1934 FIFA World Cup

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1934 FIFA World Cup
World's Cup[1]
Campionato Mondiale di Calcio
Official poster
Tournament details
Host country Italy
Dates 27 May – 10 June (15 days)
Teams 16 (from 4 confederations)
Venue(s) (in 8 host cities)
Final positions
Champions  Italy (1st title)
Runners-up  Czechoslovakia
Third place  Germany
Fourth place  Austria
Tournament statistics
Matches played 17
Goals scored 70 (4.12 per match)
Attendance 363,000 (21,353 per match)
Top scorer(s) Czechoslovakia Oldřich Nejedlý (5 goals)
1930
1938

The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Italy from 27 May to 10 June 1934.

The 1934 World Cup was the first for which teams had to qualify to take part. Thirty-two nations entered the competition, and after qualification, 16 teams participated in the finals tournament. Reigning champions Uruguay did not enter. Italy became the second World Cup champions, beating Czechoslovakia 2–1 in the final.

Host selection[edit]

Main article: FIFA World Cup hosts

After a lengthy decision-making process in which FIFA's executive committee met eight times,[2] Italy was chosen as the host nation at a meeting in Stockholm on 9 October 1932.[3] The decision was taken by the executive committee without a ballot of members.[3] The Italian bid was chosen in preference to one from Sweden;[4] the Italian government assigned a budget of 3.5 million lire to the tournament.[5]

Qualification and participants[edit]

32 countries applied to enter the tournament, so qualifying matches were required to thin the field to 16.[3] Even so, there were several notable absentees. Reigning World Cup holders Uruguay declined to participate, in protest at the refusal of several European countries to travel to South America for the previous World Cup, which Uruguay had hosted in 1930.[6] As a result, the 1934 World Cup is the only one in which the reigning champions did not participate.[7] The British Home Nations, in a period of self-imposed exile from FIFA, also refused to participate. Football Association committee member Charles Sutcliffe's view was: "the national associations of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland have quite enough to do in their own International Championship which seems to me a far better World Championship than the one to be staged in Rome".[8]

Despite their role as hosts, Italy were still required to qualify, the first and only time the host nation was not granted automatic qualification.[3] The qualifying matches were arranged on a geographical basis. Withdrawals by Chile and Peru meant Argentina and Brazil qualified without playing a single match.[9]

Twelve of the 16 places were allocated to Europe, three to the Americas, and one to Africa or Asia (including Turkey). Only 10 of the 32 entrants, and four of the 16 qualified teams (Brazil, Argentina, United States and Egypt, the first African team to qualify for a World Cup finals tournament), were from outside Europe. The last place in the finals was contested between the United States and Mexico only three days before the start of the tournament in a one-off match in Rome, which the United States won.[10]

The majority of the 16 teams were making their first World Cup appearance. These included nine of the 12 European teams (Italy, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Austria, and Switzerland) together with Egypt. Egypt were the first team from Africa in the finals and would not qualify again until the next time the competition was held in Italy, in 1990.

Italy as hosts[edit]

Like the Berlin Olympics two years later, the 1934 World Cup was a high-profile instance of a sporting event being used for overt political gain. Benito Mussolini was keen to use the tournament as a means of promoting fascism.

1934 FIFA World Cup is located in Italy
Bologna
Bologna
Florence
Florence
Genoa
Genoa
Milan
Milan
Naples
Naples
Rome
Rome
Trieste
Trieste
Turin
Turin
A map showing the locations of the venues used at the 1934 FIFA World Cup
Bologna Florence Genoa Milan
Stadio Littoriale Stadio Giovanni Berta Stadio Luigi Ferraris Stadio San Siro
Capacity: 38,279 Capacity: 47,290 Capacity: 36,703 Capacity: 55,000
Prepartita bologna bari.jpg Soccer in Florence, Italy, 2007.jpg Vecchio Stadio Marassi 1.jpg San Siro wide.jpg
Naples Rome Trieste Turin
Stadio Giorgio Ascarelli Stadio Nazionale PNF Stadio Littorio Stadio Benito Mussolini
Capacity: 40,000 Capacity: 47,300 Capacity: 8,000 Capacity: 28,140
StadioPartenopeo.jpg Stadio Pnf.jpg StadiodelLittorio.jpg Stadio Olimpico Torino Italy.jpg

The number of supporters travelling from other countries was higher than at any previous football tournament, including 7,000 from the Netherlands and 10,000 each from Austria and Switzerland.[11]

Format[edit]

The group stage used in the first World Cup was discarded in favour of a straight knockout tournament. If a match was tied after ninety minutes, then thirty minutes of extra time were played. If the score was still tied after extra time, the match would be replayed the next day.

