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Akhnaten is an opera in three acts based on the life and religious convictions of the pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV), written by the American minimalist composer Philip Glass in 1983. Akhnaten had its world premiere on March 24, 1984 at the Stuttgart State Opera, under the German title Echnaton. Paul Esswood sang the title role, German director Achim Freyer staged the opera in an abstract style with highly ritualistic movements. The American premiere was held on October 12, 1984 at the Houston Grand Opera, where Glass's opera The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 also premiered.
According to the composer, this work is the culmination of his two other biographical operas, Einstein on the Beach and Satyagraha (about Mohandas Gandhi). These three people — Akhenaten, Einstein and Gandhi — were all driven by an inner vision which altered the age in which they lived, in particular Akhenaten in religion, Einstein in science, and Gandhi in politics.
The text, taken from original sources, is sung in the original languages, linked together with the commentary of a narrator in a modern language, such as English or German. Egyptian texts of the period are taken from a poem of Akhenaten himself, from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, and from extracts of decrees and letters from the Amarna period, the seventeen-year period of Akhenaten's rule. Other portions are in Akkadian and Biblical Hebrew. Akhnaten's Hymn to the Sun is sung in the language of the audience.
|Nefertiti, Wife of Akhnaten||Contralto|
|Queen Tye, Mother of Akhnaten||Soprano|
|Horemhab, General and future Pharaoh||Baritone|
|Amon High Priest||Tenor|
|Aye, Father of Nefertiti and advisor to the Pharaoh||Bass|
|The Daughters of Akhnaten||3 Sopranos, 3 Contraltos|
Small male chorus (Priests), Large opera chorus (The people of Egypt)
The orchestra's size is about the size employed for early 19th-century opera: 2 flutes (one doubling piccolo), 2 oboes (both doubling oboe d'amore), 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 french horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, tuba, percussion (3 players), celesta (doubling synthesizer), 12 violas, 8 celli, 6 double basses.
Since the Stuttgart State Opera house was being restored in 1984 and the orchestra pit of the Stuttgart State theater, where the premiere was to take place, was considerably smaller, Glass chose to completely leave out the violins (about 20), giving the orchestra a darker, sombre character, which fits the subject. Apart from this, this was Glass's most "conventional" opera orchestra until then (compared to Einstein on the Beach, written for the six-piece Philip Glass Ensemble, and Satyagraha, scored for woodwinds and strings only).
Generally speaking, for the unprepared listener the music of this opera is more accessible than that of its predecessors, the "hardcore" minimalist Einstein and the oratorio-like Satyagraha. The music follows and underlines the dramatic context outlined by the story, and the harmonic and melodic language is more varied and changes more often, giving the music a more theatrical and almost "romantic" quality.
The opera is divided into three acts:
Act 1: Year 1 of Akhnaten's Reign in Thebes 
Prelude, Verse 1, Verse 2, Verse 3
Set in the key of A minor, the strings introduce a ground bass theme, with following variations. (A passacaglia). The scribe recites funeral texts from the pyramids. 'Open are the double doors of the horizon; unlocked are its bolts.'
Scene 1: Funeral of Akhnaten's father Amenhotep III
Heralded by hammering drums, Aye and a small male chorus chant a funeral hymn in Egyptian, later joined by the full chorus. The music is basically a march, based on the chords of A major and F♯ minor (with added major sixth), and grows to ecstatic intensity towards the end.
Scene 2: The Coronation of Akhnaten
After a lengthy orchestral introduction, during which Akhnaten appears, heralded by a solo trumpet, the High Priest, Aye, and Horemhab sing a ritual text. After that, the Narrator recites a list of royal titles bestowed upon Akhnaten, while he is crowned. After the coronation, the chorus repeats the ritual text from the beginning of the scene. Again, the main key is A minor.
Scene 3: The Window of Appearances
After an introduction in A minor, dominated by tubular bells, Akhnaten sings a praise to the Creator (in Egyptian) at the window of public appearances. This is the first time he actually sings, after he has already been on stage for 20 minutes, and the effect of his countertenor voice (which in 1983 was even more rare than nowadays) is startling. He is joined by Nefertiti, who actually sings lower notes than he, and later by Queen Tye, whose soprano soars high above the intertwining voices of the royal couple.
