Amman Message

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The Amman Message (Arabic: رسالة عمانUrdu: عمان کا پیغام‎) is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan.[1] Subsequently, a three-point ruling was issued by 200 Islamic scholars from over 50 countries, focusing on issues of defining who a Muslim is; excommunication from Islam (takfir), and; principles related to delivering religious edicts (fatāwa).[2]

Content[edit]

The Amman Message was delivered in Amman, Jordan, as a Ramadan sermon by Chief Justice Sheikh Iz-al-Din al-Tamimi in the presence of King Abdullah II and a number of Muslim scholars.[3] According to a report issued by the International Crisis Group, "The sermon stressed the need to re-emphasise Islam's core values of compassion, mutual respect, tolerance, acceptance and freedom of religion."[1] The next year, in July 2005, an Islamic convention brought together 200 Muslim scholars from over 50 countries who issued a three-point declaration (later known as 'Three Points of the Amman Message').[2] This declaration focused on:[4]

  1. The recognition of eight legal schools of thought (madhāhib) and the varying strains of Islamic theology viz.[5]
    1. Sunni Hanafi
    2. Sunni Maliki
    3. Sunni Shafi'i
    4. Sunni Hanbali
    5. Shia Ja`fari (inc. Ismaili)
    6. Shia Zaydi
    7. Zahiri
    8. Ibadi
    • Forbade declaring an apostate of followers of following creeds/practices/thoughts:[5]
    1. Ash`ari creed
    2. real Tasawwuf practices (Sufism)
    3. true Salafi thought
  2. The forbiddance from pronouncing disbelief (takfir) upon (or excommunicating) others recognized as Muslims
  3. The stipulations placed as preconditions to the issuing of religious edicts, intended to prevent the circulation of illegitimate edicts

Explaining why the message was issued, King Abdullah stated: "[W]e felt that the Islamic message of tolerance was being subjected to a fierce and unjust attack from some in the West who do not understand Islam's essence, and others who claim to be associated with Islam and hide behind Islam to commit irresponsible deeds."[6]

Conference and declarations[edit]

Following are conferences and declarations:[7]

  • The International Islamic Conference: True Islam and Its Role in Modern Society, (Amman, 27-29 Jumada II 426 ah / 4–6 July 2005 ce)
  • Forum of Muslim 'Ulama' and Thinkers, (Mecca, 5-7 Sha'ban 1426 ah / 9–11 September 2005 ce)
  • First International Islamic Conference Concerning the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence and the Modern Challenges, (Al al-Bayt University, 13-15 Shawwal ah /15–17 November 2005 ce)
  • The Third Extraordinary Session of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, (5-6 Dhu'l-Qa'da 1426 ah / 7–8 December 2005 ce)
  • The Second International Conference of the Assembly for Moderate Islamic Thought and Culture, (25-27 1 Rabi' 1427 ah / 24–26 April 2006 ce)
  • The International Islamic Fiqh Academy Conference Seventeenth Session, (Amman, 28 Jumada I - 2 Jumada II 1427 ah / 24–28 June 2006 ce)
  • Muslims of Europe Conference, (Istanbul, 1–2 July 2006 ce)
  • The ninth session of the council of the Conference of Ministers of Religious Endowments and Islamic Affairs, (Kuwait, 20-21 1426 AH / 22–23 November 2005 CE)
  • Amman Message in the Eyes of Others: Dialogue, Moderation, Humanity, (The Hashemite University, September 20–21, 2006)

Fatwas of the ulama[edit]

Following is the list of individuals and organizations who have issued fatwa in relation to the Amman Message[clarification needed] (as per official website listing):[8]