The eight seeded teams – Argentina, Brazil, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Hungary – were kept apart in the first round.

Summary[edit]

For a list of all squads that appeared in the final tournament, see 1934 FIFA World Cup squads.
Qualifying countries and their results

All eight first round matches kicked off at the same time.[12] Hosts and favourites Italy won handsomely, defeating the USA 7–1; The New York Times correspondent wrote that "only the fine goal-tending of Julius Hjulian of Chicago kept the score as low as it was".[13]

Internal disputes meant Argentina's squad for the tournament did not contain a single member of the team which had reached the final in 1930.[14] Against Sweden in Bologna, Argentina twice took the lead, but two goals by Sven Jonasson and a winner by Knut Kroon gave Sweden a 3–2 victory.[15] Fellow South Americans Brazil also suffered an early exit. Spain beat them comfortably; 3–1 the final score.[16]

For the only time in World Cup history, the last eight consisted entirely of European teams – Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. All four non-European teams who made the journey to Italy were eliminated after one match.

In the quarter-finals, the first replayed match in World Cup history took place, when Italy and Spain drew 1–1 after extra time. The match was played in a highly aggressive manner with several players of both sides injured: rough play injured the Spanish goalkeeper Ricardo Zamora in the first match, leaving him unable to participate in the replay, while on the other side even rougher play by Spaniards broke the leg of the Italian Mario Pizziolo who would not play in the national team again.[17] Italy won the replay 1–0, their play so physical that at least three Spaniards had to depart the field with injuries.[18] Italy then went on to beat Austria in the semi-finals by the same score. Meanwhile, Czechoslovakia secured their place in the final by beating Germany 3–1.

The Stadium of the National Fascist Party was the venue for the final. With 80 minutes played, the Czechoslovaks led 1–0. The Italians managed to score before the final whistle, and then added another goal in extra time to be crowned World Cup winners.

Italy's total of three goals conceded in five matches was a record low for a team winning the World Cup. It was matched by England in 1966 (who played six matches) and Brazil in 1994 (who played seven), but was not surpassed until 1998 when France won the World Cup conceding only two goals over seven games, a record later matched by Italy in 2006 and Spain in 2010.[citation needed]

Squads[edit]

For a list of all squads that appeared in the final tournament, see 1934 FIFA World Cup squads.

Results[edit]

First round Quarter Finals Semi Finals Final
                           
27 May – Rome            
  Italy  7
31 May – Florence
(replayed 1 June)
  United States  1  
  Italy  1 (1)
27 May – Genoa
    Spain  1 (0)  
  Spain  3
3 June – Milan
  Brazil  1  
  Italy  1
27 May – Turin
    Austria  0  
  Austria (aet)  3
31 May – Bologna
  France  2  
  Austria  2
27 May – Naples
    Hungary  1  
  Hungary  4
10 June – Rome
  Egypt  2  
  Italy (aet)  2
27 May – Trieste
    Czechoslovakia  1
  Czechoslovakia  2
31 May – Turin
  Romania  1  
  Czechoslovakia  3
27 May – Milan
    Switzerland  2  
  Switzerland  3
3 June – Rome
  Netherlands  2  
  Czechoslovakia  3
27 May – Florence
    Germany  1   Third Place
  Germany  5
31 May – Milan 7 June – Naples
  Belgium  2  
  Germany  2   Germany  3
27 May – Bologna
    Sweden  1     Austria  2
  Sweden  3
  Argentina  2  

First round[edit]

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Spain  3–1  Brazil
Iraragorri Goal 18' (pen.)25'[19]
Lángara Goal 29'
Report Leônidas Goal 55'
Stadio Luigi Ferraris, Genoa
Attendance: 21,000
Referee: Alfred Birlem (Germany)

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Hungary  4–2  Egypt
Teleki Goal 11'
Toldi Goal 27'61'
Vincze Goal 53'
Report Fawzi Goal 31'39'

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Switzerland  3–2  Netherlands
Kielholz Goal 7'43'[20]
Abegglen Goal 69'
Report Smit Goal 19'
Vente Goal 84'
Stadio San Siro, Milan
Attendance: 33,000
Referee: Ivan Eklind (Sweden)

