A. K. Ramanujan
Attipate Krishnaswami Ramanujan (16 March 1929 – 13 July 1993) also known as A. K. Ramanujan was an Indian poet and scholar of Indian literature who wrote in both English and Kannada language. Ramanujan was a poet, scholar, a philologist, folklorist, translator, and playwright. His academic research ranged across five languages: English Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Sanskrit. He published works on both classical and modern variants of these literature and argued strongly for giving local, non-standard dialects their due. Though he wrote widely and in a number of genres, Ramanujan's poems are remembered as enigmatic works of startling originality, sophistication and moving artistry. He has been awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award posthumously in 1999 for his collection of poems, "The Collected Poems".
Ramanujan was born in Mysore City on 16 March 1929. His father, Attipat Asuri Krishnaswami, an astronomer and professor of mathematics at Mysore University was known for his interest in English, Kannada and Sanskrit languages. His mother was a home maker. Ramanujan also has a brother, A.K. Srinivasan who is a writer and a mathematician.
Ramanujan was educated at Marimallappa's High School, Mysore, and at the Maharaja College of Mysore. In college, Ramanujan majored in science in his freshman year, but his father, who thought him 'not mathematically minded', persuaded him to change his major from science to English. Later, Ramanujan became a Fellow of Deccan College, Pune in 1958 – 59 and a Fulbright Scholar at Indiana University in 1959 – 62. He was educated in English at the University of Mysore and received his PhD in Linguistics from Indiana University. 
Ramanujan worked as a lecturer of English at Quilon and Belgaum, he later taught at The Maharaja Sayajirao University in Baroda for about eight years. In 1962, he joined the University of Chicago as an assistant professor. He was affiliated with the university throughout his career, teaching in several departments. He taught at other US universities as well, including Harvard University, University of Wisconsin, University of Michigan, University of California at Berkeley, and Carleton College. At the University of Chicago, Ramanujan was instrumental in shaping the South Asian Studies program. He worked in the departments of South Asian Languages and Civilizations, Linguistics, and with the Committee on Social Thought.
In 1976, the Government of India awarded him the Padma Shri, and in 1983, he was given the MacArthur Prize Fellowship (Shulman, 1994). In 1983, he was appointed the William E. Colvin Professor in the Departments of South Asian Languages and Civilizations, of Linguistics, and in the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago, and, the same year, he received a MacArthur Fellowship. As an Indo-American writer Ramanujan had the experience of the native as well as of the foreign milieu. His poems such as the "Conventions of Despair" reflected his views on the cultures and conventions of the east and the west.
A. K. Ramanujan died in Chicago, on 13 July 1993 as result of adverse reaction to anaesthesia during preparation for surgery.
Contributions to Indian Sub-Continent Studies
A. K. Ramanujan's theoretical and aesthetic contributions span several disciplinary areas. In his cultural essays such as "Is There an Indian Way of Thinking?" (1990) he explains cultural ideologies and behavioral manifestations thereof in terms of an Indian psychology he calls "context-sensitive" thinking. In his work in folklore studies, Ramanujan highlights the inter-textuality of the Indian oral and written literary tradition. His essay "Where Mirrors Are Windows: Toward an Anthology of Reflections" (1989), and his commentaries in The Interior Landscape: Love Poems from a Classical Tamil Anthology (1967) and Folktales from India, Oral Tales from Twenty Indian Languages (1991) are good examples of his work in Indian folklore studies.
Controversy regarding his essay
His 1991 essay "Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translations" courted controversy over its inclusion in B.A. in History syllabus of University of Delhi in 2006. In this essay, he wrote of the existence of many versions of Ramayana and a few versions that portrayed Rama and Sita as siblings, which contradicts the popular versions of the Ramayana, such as those by Valmiki and Tulsidas
ABVP, a student wing of the BJP opposed its inclusion in the syllabus, saying it hurt the majority Hindu sentiment, who viewed Rama and Sita as incarnation of gods and who were husband and wife. They demanded the essay be removed from the syllabus. In 2008, the Delhi High Court directed Delhi University to convene a committee to decide on the essay's inclusion. A four-member committee subsequently gave its 3-1 verdict in favor of its inclusion in the syllabus.
The academic council however, ignored the committee's recommendation and voted to scrap the essay from its syllabus in Oct 2011. This led to protests by many historians and intellectuals, accusing Delhi University of succumbing to the diktat ("views") of non-historians.
