|Native to||India – Karnataka, Kasaragod, Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Tamil Nadu and significant minority communities outside India in USA, Canada, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, UK, Germany, Mauritius, United Arab Emirates, Thailand.|
|Native speakers||38 million (2007)
11 million as a second language
|Writing system||Kannada alphabet (Brahmic)
|Official language in||Karnataka|
|Regulated by||Various academies and the Government of Karnataka|
Distribution of native Kannada speakers in India
Kannada // or //, (ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa, IPA: [ˈkʌnːəɖɑː]) or Kanarese //, is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas (Kannaḍigaru) and number roughly 38 million, is one of the 40 most spoken languages in the world. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.
The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the Ministry of Culture, the Government of India officially recognised Kannada as a classical language. In July 2011, a centre for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language.
- 1 History
- 2 Influence of Sanskrit and Prakrit
- 3 Early epigraphy
- 4 Literature
- 5 Dialects
- 6 Status
- 7 Writing system
- 8 Grammar
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language and according to Dravidian scholar Sanford Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods; Old Kannada (halegannada) from 450–1200 A.D., Middle Kannada (Nadugannada) from 1200–1700 A.D., and Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can also be found in Kannada language. The scholar Iravatham Mahadevan proved that Kannada was already a language of rich oral tradition earlier than 3rd century B.C., and based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit and Tamil inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population. The scholar K.V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language with lesser influence from other languages.
Influence of Sanskrit and Prakrit
The sources of influence on Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold; Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar, particularly Katantra and Sakatayana schools, and Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seemed to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times. The vernacular Prakrit speaking people, may have come in contact with the Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language, even before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purpose. Kannada phonetics, morphology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax show significant Sanskrit and Prakrit influence.
Some examples of naturalised (tadbhava) words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, arasu (king), and from Sanskrit, varṇa (color), hunnime (new moon) from puṇṇivā, paurṇimā (full moon), and rāya from rāja (king). Kannada has numerous borrowed (tatsama) words such as dina, kopa, surya, mukha, nimiṣa, anna.
Pre-old Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada.
A possibly more definite reference to Kannada is found in the 'Charition mime' of the 1st or 2nd century CE. The farce, written by an unknown author was discovered in early 20th century at Oxyrynchus in Egypt. The play is concerned with a Greek lady named Charition who has been stranded on the coast of a country bordering the Indian Ocean. The king of this region, and his countrymen, sometimes use their own language, and the sentences they spoke include Koncha madhu patrakke haki (lit having poured a little wine into the cup separately) and paanam beretti katti madhuvam ber ettuvenu (lit having taken up the cup separately and having covered it, I shall take wine separately). The language employed in the papyrus indicates that the play is set in one of the numerous small ports on the western coast of India, between Karwar and Mangalore.
The written tradition of Kannada begins in the early centuries of common era. The earliest examples of a full-length Kannada language stone inscription (shilashaasana) containing Brahmi characters with characteristics attributed to those of proto-Kannada in Hale Kannada (lit Old Kannada) script can be found in the Halmidi inscription, usually dated c. 450 C.E., indicating that Kannada had become an administrative language at that time. The Halmidi inscription provides invaluable information about the history and culture of Karnataka. The 5th century Tamatekallu inscription of Chitradurga and the Chikkamagaluru inscription of 500 AD are further examples. Recent reports indicate that the Old Kananda Nishadi Inscription discovered on the Chandragiri hill, Shravanabelagola, is older than Halmidi inscription by about fifty to hundred years and may belong to the period 350–400 CE. The noted archaeologist and art historian S. Settar is of the opinion that an inscription of the Western Ganga King Kongunivarma (c.350 – 370) is also older than the Halmidi inscrption.
Over 30,000 inscriptions written in the Kannada language have been discovered so far. Prior to the Halmidi inscription, there is an abundance of inscriptions containing Kannada words, phrases and sentences, proving its antiquity. The 543 AD Badami cliff inscription of Pulakesi I is an example of a Sanskrit inscription in old Kannada script.
The earliest copper plates inscribed in Old Kannada script and language, dated to early 8th century AD belongs to the Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu, Dakshina Kannada district, and displays the double crested fish, his royal emblem. The oldest well-preserved palm leaf manuscript in Old Kannada is that of Dhavala. It dated to around the 9th century, preserved in the Jain Bhandar, Mudbidri, Dakshina Kannada district. The manuscript contains 1478 leaves written using ink.