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Italy  7–1  United States
Schiavio Goal 18'29'64'
Orsi Goal 20'69'
Ferrari Goal 63'
Meazza Goal 90'[21]
Report Donelli Goal 57'
Stadio Nazionale PNF, Rome
Attendance: 25,000
Referee: Rene Mercet (Switzerland)

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Czechoslovakia  2–1  Romania
Puč Goal 50'
Nejedlý Goal 67'
Report Dobay Goal 11'
Stadio Littorio, Trieste
Attendance: 9,000
Referee: John Langenus (Belgium)

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Sweden  3–2  Argentina
Jonasson Goal 9'67'
Kroon Goal 79'
Report Belis Goal 4'
Galateo Goal 48'[22]
Stadio Littoriale, Bologna
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Eugen Braun (Austria)

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Austria  3–2 (a.e.t.)  France
Sindelar Goal 44'
Schall Goal 93'
Bican Goal 109'
Report Nicolas Goal 18'
Verriest Goal 116' (pen.)[23]

27 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Germany  5–2  Belgium
Kobierski Goal 25'
Siffling Goal 49'
Conen Goal 66'70'87'
Report Voorhoof Goal 29'43'

Quarter-finals[edit]

31 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Austria  2–1  Hungary
Horvath Goal 8'
Zischek Goal 51'
Report Sárosi Goal 60' (pen.)
Stadio Littoriale, Bologna
Attendance: 23,000
Referee: Francesco Mattea (Italy)

31 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Italy  1–1 (a.e.t.)  Spain
Ferrari Goal 44' Report Regueiro Goal 30'
Stadio Giovanni Berta, Florence
Attendance: 35,000
Referee: Louis Baert (Belgium)

31 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Germany  2–1  Sweden
Hohmann Goal 60'63' Report Dunker Goal 82'
Stadio San Siro, Milan
Attendance: 3,000
Referee: Rinaldo Barlassina (Italy)

31 May 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Czechoslovakia  3–2  Switzerland
Svoboda Goal 24'
Sobotka Goal 49'
Nejedlý Goal 82'
Report Kielholz Goal 18'
Jäggi Goal 78'
Stadio Benito Mussolini, Turin
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Alois Beranek (Austria)
Replay
1 June 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Italy  1–0  Spain
Meazza Goal 11' Report
Stadio Giovanni Berta, Florence
Attendance: 43,000
Referee: Rene Mercet (Switzerland)

Semi-finals[edit]

3 June 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Italy  1–0  Austria
Guaita Goal 19' Report
Stadio San Siro, Milan
Attendance: 35,000
Referee: Ivan Eklind (Sweden)

3 June 1934
16:30 (CEST)
Czechoslovakia  3–1  Germany
Nejedlý Goal 19'71'80'[24][25][26] Report Noack Goal 62'[27]
Stadio Nazionale PNF, Rome
Attendance: 15,000
Referee: Rinaldo Barlassina (Italy)

Third-place match[edit]

7 June 1934
18:00 (CEST)
Germany  3–2  Austria
Lehner Goal 1'42'[28]
Conen Goal 27'[20]
Report Horvath Goal 28'[29]
Sesta Goal 54'[30]
Stadio Giorgio Ascarelli, Naples
Attendance: 7,000
Referee: Albino Carraro (Italy)

Final[edit]

10 June 1934
17:30 (CEST)
Italy  2–1 (a.e.t.)  Czechoslovakia
Orsi Goal 81'
Schiavio Goal 95'
Report Puč Goal 71'[31]
Stadio Nazionale PNF, Rome
Attendance: 55,000
Referee: Ivan Eklind (Sweden)

Goalscorers[edit]

With five goals, Oldřich Nejedlý is the top scorer in the tournament. In total, 70 goals were scored by 45 different players, with none of them credited as own goal.

