|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2008)|
Annapurna South from Annapurna Base Camp (4,130 m) before sunrise.
|Elevation||8,091 m (26,545 ft)
|Prominence||2,984 m (9,790 ft)
|Parent peak||Cho Oyu|
|Location||Gandaki Zone, Nepal|
|First ascent||3 June 1950
Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal
|Easiest route||snow/ice climb|
Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa: अन्नपुर्ण) is a section of the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes 8,091 m (26,545 ft) Annapurna I, thirteen additional peaks over 7,000 m (22,970 ft) and 16 more over 6,000 m (19,690 ft). This section is a 55 km-long (34 mi-long) massif bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi River on the north and east, and Pokhara Valley on the south. Annapurna I is tenth among Earth's fourteen eight-thousanders. 8167 metre Dhaulagiri I rises 34 km to the west across the Kali Gandaki Gorge, considered Earth's deepest canyon.
Annapurna is a Sanskrit name which literally means "full of food" (feminine form), but is normally translated as Goddess of the Harvests. In Hinduism, Annapurna is "... the universal and timeless kitchen-goddess ... the mother who feeds. Without her there is starvation, a universal fear: This makes Annapurna a universal goddess ... Her most popular shrine is located in Kashi, on the banks of the river Ganga." Her association with the giving of food (wealth) led her in time to be transformed into Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth.
The entire massif and surrounding area are protected within the 7,629 km2 Annapurna Conservation Area, the first and largest conservation area in Nepal. The Annapurna Conservation Area is home to several world-class treks, including the Annapurna Circuit.
The Annapurna peaks are among the world's most dangerous mountains to climb, although in more recent history, using figures from only 1990 and after, Kangchenjunga has a higher fatality rate. As of the end of 2009, there had been 157 summit ascents of Annapurna I, and 60 climbing fatalities on the mountain. This fatality-to-summit ratio (38%) is the highest of any of the eight-thousanders. In particular, the ascent via the south face is considered, by some, the most difficult of all climbs.
The Annapurna massif contains six major peaks over 7,200 m (23,620 ft):
|Annapurna I||8,091 m||(26,545 ft) Ranked 10th; Prominence=2,984 m|
|Annapurna II||7,937 m||(26,040 ft) Ranked 16th; Prominence=2,437 m|
|Annapurna III||7,555 m||(24,786 ft) Ranked 42nd; Prominence=703 m|
|Annapurna IV||7,525 m||(24,688 ft)|
|Gangapurna||7,455 m||(24,457 ft) Ranked 59th; Prominence=563 m|
|Annapurna South||7,219 m||(23,684 ft) Ranked 101st; Prominence=775 m|
Annapurna I was the first 8,000-metre (26,200 ft) peak to be climbed. Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, of a French expedition led by Maurice Herzog (including Lionel Terray, Gaston Rébuffat, Marcel Ichac, Jean Couzy, Marcel Schatz, Jacques Oudot, Francis de Noyelle), reached the summit on 3 June 1950. (See the documentary of the expedition "Victoire sur l'Annapurna" by Marcel Ichac). Its summit was the highest summit attained on Earth for three years, until the first successful ascent of Mount Everest. (However, higher non-summit points—at least 8,500 metres (27,900 ft)—had already been attained on Everest in the 1920s.)
The south face of Annapurna was first climbed in 1970 by Don Whillans and Dougal Haston, members of a British expedition led by Chris Bonington which included the alpinist Ian Clough, who was killed by a falling serac during the descent. They were, however, beaten to the second ascent of Annapurna by a matter of days by a British Army expedition led by Henry Day.
In 1978, the American Women's Himalayan Expedition, a team led by Arlene Blum, became the first United States team to climb Annapurna I. The first summit team, comprising Vera Komarkova and Irene Miller and Sherpas Mingma Tsering and Chewang Ringjing, reached the top at 3:30 p.m. on October 15, 1978. The second summit team, Alison Chadwick-Onyszkiewicz and Vera Watson, died during this climb.
