Wang Zhihuan (王之渙/王之涣), a Chinese poet of Tang Dynasty
  • Wang Zi-Ping (王子平), Chinese Muslim martial artist
  • Wang Zongyan (王宗衍), son of Wang Jian, second ruler of the Qian Kingdom (Former Shu)

Mainland China[edit]

  • Wang Bingbing (王冰冰), Chinese ski mountaineer
  • Charles Wang (王嘉廉), computer entrepreneur
  • Charles Wang (physician) (王志偉/王志伟), physician and lawyer
  • Wang Changyuan (王昌元), Chinese guzheng performer and composer
  • Wang Chiu-chiang (王久江), Chinese painter
  • Wang Daiyu (王岱輿/王岱舆), Chinese Muslim scholar
  • Wang Dan (王丹), student leader - Tiananmen Square dissident
  • Wang Daohan (汪道涵), former president of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS)
  • Wang Dongxing (汪東興/汪东兴), Mao Zedong's principal bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution
  • Dylan Wang (王鶴棣/王鹤棣), Chinese actor, singer and model
  • Wang Fanxi (王凡西), Trotskyist
  • Wang Feifei (王霏霏), Chinese singer member part of South Korean girl group Miss A.
  • Wang Guangmei (王光美), wife of President Liu Shaoqi
  • Wang Guangya (王光亞/王光亚), UN ambassador
  • Wang Guowei (王國維/王国维), Chinese historian and poet
  • Wang Han (汪涵), TV show host
  • Wang Hao (王皓), chess grandmaster
  • Wang Hao (王皓), table tennis player
  • Wang Hao (王浩), Chinese-American logician, philosopher and mathematician
  • Wang Hongwen (王洪文), Chinese politician which is the youngest member of the Gang of Four
  • Wang Jun (汪精衞/汪精卫), a Chinese politician, notorious traitor
  • Wang Jun (王軍/王军), son of Wang Zhen, is a famous Chinese businessman chairman of CITIC and Poly Technologies, China
  • Wang Jun (王君), a PRC politician
  • Wang Junkai (王俊凱/王俊凯), singer and actor, member of TFBoys
  • Wang Lin (王琳), badminton player
  • Wang Linkai (王琳凱/王琳凯), Chinese rapper, former member of Chinese boy group Nine Percent
  • Wang Ling (王鈴/王铃), historian of Chinese science
  • Wang Liqiang (王立強/王立强), defector
  • Wang Liqin (王勵勤/王励勤), table tennis player
  • Wang Ming (王明), a senior leader of the early Communist Party of China. Mastermind of 28 Bolsheviks group
  • Wang Ming-Chen (王明貞/王明贞), Chinese female physicist and science educator
  • Wang Nan (王楠), table tennis player
  • Wang Qiang (王蔷), Chinese tennis player
  • Wang Qishan (王岐山), Vice President of the People's Republic of China
  • Wang Qing (王青), actor/singer/entrepreneur known for his role at bl drama counterattack web series
  • Wang Rong (王榮/王荣), regional politician in Guangdong and Jiangsu
  • Roy Wang (王源), singer and actor, member of TFBoys
  • Wang Shiwei (王實味/王实味), a Chinese journalist and literary writer
  • Wang Shizhen (王士珍), Yuan Shikai's Beiyang subordinate
  • Wang Tao (王韜/王韬), reformer, political essayist, newspaper publisher, fiction writer
  • Wang Xiaobo (王小波), modern writer
  • Wang Xuan (王選/王选), an innovator of the Chinese printing industry
  • Wang Yan (王妍), Olympic gymnast
  • Wang Yanbo (王彦博), professional wrestler also known as Boa
  • Wang Yaowu (王耀武), high-ranking KMT general who fought the Imperial Japanese army and Chinese Communists from 1924 to 1948
  • Wang Yeping (王冶坪), wife of President Jiang Zemin, former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
  • Wang Yi (王毅), State Councilor and Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China
  • Wang Yihan (王儀涵/王仪涵), successful badminton player from Shanghai, China. 2011 World Champion.
  • Wang Yibo (王一博), Actor and member of Korean-Chinese group Uniq
  • Yuja Wang (王羽佳), classical pianist
  • Wang Zhaoguo (王兆國/王兆国), a Fujian Chinese politician who came to prominence during the era of Deng Xiaoping
  • Wang Zhen (王震), a Chinese political figure and one of the Eight Immortals of the Communist Party of China
  • Wang Zhen (), Chinese gymnast
  • Wang Zhengjun (王政君), Han Dynasty empress
  • Wang Zhengwei (王正伟/王正偉), politician and former Chairman of Ningxia
  • Wang Zhijian (王志健), perpetrator of the 2008 Yishun murders who was sentenced to death for murder in 2012.
  • Wang Zhizhi (王治郅), former NBA player
  • Wang Zhongshu (王仲殊), archaeologist
  • Wang Ziyi (王子異/王子异), a Chinese actor and rapper, former member of Chinese boy group Nine Percent