Some early Kadamba Dynasty coins bearing the Kannada inscription Vira and Skandha were found in Satara collectorate. A gold coin bearing three inscriptions of Sri and an abbreviated inscription of king Bhagiratha's name called bhagi (c. 390–420 C.E.) in old Kannada exists. A Kadamba copper coin dated to the 5th century C.E with the inscription Srimanaragi in Kannada script was discovered in Banavasi, Uttara Kannada district. Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered spanning the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Badami Chalukyas, the Alupas, the Western Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the Keladi Nayakas and the Mysore Kingdom, the Badami Chalukya coins being a recent discovery. The coins of the Kadambas of Goa are unique in that they have alternate inscription of the king's name in Kannada and Devanagari in triplicate, a few coins of the Kadambas of Hangal are also available.
The oldest existing record of Kannada poetry in tripadi metre is the Kappe Arabhatta record of 700 CE. Kavirajamarga by King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I (850 CE) is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardise various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the 6th century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of 636 CE. Since the earliest available Kannada work is one on grammar and a guide of sorts to unify existing variants of Kannada grammar and literary styles, it can be safely assumed that literature in Kannada must have started several centuries earlier. An early extant prose work, the Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya of 900 AD provides an elaborate description of the life of Bhadrabahu of Shravanabelagola.
Kannada works from earlier centuries mentioned in the Kavirajamarga are not yet traced. Some ancient texts now considered extinct but referenced in later centuries are Prabhrita (650 CE) by Syamakundacharya, Chudamani (Crest Jewel—650 CE) by Srivaradhadeva, also known as Tumbuluracharya, which is a work of 96,000 verse-measures and a commentary on logic (Tatwartha-mahashastra). Other sources date Chudamani to the 6th century or earlier. The Karnateshwara Katha, a eulogy for King Pulakesi II, is said to have belonged to the 7th century; the Gajastaka, a work on elephant management by King Shivamara II, belonged to the 8th century, and the Chandraprabha-purana by Sri Vijaya, a court poet of King Amoghavarsha I, is ascribed to the early 9th century. Tamil Buddhist commentators of the 10th century CE (in the commentary on Nemrinatham, a Tamil grammatical work) make references that show that Kannada literature must have flourished as early as the 4th century CE.
The late classical period gave birth to several genres of Kannada literature, with new forms of composition coming into use, including Ragale (a form of blank verse) and meters like Sangatya and Shatpadi. The works of this period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. Two of the early writers of this period are Harihara and Raghavanka, trailblazers in their own right. Harihara established the Ragale form of composition while Raghavanka popularised the Shatpadi (six-lined stanza) meter. A famous Jaina writer of the same period is Janna, who expressed Jain religious teachings through his works.
The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the 12th century is purely native and unique in world literature, and the sum of contributions by all sections of society. Vachanas were pithy poems on that period's social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Some of the important writers of Vachana literature include Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi.
During the period between the 15th and 18th centuries, Hinduism had a great influence on Middle Kannada (Nadugannada) language and literature. Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari, was arguably the most influential Kannada writer of this period. His work, entirely composed in the native Bhamini Shatpadi (hexa-meter), is a sublime adaptation of the first ten books of the Mahabharata. During this period, the Sanskritic influence is present in most abstract, religious, scientific and rhetorical terms. During this period, several Hindi and Marathi words came into Kannada, chiefly relating to feudalism and militia.
Hindu saints of the Vaishnava sect such as Kanakadasa, Purandaradasa, Naraharitirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vadirajatirtha, Vijaya Dasa, Jagannatha Dasa, Prasanna Venkatadasa produced devotional poems in this period. Kanakadasa's Ramadhanya Charite is a rare work, concerning with the issue of class struggle. This period saw the advent of Haridasa Sahitya (lit Dasa literature) which made rich contributions to bhakti literature and sowed the seeds of Carnatic music. Purandara Dasa is widely considered the Father of Carnatic music.
The Kannada works produced from the 19th century make a gradual transition and are classified as Hosagannada or Modern Kannada. Most notable among the modernists was the poet Nandalike Muddana whose writing may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada", though generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada. The first modern movable type printing of "Canarese" appears to be the Canarese Grammar of Carey printed at Serampore in 1817, and the "Bible in Canarese" of John Hands in 1820. The first novel printed was John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, along with other texts including Canarese Proverbs, The History of Little Henry and his Bearer by Mary Martha Sherwood, Christian Gottlob Barth's Bible Stories and "a Canarese hymn book."