Sr No Name Title Country Sect Fiqh Endorsing Fatwa Website Image
1 Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy Grand Imam of Al-Azhar University Egypt Egypt Sunni Shafi`i Fatwa Official Website -
2 Ali Gomaa Grand Mufti of Egypt Egypt Egypt Sunni Shafi`i Fatwa [1] Ali Gomaa.JPG
3 Ali Bardakoğlu President of The Grand Council for Religious Affairs, Turkey Turkey Turkey Sunni Hanafi Fatwa Official Website Ali Bardakoğlu 2009.jpg
4 Ahmed Kuftaro Grand Mufti of Syria Syria Syria Sunni Shafi`i Fatwa Official Website -
5 Said Abd Al-Hafiz Al-Hijjawi Grand Mufti of Jordan Jordan Jordan Sunni Shafi`i Fatwa - -
6 - The Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Sunni - Fatwa Official Website -
7 Yusuf al-Qaradawi Director of the Sunna and Sira Council Qatar Qatar Sunni Hanafi Fatwa Official Website Qardawi.JPG
8 Abdullah bin Bayyah Vice President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Sunni Maliki Fatwa Official Website BinBayyah.jpg
9 Muhammad Taqi Usmani Vice President of the Islamic Fiqh Academy Pakistan Pakistan Sunni Hanafi Fatwa - -
10 Abdullah al-Harari Founder of the Al-Ahbash Lebanon Lebanon Sunni Shafi`i Fatwa - AbdullahAl-Harariyy.jpg
11 Ali Hosseini Khamenei Grand Ayatollah, Supreme Leader of Iran Iran Iran Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei,.jpg
12 Ali Hosseini Sistani Grand Ayatollah Iraq Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website Ali Sistani.jpg
13 Mohammad Said Al-Hakim Grand Ayatollah Iraq Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website -
14 Mohammad Ishaq Al-Fayyad Grand Ayatollah Iraq Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website -
15 Basheer Hussain Najafi Grand Ayatollah Iraq Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website
16 Hussein Al-Sadr Grand Ayatollah Iraq Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa - -
17 Fazel Lankarani Grand Ayatollah Iran Iran Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website
18 Muhammad Ali Al-Taskhiri Grand Ayatollah
General Secretary of Forum for Proximity of the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence
Iran Iran Shia Jafari Fatwa - -
19 Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah Grand Ayatollah Lebanon Lebanon Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website Sayed Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah.jpg
20 - Imam Al-Khoei Benevolent Foundation, United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website
21 Muhammad bin Muhammad Ismail Al-Mansur
and
Humud bin Abbas Al-Mu'ayyad
Shaykh - Shia Zaidiyyah Fatwa -
22 Ibrahim bin Muhammad Al-Wazir General Secretary, The Islamic Unification and Works Movement, Yemen Yemen Yemen Shia Zaidiyyah Fatwa -
23 Ahmad bin Hamad Al-Khalili Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman Oman Oman Ibadi - Fatwa -
24 Karīm al-Hussaynī The Āgā Khān IV, Imam of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims United Kingdom United Kingdom Shia Ismaili Fatwa -

Reception[edit]

Tony Blair, while still Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, gave a speech in which he praised the Amman message and the gathering of numerous scholars, commenting that "This was a clear message that Islam is not a monolithic faith, but one made up of a rich pattern of diversity, albeit all flowing from the same fount."[2] Suhail Nakhouda, writing in the Amman-based Islamica, stated that the Amman message did little to effectively address ongoing problems: "There is no water, no pavements; the economy is bad, and many young people are out of work. Peoples' lives, as well as the images they see, stay the same." Nakhouda noted another objection that King Abdullah's message was likely to be dampened by his lifestyle, which is the subject of criticism.[1] The Grand Shaykh of the Azhar at that time, Shaykh Mohammed Sayyid Tantawi, called it:‘[T]he best resource for those who wish to travel along the straight path in their words and their actions, and in their spiritual and religious life’.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Jordan's 9/11: Dealing With Jihadi Islamism", Crisis Group Middle East Report N°47, 23 November 2005
  2. ^ a b c "SPEECH BY THE PRIME MINISTER THE RT HON TONY BLAIR MP" (04/06/07), British Embassy in Bahrain
  3. ^ "Jordan issues the 'Amman Message' on Islam". Embassy of Jordan - Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  4. ^ The Amman Message summary - Official website
  5. ^ a b The Three Points of The Amman Message V.1
  6. ^ "King Abdullah calls to end extremism". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  7. ^ Conference Declarations @ ammanmessage.com
  8. ^ http://ammanmessage.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=82&Itemid=60 FATWAS OF THE 'ULAMA

External links[edit]