Taiwan[edit]

  • Andrew H. J. Wang (王惠鈞), Taiwanese biochemist
  • Cyndi Wang (王心凌), Mandopop singer
  • Joanna Wang (王若琳), Taiwanese-American singer-songwriter
  • Leehom Wang (王力宏), Taiwanese-American singer-songwriter, actor and commercial model
  • Ong Iok-tek (Wang Yude) (王育德), scholar and early leader of the Taiwan independence movement
  • Wang Cheng-teng (王政騰/王政腾), Deputy Minister of the Council of Agriculture of the Republic of China
  • Wang Chien-fa (王乾發/王乾发), Magistrate of Penghu County (2005–2014)
  • Chien-Ming Wang (王建民), former professional baseball pitcher for the New York Yankees and Washington Nationals
  • Wang Chien-shien (王建煊), Republic of China politician
  • Wang Chung-yi (王崇儀/王崇仪), Minister of Coast Guard Administration of the Republic of China (2014–2016)
  • Darren Wang (王大陸/王大陆), Taiwanese actor famous in the Mainland
  • Wang Ginn-wang (王進旺/王进旺), Minister of the Coast Guard Administration of the Republic of China (2006–2014)
  • Jimmy Wang Yu (王羽), Mainland-born Taiwanese actor, film director, producer, and screenwriter who started his career in Hong Kong as a Shaw Brothers Studio actor.
  • Wang Ju-hsuan (王如玄), Minister of Council of Labor Affairs of the Republic of China (2008–2012)
  • Hsien Chung Wang (王宪锺/王宪钟), Chinese-American mathematician
  • Wang Kwo-tsai (王國材/王国材), Political Deputy Minister of Transportation and Communications
  • Wang Li-ling (王儷玲/王俪玲), Chairperson of Financial Supervisory Commission of the Republic of China (2016)
  • Wang Mei-hua (王美花), former Vice Minister of Economic Affairs of the Republic of China
  • Wang Yu-chi (王郁琦), former Minister of Mainland Affairs Council of the Republic of China (2012–2015)
  • Wang Yu-yun (王玉雲/王玉云), former Mayor of Kaohsiung City (1973–1981)

Hong Kong[edit]

  • Jackson Wang (王嘉爾/王嘉尔), Hong Kong born Chinese member of South Korean boy group GOT7

Malaysia[edit]

  • Wang Shujin (Ong Seok Kim) (王樹金/王树金), Malaysian educationist, social worker and philanthropist
  • Wang Wenhua (Chin Peng)/(Ong Boon Hua)(王文華/王文华), Leader of the Malayan Communist Party

Singapore[edit]