Modern Kannada in the 20th century has been influenced by many movements, notably Navodaya, Navya, Navyottara, Dalita and Bandaya. Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Further, Kannada has produced a number of prolific and renowned poets and writers such as Kuvempu, Bendre, and V K Gokak. Works of Kannada literature have received eight Jnanpith awards, the highest number awarded to any Indian language.
There is also a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of the language. Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less consistent throughout Karnataka. The Ethnologue reports "about 20 dialects" of Kannada. Among them are Kundagannada (spoken exclusively in Kundapura), Nadavar-Kannada (spoken by Nadavaru), Havigannada (spoken mainly by Havyaka Brahmins), Are Bhashe (spoken by Gowda community mainly in the Sullia region of Dakshina Kannada), Malenadu Kannada (Sakaleshpur, Coorg, Shimoga, Chikmagalur), Soliga, Gulbarga Kannada, Dharawad Kannada etc. All of these dialects are influenced by their regional and cultural background.
The Director of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Udaya Narayana Singh, submitted a report in 2006 to the Indian government arguing for Kannada to be made a classical language of India. In 2008 the Indian government announced that Kannada was to be designated as one of the classical languages of India.
The language uses forty-nine phonemic letters, divided into three groups: swaragalu (vowels – thirteen letters); vyanjanagalu (consonants – thirty-four letters); and yogavaahakagalu (neither vowel nor consonant – two letters: anusvara ಂ and visarga ಃ). The character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. The script itself, derived from Brahmi script, is fairly complicated like most other languages of India owing to the occurrence of various combinations of "half-letters" (glyphs), or symbols that attach to various letters in a manner similar to diacritical marks in the Romance languages. The Kannada script is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" (which becomes a half m). The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters (ottakshara). Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable, as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English. The Kannada script is syllabic.
Obsolete Kannada letters
Kannada literary works employed the letters ಱ (transliterated 'ṟ' or 'rh') and ೞ (transliterated 'ḻ', 'lh' or 'zh'), whose manner of articulation most plausibly could be akin to those in present-day Malayalam and Tamil. The letters dropped out of use in the 12th and 18th centuries, respectively. Later Kannada works replaced 'rh' and 'lh' with ರ (ra) and ಳ (la) respectively.
Another letter (or unclassified vyanjana (consonant)) that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. Likewise, this has its equivalent in Telugu, where it is called Nakaara pollu. The usage of this consonant was observed until the 1980s in Kannada works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka (especially the Dakshina Kannada district). Now hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. This letter has been replaced by ನ್ (consonant n)..
Kannada script evolution
The image below shows the evolution of Kannada script from prehistoric times to the modern period. The Kannada script evolved in stages:
Proto-Kannada → Pre–Old Kannada → Old Kannada → Modern Kannada.
The Proto-Kannada script has its root in ancient Brahmi and appeared around the 3rd century BCE. The Pre-Old-Kannada script appeared around the 4th century CE. Old-Kannada script can be traced to around the 10th century CE, whereas Modern-Kannada script appeared around the 17th century CE.
A German priest, the Reverend Ferdinand Kittel, composed the first Kannada–English dictionary, consisting of more than 70,000 words. Ferdinand Kittel also wrote a book on Kannada grammar called "A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language".
G. Venkatasubbaiah edited the first modern Kannada-Kannada dictionary, a 9,000-page, 8-volume series published by the Kannada Sahitya Parishat. He also wrote a Kannada-English dictionary and a kliṣtapadakōśa, a dictionary of difficult words.
Kannada script in computing
Several transliteration schemes/tools are used to type Kannada characters using a standard keyboard. These include Baraha (based on ITRANS), Pada Software and several internet tools like Google transliteration, Quillpad (predictive transliterator). Nudi, the Government of Karnataka's standard for Kannada Input, is a phonetic layout loosely based on transliteration.
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
The canonical word order of Kannada is SOV (subject–object–verb) as is the case with Dravidian languages. Kannada is a highly inflected language with three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter or common) and two numbers (singular and plural). It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things. The first authoritative known book on Kannada grammar is Shabdhamanidarpana by Keshiraaja. The first available Kannada book is a treatise on poetry: Kavirajamarga.