Act 2: Years 5 to 15 in Thebes and Akhetaten 
Scene 1: The Temple
The scene opens again in A minor, with the High Priest and a group of priests singing a hymn to Amun, principal god of the old order, in his temple. The music becomes increasingly dramatic, as Akhnaten, together with Queen Tye and his followers, attack the temple. This scene has only wordless singing. The harmonies grow very chromatic, finally reaching A flat major and E minor. The temple roof is removed and the sun god Aten's rays invade the temple, thus ending Amun's reign and laying the foundation for the worship of the only god Aten.
Scene 2: Akhnaten and Nefertiti
Two solo celli introduce a "love theme". Accompanied by a solo trombone while the harmony switches to H(sus), the Narrator recites a prayer-like poem to the sun god. The strings softly take over the music in E minor, and the same poem is recited again, this time actually as a love poem from Akhnaten to Nefertiti. Then Akhnaten and Nefertiti sing the same text to each other (in Egyptian), as an intimate love duet. After a while, the trumpet associated with Akhnaten joins them as the highest voice, turning the duet into a trio.
Scene 3: The City - Dance
The Narrator speaks a text taken from the boundary stones of the new capital of the empire, Akhet-Aten (The Horizon of Aten), describing the construction of the city, with large, light-filled spaces. After a brass fanfare, the completion of the city is celebrated in a light-hearted dance, contrasting with the stark, ritualistic music with which this act began. (In the Stuttgart premiere, the dance actually described the construction of the city)
Scene 4: Hymn
What now follows is a hymn to the only god Aten, a long aria (alternating between A minor and A major) by Akhnaten, and the central piece of the opera. It is outstanding as it is the only text sung in the language of the audience, praising the sun giving life to everything. After the aria, an off-stage chorus sings Psalm 104 in Hebrew, dating some 400 years later, which has strong resemblances to Akhnaten's Hymn, thus emphasizing Akhnaten as the first founder of a monotheistic religion.
Act 3: Year 17 and the Present 
Scene 1: The Family
Two Oboe d'amore play the "love theme" from Act II. We see Akhnaten, with Nefertiti and their six daughters, singing wordlessly in contemplation. It is obvious that they are oblivious of what happens outside of the palace. As the music switches from E minor to F minor, the Narrator reads letters from Syrian vassals, asking for help against their enemies. Since the king does not send troops, his land is being seized and plundered by their enemies. The scene focuses again on Akhnaten and his family, still oblivious of the country falling apart.
Scene 2: The Attack and Fall of the City
The music moves again to a vigorous F minor. Horemhab, Aye and the High Priest of Aten instigate the people (as the chorus), singing part of the aforementioned letters (in their original Akkadian language) until finally the palace is attacked, the royal family killed, and the city of the sun destroyed.
Scene 3: The Ruins
The music of the very beginning of the opera returns. The scribe recites an inscription on Aye's tomb, praising the death of "the heretic" and the new reign of the old gods. He then describes the restoration of Amun's temple by Akhnaten's son Tutenkhamun. The Prelude music grows stronger and the scene is moved to present-day Egypt, to the ruins of Amarna, the former capital Akhet-Aton. The Narrator appears as a modern tourist guide and speaks a text from a guide book, describing the ruins. "There is nothing left of this glorious city of temples and palaces".
Scene 4: Epilogue
The ghosts of Akhnaten, Nefertiti and Queen Tye appear, singing wordlessly amongst the ruins. The funeral procession from the beginning of the opera appears on the horizon, and they join it. The music introduces a bass line from the beginning of Einstein on the Beach, which is the first part of Glass' "portrait" trilogy (The second one being Satyagraha and the third one Akhnaten), thus providing a musical bracket for the whole trilogy.
- The composer uses the spelling Akhnaten, while the more conventional spelling of the name is Akhenaten. Given the nature of Egyptian hieroglyphs, the absence of a vowel is not linguistically significant. In this article, the first version refers to the opera and the second to the pharaoh.
- or its equivalent chord, B major 9
- Stuttgart State Theater, world premiere, programme (1984)
- CD booklet (Soloists, chorus and orchestra of the Stuttgart State Opera, Dennis Russell Davies, cond., CBS 1987)
- P. Glass and R. T. Jones, Music by Philip Glass, Harper Collins 1987
- Schwartz, K. Robert, "Minimalists", Phaidon Press Limited, 1996