His works include translations from Old Tamil and Old Kannada, such as:
- Translations and studies of literature
- The Interior Landscape: Love Poems from a Classical Tamil Anthology, 1967
- Speaking of Siva, Penguin. 1973. ISBN 9780140442700.
- The Literatures of India. Edited with Edwin Gerow. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974
- Hymns for the Drowning, 1981
- Poems of Love and War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985
- Folktales from India, Oral Tales from Twenty Indian Languages, 1991
- Is There an Indian Way of Thinking? in India Through Hindu Categories, edited by McKim Marriot, 1990
- When God Is a Customer: Telugu Courtesan Songs by Ksetrayya and Others (with Velcheru Narayana Rao and David Shulman), 1994
- A Flowering Tree and Other Oral Tales from India, 1997
- Poetry, fiction and drama
- The Striders. London: Oxford University Press, 1966
- Relations. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1971
- Selected Poems. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1976
- Samskara. (translation of U R Ananthamurthy's Kannada novel) Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1976
- Second Sight. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986
- Hokkulalli Huvilla (translated to English - "No Flower in the Navel"). Dharwad, 1969
- Mattu Itara Padyagalu (translated to English - "And Other Poems"). Dharwad, 1977
- Kuntobille (translated to English - "Hopscotch")
- Mattobbana Atma Charitre (translated to English - "Yet Another Man's Autobiography")
- "Obituary: A. K. Ramanujan". The Independent. 31 July 1993.
- Attipat Krishnaswami Ramanujan, Biography and works Emory University.
- "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2009)". Ministry of Home Affairs.
- Parashar, Arpit and Vishwajoy Mukherjee (24 October 2011). "Which version of 'Ramayana' would Ram read?". Tehelka (New Delhi). Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "DU to scrap Ramanujan essay on Ramayana that incensed right wingers". First Post (New Delhi). 10 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Academics Upset by Oxford's Stopping Essay on Indian Epic". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- Attipati Krishnasami Ramanujan (addhe), Candy Wagoner
The Guideby R. K. Narayan(1960)The Serpent and the Ropeby Raja Rao(1964)The Tribal World of Verrier Elwinby Verrier Elwin(1965)Shadow From Ladakhby Bhabani Bhattacharya(1967)An Artist In Lifeby Niharranjan Ray(1969)Morning Faceby Mulk Raj Anand(1971)Scholar Extraordinaryby Nirad C. Chaudhuri(1975) 1960–1975 1976–2000
- Jawaharlal Nehru by Sarvepalli Gopal (1976)
- Azadi by Chaman Nahal (1977)
- Fire on the Mountain by Anita Desai (1978)
- Inside the Haveli by Rama Mehta (1979)
- On the Mother by K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar (1980)
- Relationship by Jayanta Mahapatra (1981)
- The Last Labyrinth by Arun Joshi (1982)
- Latter-Day Psalms by Nissim Ezekiel (1983)
- The Keeper of the Dead by Keki N. Daruwalla (1984)
- Collected Poems by Kamala Das (1985)
- Rich Like Us by Nayantara Sahgal (1986)
- Trapfalls In the Sky by Shiv K. Kumar (1987)
- The Golden Gate by Vikram Seth (1988)
- The Shadow Lines by Amitav Ghosh (1989)
- That Long Silence by Shashi Deshpande (1990)
- The Trotter-Nama by Allan Sealy (1991)
- Our Trees Still Grow In Dehra by Ruskin Bond (1992)
- After Amnesia by G. N. Devy (1993)
- Serendip by Dom Moraes (1994)
- Memories of Rain by Sunetra Gupta (1996)
- Final Solutions and Other Plays by Mahesh Dattani (1998)
- The Collected Poems by A. K. Ramanujan (1999)
- Cuckold by Kiran Nagarkar (2000)
- Rajaji: A Life by Rajmohan Gandhi (2001)
- A New World by Amit Chaudhuri (2002)
- The Perishable Empire by Meenakshi Mukherjee (2003)
- The Mammaries of the Welfare State by Upamanyu Chatterjee (2004)
- The Sari Shop by Rupa Bajwa (2006)
- Disorderly Women by Malathi Rao (2007)
- Mahabharata: An Inquiry into the Human Condition by Chaturvedi Badrinath (2009)
- The Book of Rachel by Esther David (2010)
- India after Gandhi by Ramachandra Guha (2011)
- These Errors are Correct by Jeet Thayil (2012)
- Laburnum For My Head by Temsula Ao (2013)