The most influential account of Kannada grammar is Keshiraja's Shabdamanidarpana (c. 1260 CE). The earlier grammatical works include portions of Kavirajamarga (a treatise on alańkāra) of the 9th century, and Kavyavalokana and Karnatakabhashabhushana (both authored by Nagavarma II in the first half of the 12th century).
Compound bases, called samāsa in Kannada, are a set of two or more words compounded together. There are several types of compound bases, based on the rules followed for compounding.[clarification needed] Examples: tangaaLi, hemmara, immadi.
According to Keshiraja's Shabdamanidarpana, there are nine[clarification needed] gender forms in Kannada. However, in modern Kannada literature only three gender forms are used in practice: masculine, feminine, and neutral.
- Masculine Pullinga
Words that denote male persons are considered to have masculine gender.
- Feminine Streelinga
Words that denote female persons are considered to have feminine gender.
- Neutral Napumsaka
Nouns that do not belong to either of the above two classes are considered to have neutral gender.
- Kannada dialects
- Kannada flag
- Bangalore Kannada
- Cinema of Karnataka
- Gokak agitation
- Kannada American
- Karnataka History Timeline
- Karnataka literature
- List of Indian languages by total speakers
- Hermann Mögling
- Siribhoovalaya – a unique literary work
- D. V. Gundappa
- D. R. Bendre
- Rajkumar (actor)
- Garg, Ganga Ram (1992) . "Kannada literature". Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: A-Aj, Volume 1. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-7022-374-1.
- Kuiper, Kathleen, ed. (2011). "Dravidian Studies: Kannada". Understanding India-The Culture of India. New York: Britannica educational Printing. ISBN 978-1-61530-203-1.
- Steever, S. B. (1998). "Kannada". In Steever, S. B. (ed.). The Dravidian Languages (Routledge Language Family Descriptions). London: Routledge. Pp. 436. pp. 129–157. ISBN 0-415-10023-2.
- Kloss and McConnell, Heinz and Grant D. (1978). The Written languages of the world: a survey of the degree and modes of use-vol 2 part1. Université Laval. ISBN 2-7637-7186-6.
- Narasimhacharya, R (1988) . History of Kannada Literature. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.
- Rice, E.P. (1982) . Kannada Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0.
- Rice, B.L. (2001) . Mysore Gazatteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8.
- Kamath, Suryanath U. (2002) . A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 8095179. OCLC 7796041.
- Various (1988) . Encyclopaedia of Indian literature-vol 2. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1194-7.
- Sastri, Nilakanta K.A. (2002) . A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
- Ramesh, K.V. (1984) . Chalukyas of Vatapi. New Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan. ISBN 3987-10333 Check
- Kittel, F (1993) . A Grammar of the Kannada Language Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language (Ancient, Medieval and Modern). New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0056-8.
- Bhat, Thirumaleshwara (1993) . Govinda Pai. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-7201-540-2.
- Zvelebil, Kamil (1973) . Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. Leiden, Netherlands: BRILL. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.
- Shapiro and Schiffman, Michael C., Harold F. (1981) . Language And Society In South Asia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-2607-8.
- Singara – Kannada Sangha (Singapore)[dead link]
- "Mallige Kannada Balaga: Spreading Fragrance of Karnataka in Mauritius". Daijiworld.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- "Dubai: Kannada Koota UAE to Hold 'Sangeetha Saurabha'". Daijiworld.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- "Thai Kannada Balaga". "Thai Kannada Balaga". Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
- TNN (14 March 2010). "Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language". Times of India. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Zvelebil (fig.36)and Krishnamurthy (fig.37) in Shapiro and Schiffman (1981), pp.95-96
- The Karnataka official language act, 1963 – Karnataka Gazette (Extraordinary) Part IV-2A. Government of Karnataka. 1963. p. 33.
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary Kannada
- "Kannada". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- "Kanarese". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- "Census 2001: Talen per staat". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- "The Karnataka Official Language Act" (PDF). Official website of Department of Parliamentary Affairs and Legislation. Government of Karnataka. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
- "Gangas of Talakad". Official website of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, India. Classicalkannada.org. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
- "Rastrakutas". Official website of the Central Institute of Indian Languages. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
- Zvelebil (1973), p.7 (Introductory, chart)
- Garg (1992), p.67
- "Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Culture, Government of India. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Kuiper (2011), p.74
- "Telugu, Kannada get classical tag". The Times of India. 1 November 2008.