  • Ong Teng Cheong (王鼎昌), Former President of the Republic of Singapore
  • Heng Swee Keat (王瑞杰), Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore
  • Ong Ye Kung (王乙康), Singaporean politician
  • Daniel Ong (王盟友), Singaporean businessman, radio DJ and television host
  • David Ong (王金发), Former Singaporean member of parliament
  • Peter Ong (王文辉), Government official in Singapore
  • Thomas Ong (王沺裁), Singaporean actor, television host and businessman
  • Xavier Ong (王胜宇), Singaporean actor
  • Wang Yuqing (王昱清), Singaporean actor
  • Ong Eng Guan (王永元), Singaporean politician
  • Ong Keng Sen (王景生), Singaporean director of the theatre group TheatreWorks
  • Ong Keng Yong (王景荣), Singaporean diplomat
  • Ong Kim Seng (王金成), Singaporean artist
  • Anthea Ong (王丽婷), former Singaporean Nominated Member of Parliament
  • Ong Pang Boon (王邦文), former Singaporean politician
  • Remy Ong (王雷明), Singaporean bowler
  • Ong Soh Khim (王素琴), former Singaporean Nominated Member of Parliament
  • Ong Teck Chin (王德进), Singaporean educator
  • Melvyn Ong (王赐吉), Singapore army general and the current Chief of Defence Force of the Singapore Armed Forces
  • Glenn Ong (王书佳), Singaporean radio DJ
  • Olivia Ong (王俪婷), Singaporean singer and actress
  • Wang Sa (王沙), Singaporean comedian
  • Wang Weiliang (王伟良), Singaporean actor and singer
  • Wang Xiuyun (王秀云), Singaporean actress

Korea[edit]

  • Wang Geon (왕건, 王建), founder of the royal family of the Goryeo Dynasty, founded by
  • Wang Ki-Chun (왕기춘, 王機春), judo world champion
  • Wang Bit-na (왕빛나, 王嫔娜) actress and model
  • Wang Ji-hyun (왕지현, 王智賢), popularly known as Jun Ji-hyun
  • Wang Ji-won (왕지원, 王智媛)actress and ballet dancer

United States[edit]

Canada[edit]

Fictional people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. (1.93 MB), p. 48. 2011. Accessed 11 October 2011.
  2. ^ "公安部统计:'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人 [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]." 24 Apr 2007. Accessed 27 Mar 2012.(in Chinese)
  3. ^ a b "公安部发布去年全国姓名报告,"王、李、张"姓排前三".
  4. ^ Xinhua Net. 公安部统计分析显示:王姓成为我国第一大姓. (in Chinese)
  5. ^ People's Daily. "Chinese surname shortage sparks rethink".
  6. ^ a b http://www.bjnews.com.cn/news/2020/01/20/676822.html
  7. ^ https://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/10/the-geographic-distribution-of-chinas-last-names-in-maps/280776/
  8. ^ Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior, Department of Population. Feb 2005. Op. cit. 中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典."中国台湾姓氏排行 [Taiwan (China) Surname Ranking]". 8 Jun 2010. Accessed 1 Apr 2012. (in Chinese)
  9. ^ Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
  10. ^ "Forebears Wang".
  11. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Genealogy Data: Frequently Occurring Surnames from Census 2000". 27 Sept 2011. Accessed 29 Mar 2012.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-11. Retrieved 2006-05-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  13. ^ Origin of the surname Wang, Wong, Ong, Heng.
  14. ^ greatchinese.com - Hundred Family's Surnames: Wang entry (under paragraph 3 says Wang is the descendants of Prince Bi Gan)
  15. ^ "Tracing of the Ancestry: under paragraph 1". Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
  16. ^ Wang Ziqiao Archived 2007-10-23 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Chinese surname history: Wang, under paragraph 2
  18. ^ Oxford Dictionary
  19. ^ http://history.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/slides/Dissertation.pdf p. 67.
  20. ^ A Zürcher (Milchfecker): Eine nicht alltägliche Stimme aus der Emmentaler-Käsereipraxis. Brill Archive. 1830. pp. 351–. GGKEY:WD42J45TCZZ.
  21. ^ Wei Wang; Tony Barnstone; Willis Barnstone; Haixin Xu (1991). Laughing Lost in the Mountains: Poems of Wang Wei. UPNE. pp. xxvii–xxviii. ISBN 978-0-87451-564-0.
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