2 goals
1 goal

FIFA retrospective ranking[edit]

In 1986, FIFA published a report that ranked all teams in each World Cup up to and including 1986, based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.[32][33] The rankings for the 1934 tournament were as follows:

R Team P W D L GF GA GD Pts.
1  Italy 4 3 1 0 11 3 +8 7
2  Czechoslovakia 4 3 0 1 9 6 +3 6
3  Germany 4 3 0 1 11 8 +3 6
4  Austria 4 2 0 2 7 7 0 4
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
5  Spain 2 1 1 0 4 2 +2 3
6  Hungary 2 1 0 1 5 4 +1 2
7  Switzerland 2 1 0 1 5 5 0 2
8  Sweden 2 1 0 1 4 4 0 2
Eliminated in the round of 16
9  Argentina 1 0 0 1 2 3 −1 0
 France 1 0 0 1 2 3 −1 0
 Netherlands 1 0 0 1 2 3 −1 0
12  Romania 1 0 0 1 1 2 −1 0
13  Egypt 1 0 0 1 2 4 −2 0
14  Brazil 1 0 0 1 1 3 −2 0
15  Belgium 1 0 0 1 2 5 −3 0
16  United States 1 0 0 1 1 7 −6 0

Federale 102[edit]

The Federale 102, which was manufactured in Italy, was the match ball provided for the 1934 World Cup.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ FIFA book of statutes, Roma 1934, prtd. Gebr. Fey & Kratz, Zürich, FIFA internal libray no. C br. 18, 1955
  2. ^ Freddi, Complete Book of the World Cup 2006, p. 15
  3. ^ a b c d Hunt, World Cup Stories, p. 23
  4. ^ "History of FIFA – The first FIFA World Cup". FIFA. Retrieved 2014-06-14. 
  5. ^ Goldblatt, The Ball is Round, p. 255
  6. ^ Crouch, The World Cup: The Complete History, p. 16
  7. ^ Glanville, The Story of the World Cup, p. 25
  8. ^ Taylor, The Leaguers, p. 217.
  9. ^ Crouch, The World Cup: The Complete History, p. 14
  10. ^ "World Cup 1934". ESPN. Retrieved 2014-06-14. 
  11. ^ Murray & Murray, The World's Game, p69
  12. ^ Hunt, World Cup Stories. p. 26.
  13. ^ Wangerin, Soccer in a Football World, p. 98
  14. ^ Glanville, The Story of the World Cup, p. 26.
  15. ^ Freddi, Complete Book of the World Cup 2006, p. 20
  16. ^ Hunt, World Cup Stories. p. 27.
  17. ^ Baker, Sports in the Western World, p248
  18. ^ Wilson, Inverting the Pyramid, p71
  19. ^ RSSSF credits the goal in the 25th minute to Isidro Lángara.
  20. ^ a b RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 29th minute.
  21. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 89th minute.
  22. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 46th minute.
  23. ^ RSSSF credits this penalty as occurring in the 118th minute.
  24. ^ RSSSF credits the 19th minute goal as occurring in the 21st minute.
  25. ^ FIFA initially credits the 71st minute goal to Rudolf Krčil, but changed it to Nejedlý in 2006.[1] RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 69th minute. Archived January 2, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ RSSSF credits the 80th minute goal as occurring in the 81st minute.
  27. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 59th minute.
  28. ^ RSSSF credits the 1st minute goal as occurring in the 4th minute
  29. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 30th minute.
  30. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 55th minute.
  31. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as occurring in the 71st minute.
  32. ^ page 45
  33. ^ "FIFA World Cup: Milestones, facts & figures. Statistical Kit 7". FIFA. 26 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Baker, William Joseph (1988). Sports in the Western World. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06042-7. 
  • Crouch, Terry (2002). The World Cup: The Complete History. London: Aurum. ISBN 978-1-85410-843-2. 
  • Freddi, Cris (2006). Complete Book of the World Cup 2006. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-722916-X. 
  • Glanville, Brian (2005). The Story of the World Cup. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22944-4. 
  • Goldblatt, David (2007). The Ball is Round: A Global History of Football. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-101582-8. 
  • Hunt, Chris (2006). World Cup Stories: The history of the FIFA World Cup. Ware: Interact. ISBN 978-0-9549819-2-1. 
  • Murray, Bill; Murray, William J. (1998). The World's Game: A History of Soccer. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06718-1. 
  • Taylor, Matthew (2005). The leaguers: the making of professional football in England, 1900–1939. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-0-85323-639-9. 
  • Wangerin, Dave (2006). Soccer in a Football World. London: WSC Books. ISBN 978-0-9540134-7-9. 
  • Wilson, Jonathan (2008). Inverting the Pyramid: The History of Football Tactics. London: Orion. ISBN 978-1-4091-0204-5. 

External links[edit]