- "IBNLive – CIIL to head Centre for classical Kannada study". Ibnlive.in.com. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Steever, S.B. (1998), p. 129
- "Classical Kannada, Antiquity of Kannada". Centre for classical Kannada. Central Institute for Indian Languages. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
- Iravatham Mahadevan. "Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century AD". Harvard University Press. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
- Mythic Society (Bangalore, India) (1985). The quarterly journal of the Mythic society (Bangalore)., Volume 76. Mythic Society (Bangalore, India). pp. Pages_197–210.
- B. K. Khadabadi, Prākr̥ta Bhāratī Akādamī (1997). Studies in Jainology, Prakrit literature, and languages: a collection of select 51 papers Volume 116 of Prakrit Bharti pushpa. Prakrit Bharati Academy,. pp. 444 pages.
- Jha, Ganganatha (1976). Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Volume 32. Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha,. pp. see page 319.
- Kulli, Jayavant S (1991). History of grammatical theories in Kannada. Internationial School of Dravidian Linguistics,. pp. 330 pages.
- Kamath (2001), p. 5–6
- (Wilks in Rice, B.L. (1897), p490)
- Pai and Narasimhachar in Bhat (1993), p103
- The word Isila found in the Ashokan inscription (called the Brahmagiri edict from Karnataka) meaning to shoot an arrow is a Kannada word, indicating that Kannada was a spoken language in the third century BC (Dr. D.L. Narasimhachar in Kamath 2001 , p5)
- Suryanatha Kamath – Karnataka State Gazetteer – South Kanara (1973), Printed by the Director of Print, Stationery and Publications at the Govt. Press
- Manohar Laxman Varadpande – History of Indian theatre, Volume 3 (1987), Abhinav Publications, New Delhi.
- D. R. Bhandarkar – Lectures on the Ancient History of India on the Period From 650 To 320 B.C (1919), University of Calcutta.
- Ramesh (1984), p10
- Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2, Sahitya Akademi (1988), p1717, p 1474
- A report on Halmidi inscription, Muralidhara Khajane (3 November 2003). "Halmidi village finally on the road to recognition". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- Kamath (2001), p10
- Narasimhacharya (1988), p6
- Rice (1921), p13
- Govinda Pai in Bhat (1993), p102
- "Mysore scholar deciphers Chandragiri inscription". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 20 September 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- "HALMIDI INSCRIPTION". Centre for classical Kannada. Central Institute for Indian Languages. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
- Sahitya Akademi (1988), p1717
- Kamath (2001), p58
- Azmathulla Shariff. "Badami: Chalukyans' magical transformation". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 7 October 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- Gururaj Bhat in Kamath (2001), p97
- Mukerjee, Shruba (21 August 2005). "Preserving voices from the past". Sunday Herald. Archived from the original on 22 October 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- The coins are preserved at the Archaeological Section, Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai – Kundangar and Moraes in Moraes (1931), p382
- The coin is preserved at the Indian Historical Research Institute, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai – Kundangar and Moraes in Moraes (1938), p 382
- Dr Gopal, director, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History (6 February 2006). "5th century copper coin discovered at Banavasi". Hindu, Monday, 6 February 2006 (Chennai, India: The Hindu). Retrieved 18 October 2007.
- Kamath (2001), p12, p57
- Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South". Prabhu's Web Page on Indian Coinage, 1 November 2001. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- Harihariah Oruganti-Vice-President, Madras Coin Society. "Vijayanagar Coins-Catalogue". Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- This shows that the native vernacular of the Goa Kadambas was Kannada – Moraes (1931), p384
- Two coins of the Hangal Kadambas are preserved at the Royal Asiatic Society, Mumbai, one with the Kannada inscription Saarvadhari and other with Nakara. Moraes (1931), p385
- Kamath (2001), p67
- Sastri (1955), p355
- Kamath (2001), p90
- Jyotsna Kamat. "History of the Kannada Literature-I". Kamat's Potpourri, 4 November 2006. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- Sastri (1955), p356
- The seventeenth-century Kannada grammarian Bhattakalanka wrote about the Chudamani as a milestone in the literature of the Kannada language (Sastri (1955), p355)
- Jyotsna Kamat. "History of the Kannada Literature – I". Kamat's Potpourri, 4 November 2006. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- Narasimhacharya (1988), pp 4–5
- Rice, B.L. (1897), p497
- 6th century Sanskrit poet Dandin praised Srivaradhadeva's writing as "having produced Saraswati from the tip of his tongue, just as Shiva produced the Ganges from the tip of his top knot (Rice E.P., 1921, p27)
- Kamath (2001), p50, p67
- The author and his work were praised by the latter-day poet Durgasimha of 1025 CE (Narasimhacharya 1988, p18.)
