12th century in North American history
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The 12th century in North American history provides a timeline of events occurring within the North American continent from 1101 CE to 1200 CE in the Gregorian calendar. This time period (from 1000 BCE–present) is known as the Post-archaic period (Post-archaic stage). Although this timeline segment may include some European or other world events that profoundly influenced later American life, it focuses on developments within Native American communities. The archaeological records supplements indigenous recorded and oral history.
Because of the inaccuracies inherent in radiocarbon dating and in interpreting other elements of the archaeological record, most dates in this timeline represent approximations that may vary a century or more from source to source. The assumptions implicit in archaeological dating methods may also yield a general bias in the dating in this timeline.
List of events
- 900–1150: Pueblo II Era in the American Southwest
- 1000–1200: Early Mississippian culture in the Eastern Woodlands
- 1000–1200: Dresden Codex written and illuminated. This Yucatecan Mayan codex from Chichén Itzá is the earliest known surviving book from the Americas
- 1000–1200: Acoma Pueblo and Old Oraibi are established, and become the oldest continuously inhabited communities in the United States
- 1142: League of the Iroquois is founded, and the Great Law of Peace is adopted by the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida people. Wampum invented by Ayenwatha, which the Haudenosaunee used to record information.
- 1150–1350: Pueblo III Era in the American Southwest
- The Inuit Thule people largely displaced the old Dorset culture in Arctic Alaska.
- The most important city of the Mississippian culture of mound builders, Cahokia on the Mississippi River opposite modern Saint Louis, Missouri, reached its zenith with a population near 20,000 or perhaps 40,000. No other city in the United States would boast of such a large population until the early days of the Republic.
- Natives of the American Southwest began building spectacular cliff dwellings housing hundreds of people in the later half of the century.
- "The Dresden Codex". World Digital Library. August 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- Ancient Citadel. Smithsonian Magazine. April 2008.
- Casey, Robert L. Journey to the High Southwest. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 2007: 382. ISBN 978-0-7627-4064-2.
- Johansen, Bruce E. Dating the Iroquois Confederacy. Akwesasne Notes. Fall 1995, Volume 1, 3 & 4, pp. 62–63. (retrieved through Ratical.com, 26 Oct 2009)
- Gawyehnehshehgowa: Great Law of Peace. Degiya'göh Resources. (retrieved 14 March 2009)