On 8 and 9 October 2013 Swiss climber Ueli Steck soloed the Lafaille route on the main and highest part of the face; this was his third attempt on the route and has been called "one of the most impressive Himalayan climbs in history", with Steck taking 28 hours to make the return trip from Base Camp to summit and back again.
Annapurna I has the greatest fatality rate of all the 14 eight-thousanders: as of March 2012, there have been 52 deaths during ascents, 191 successful ascents, and nine deaths upon descent, which means that "for every three thrill-seekers that make it safely up and down Annapurna I, one dies trying." That same ratio is at or above six-to-one for all of the other eight-thousanders, except for K2 and Nanga Parbat. Climbers killed on the peak include Russian Anatoli Boukreev in 1997, Spaniard Iñaki Ochoa in 2008, and Korean Park Young-seok, lost in 2011.
Annapurna II, the eastern anchor of the range, was first climbed in 1960 by a British/Indian/Nepalese team led by J. O. M. Roberts via the West Ridge, approached from the north. The summit party comprised Richard Grant, Chris Bonington, and Sherpa Ang Nyima. In terms of elevation, isolation (distance to a higher summit, namely Annapurna I, 30.5 km or 19.0 mi) and prominence (2,437 m or 7,995 ft), Annapurna II does not rank far behind Annapurna I. It is a fully independent peak, despite the close association with Annapurna I which its name seems to imply.
Yugoslavians from Slovenia repeated this ascent in 1969, also climbing Annapurna IV. Kazmir Draslar and Majija Malezic reached the summit. In 1973 Japanese shortcut the route by climbing directly up the north face between IV and V before continuing along the west ridge. Katsuyuki Kondo reached the top in a remarkable solo performance.
In 1983, Tim Macartney-Snape planned and participated in an expedition to Annapurna II (7,937 m or 26,040 ft) successfully reaching the summit via the first ascent of the south spur. The descent was delayed by a blizzard and the expedition ran out of food during the last five days. They were reported missing and when the expedition eventually returned they received significant publicity.
On Feb 2, 2007; Philipp Kunz, Lhakpa Wangel, Temba Nuru and Lhakpa Thinduk made the 1st winter ascent. The team followed the route of the first ascent from the north.
Annapurna III was first climbed in 1961 by an Indian expedition led by Capt. Mohan Singh Kohli via the Northeast Face. The summit party comprised Mohan Kohli, Sonam Gyatso, and Sonam Girmi.
Annapurna IV, near Annapurna II, was first climbed in 1955 by a German expedition led by Heinz Steinmetz via the North Face and Northwest Ridge. The summit party comprised Steinmetz, Harald Biller, and Jürgen Wellenkamp.
The other peaks
Gangapurna was first climbed in 1965 by a German expedition led by Günther Hauser, via the East Ridge. The summit party comprised 11 members of the expedition.
Annapurna South (also known as Annapurna Dakshin, or Moditse) was first climbed in 1964 by a Japanese expedition, via the North Ridge. The summit party comprised S. Uyeo and Mingma Tsering.
Hiunchuli (6,441 m/21,126 ft) is a satellite peak extending east from Annapurna South, Hiunchuli was first climbed in 1971 by an expedition led by U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer Craig Anderson.
Machapuchare (6,993 m or 22,943 ft) is another important peak though it just misses the 7,000 metre mark. Machapuchare and Hiunchuli are prominently visible from the valley of Pokhara. These peaks are the "gates" to the Annapurna Sanctuary leading to the south face of Annapurna I. Machpuchare was climbed in 1957 (except the final 50 metres for its local religious sanctity) by Wilfrid Noyce and A. D. M. Cox. Since then it has been off limits.
Millet fields in the Annapurna region play a major part in local agriculture.
The Annapurna Conservation Area is a well known trekking region.
There are three major trekking routes in the Annapurna region: the Jomson Trek to Jomsom and Muktinath (increasingly disturbed by a road-building project); the Annapurna Sanctuary route to Annapurna base camp; and the Annapurna Circuit, which circles the Annapurna Himal itself and includes the Jomsom route. The town of Pokhara usually serves as a starting point for these treks, and is also a good starting place for other short treks of one to four days, such as routes to Ghorepani or Ghandruk.
The Mustang district, a former kingdom bordering Tibet, is also geographically a part of the Annapurna region, but treks to upper Mustang are subject to special restrictions.
About two-thirds of all trekkers in Nepal visit the Annapurna region. The area is easily accessible, guest houses in the hills are plentiful, and treks here offer incredibly diverse scenery, with both high mountains and lowland villages. Also, because the entire area is inhabited, trekking in the region offers unique cultural exposure and experience.
- "Annapurna". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- "Nepal/Sikkim/Bhutan Ultra-Prominences". peaklist.org. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- H. Adams Carter (1985). "Classification of the Himalaya". American Alpine Journal (American Alpine Club) 27 (59): 127–9. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- Pattanaik (2009), pp. 25, 27.
- "Complete ascent — fatalities statistics of all 14 main 8000ers". 8000ers.com. June 19, 2008. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Annapurna I". 8000ers.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
- "Stairway to heaven". The Economist. May 29, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Herzog, 1953, p. 257.
- Blum, 1980.
- "8000m Peak". summitpost.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
- "New Alpine Solo Route on the South Face of Annapurna". russianclimb.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
- "Climbing Annapurna: Tomaz Humar". Outside. January 29, 2008. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
- "Tomaz Humar klettert solo durch die Annapurna Südwand" (in German). Bergsteigen.at. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Von: Text: adidas eyewear (November 26, 2007). "Tomaz Humar glĂźckt Erstbegehung am Annapurna im Alpinstil - Climbing.de - Alle Infos fĂźr Bergsteiger und Kletterer" (in German). Climbing.de. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Annapurna South Face Routes", russianclimb.com, accessed 13 October 2013.
- "Ueli Steck and Annapurna: the interview after his South Face solo", planetmountain.com, accessed 14 October 2013.
- "Steck Solos Annapurna South Face", ukclimbing.com, accessed 13 October 2013.
- "Annapurna South Face Solo - 28 Hours", ukclimbing.com, accessed 13 October 2013.
- "It's over: Iñaki Ochoa lost on Annapurna". mounteverest.net. May 23, 2008. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
- Woo, Jaeyeon (October 31, 2011). "With Park Gone, Korea Loses Its Trailblazer". Korea Real Time (blog). The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- AAJO 1970
- AAJO 2008
- Hall, Lincoln, White limbo: The first Australian Climb of Mt. Everest Random House Australia 1985 ISBN 978-1-74166-864-3
- Making Sense of Nepal’s Seti River Disaster - January 24, 2014
- Stacy Tasman (27 May 2011). "Nepal’s shrinking Annapurna Circuit".
- "Austin Pick: Circling the Abode of Snow". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
- Arlene Blum, 1980. Annapurna: A Woman's Place. (Sierra Club Books, San Francisco) ISBN 0-87156-236-7.
- Maurice Herzog, 1953. Annapurna: First Conquest of an 8000-meter Peak. Translated from the French by Nea Morin and Janet Adam Smith (E.P Dutton & Co., New York).
- Pattanaik, Devdutt (2009). 7 Secrets from Hindu Calendar Art. Westland. ISBN 978-81-89975-67-8.
- Herzog, Maurice, Annapurna, Jonathan Cape, 1952.
- Ohmori, Koichiro, Over the Himalaya, Cloudcap Press, 1998. ISBN 0-938567-37-3
- Neate, Jill High Asia: An Illustrated History of the 7000 Metre Peaks, Mountaineers Books, ISBN 0-89886-238-8
- Terray, Lionel, Conquistadors of the Useless, Chapter 7, Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1963 ISBN 0-89886-778-9
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Annapurna.|