- Sri K. Appadurai. "The place of Kannada and Tamil in India's national culture". Copyright INTAMM. 1997. Archived from the original on 15 April 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- Sastri (1955), pp 361–2
- Narasimhacharya (1988), p20
- Sastri (1955), p361
- Sastri (1955), p364
- "Literature in all Dravidian languages owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom". (Sastri 1955, p309)
- Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995. Tamil love poetry and poetics. Brill's Indological library, v. 9. Leiden: E.J. Brill, p16,18
- "The author endeavours to demonstrate that the entire Sangam poetic corpus follows the "Kavya" form of Sanskrit poetry"-Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo. 2001. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Groningen: Egbert Forsten
- J. Bucher; Ferdinand Kittel (1899). A Kannaḍa-English school-dictionary: chiefly based on the labours of the Rev. Dr. F. Kittel. Basel Mission Book & Tract Depository.
- Sastri (1955), pp 364–365
- The writing exalts the grain Ragi above all other grains that form the staple foods of much of modern Karnataka (Sastri 1955, p365)
- Moorthy, Vijaya (2001). Romance of the Raga. Abinav publications. p. 67. ISBN 81-7017-382-5.
- Iyer (2006), p93
- Sastri (1955), p365
- Report on the administration of Mysore – Page 90 Mysore – 1864 "There is no authentic record of the casting of the first Early Canarese printing. Canarese type, but a Canarese Grammar by Dr. Carey printed at Serampore in 1817 is extant. About the same time a translation of the Scriptures was printed
- Missions in south India – Page 56 Joseph Mullens – 1854 "Among those of the former are tracts on Caste, on the Hindu gods ; Canarese Proverbs ; Henry and his Bearer ; the Pilgrim's Progress; Barth's Bible Stories; a Canarese hymn book"
- Special Correspondent (20 September 2011). "The Hindu – Jnanpith for Kambar". Thehindu.com. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- "Welcome to: Bhartiya Jnanpith". jnanpith.net. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
- K.N. Venkatasubba Rao (4 October 2006). "Kannada likely to get classical tag". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Rice, Edward. P (1921), "A History of Kanarese Literature", Oxford University Press, 1921: 14–15
- "Kannada script Evolution". Official website of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, India. Classicalkannada.org. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
- Manjulakshi & Bhat. "Kannada Dialect Dictionaries and Dictionaries in Subregional Languages of Karnataka". Language in India, Volume 5 : 9 September 2005. Central Institute of Indian Languages, University of Mysore. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- Ferdinand Kittel. A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language. 1993. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0056-8
- Muralidhara Khajane (22 August 2012). "Today's Paper / NATIONAL : 100 years on, words never fail him". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Johnson Language (20 August 2012). "Language in India: Kannada, threatened at home". The Economist. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- "Baraha – Free Indian Language Software". baraha.com.
- "Pada Software – For Indic Scripts". pada.pro.
- "QuillPad – Typing in Kannada has never been easier". Quillpad.in. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
- Studies in Indian History, Epigraphy, and Culture – By Govind Swamirao Gai, pp. 315
- A Grammar of the Kannada Language. F. Kittel (1993), p. 3.
- Ferdinand Kittel, pp. 30
- Ferdinand Kittel, pp. 39
- Masica, Colin P. (1991) . The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29944-6.
- Thapar, Romila (2003) . The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4.
- George M. Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1990 ISBN 81-206-0595-0
- Varadpande, Manohar Laxman (1987) . History of Indian Theatre. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-221-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kannada language.|
|Kannada edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Find more about Kannada at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
- "Halmidi village finally on the road to recognition, Muralidhara Khajane". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 3 November 2003. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- "Declare Kannada a classical language, Staff reporter". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 27 May 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- "The place of Kannada and Tamil in Indias National Culture". Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- "History of the Kannada Literature, Dr. Jyotsna Kamat". Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- "Records and revelations, Indira Parathasarathy". Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- "Ancient inscriptions unearthed, N. Havalaiah". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 24 January 2004. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- "Indian inscriptions-South Indian inscriptions, Vol 20, 18, 17, 15, 11 and 9, Archaeological survey of India, What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd".