Zhang Xun

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Zhang Xun
Zhangxun.jpg
3rd Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet
In office
1 July 1917 – 12 July 1917
MonarchPuyi
Personal details
Born(1854-09-16)16 September 1854
Jiangxi,  Qing dynasty
Died11 September 1923(1923-09-11) (aged 68)
Tianjin, Zhili, Republic of China (1912–1949) Republic of China
Political partyRoyalist Party[a]
Military service
Nickname(s)Queue General
Allegiance Qing Dynasty
Republic of China
Empire of China
Branch/serviceBeiyang Army
Years of service1884–1917
RankGeneral officer

Zhang Xun (simplified Chinese: 张勋; traditional Chinese: 張勳; pinyin: Zhāng Xūn or; Wade–Giles: Chang Hsün; September 16, 1854 – September 11, 1923), courtesy name Shaoxuan, was a Qing loyalist general who attempted to restore the abdicated emperor Puyi in the Manchu Restoration of 1917. He also supported Yuan Shikai during his time as president.[3]

Biography[edit]

He was born on September 16, 1854.[3]

Zhang served as a military escort for Empress Dowager Cixi during the Boxer Uprising. He later served as a subordinate of General Yuan Shikai in the Beiyang Army. He fought for the Qing at Nanjing in 1911, and then after the fall of the Qing, he remained loyal to Yuan Shikai. Despite serving as a general in the new Republic, he refused to cut his queue, as a symbol of his loyalty to the Qing. He was called the "Queue General". He seized Nanjing from the KMT in 1913, defeating the Second Revolution. Despite allowing his troops to savagely loot the city, Zhang was named a field marshal by Yuan.[3]

In 1917 Zhang entered Beijing to restore Puyi along with Kang Youwei but was thwarted by other generals. Zhang then took refuge in the Dutch legation and did not participate in politics again.[3] Between 1 July 1917 and 12 July 1917, Zhang Xun proclaimed he is the Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet by supporting for Puyi's re-proclamation as the Emperor of the Qing dynasty. However, Puyi and Zhang Xun's proclamations in July 1917 were never recognized by the Republic of China (the sole legitimate regime of China then), most of the Chinese people, or any foreign countries.

He died on September 11, 1923.[3]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Madeleine Chi, Zhang was an "active member" of the Royalist Party,[1] while Phil Billingsley only reports that "rumor had it" that Zhang was affiliated with the party.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chi (1970), p. 127.
  2. ^ Billingsley (1988), p. 57.
  3. ^ a b c d e Aisin-Gioro, Pu Yi (1964,1987, 2002). 我的前半生 [The First Half of My Life; From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi]. Foreign Languages Press. ISBN 978-7-119-00772-4.
Political offices
Preceded by
Yuan Shikai (1912)
Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet
1 July 1917 – 12 July 1917
Succeeded by
Position abolished