Anti-Qing sentiment

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Sun Yat-sen, one of the leaders of the Xinhai Revolution which overthrew the Qing dynasty in 1912. Photo taken in 1907

Anti-Qing sentiment (Chinese: 反清; pinyin: fǎn Qing) refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), which was accused by a number of opponents of being barbarian. The Qing was accused of destroying traditional Han culture by forcing Han to wear their hair in a queue in the Manchu style. It was blamed for suppressing Chinese science, causing China to be transformed from the world's premiere power to a poor, backwards nation. The people of the Eight Banners lived off government pensions unlike the general Han civilian population.

In the broadest sense, an anti-Qing activist was anyone who engaged in anti-Manchu direct action. This included people from many mainstream political movements and uprisings, such as Taiping Rebellion, the Xinhai Revolution, the Revive China Society, the Tongmenghui, the Panthay Rebellion, White Lotus Rebellion, and others.

Ming loyalism in the early Qing dynasty[edit]

Statue of Zheng Chenggong on Gulangyu Island in Xiamen, one of many in mainland China and Taiwan.

Muslim Ming loyalists[edit]

Main article: Milayin Rebellion

Hui Muslim Ming loyalists under Mi Layin and Ding Guodong fought against the Qing to restore a Ming prince to the throne from 1646-1650. When the Qing dynasty invaded the Ming dynasty in 1644, Muslim Ming loyalists in Gansu led by Muslim leaders Milayin[1] and Ding Guodong led a revolt in 1646 against the Qing during the Milayin rebellion in order to drive the Qing out and restore the Ming Prince of Yanchang Zhu Shichuan to the throne as the emperor.[2] The Muslim Ming loyalists were supported by Hami's Sultan Sa'id Baba and his son Prince Turumtay.[3][4][5] The Muslim Ming loyalists were joined by Tibetans and Han Chinese in the revolt.[6] After fierce fighting, and negotiations, a peace agreement was agreed on in 1649, and Milayan and Ding nominally pledged alleigance to the Qing and were given ranks as members of the Qing military.[7] When other Ming loyalists in southern China made a resurgence and the Qing were forced to withdraw their forces from Gansu to fight them, Milayan and Ding once again took up arms and rebelled against the Qing.[8] The Muslim Ming loyalists were then crushed by the Qing with 100,000 of them, including Milayin, Ding Guodong, and Turumtay killed in battle.

The Confucian Hui Muslim scholar Ma Zhu (1640-1710) served with the southern Ming loyalists against the Qing.[9]

In Guangzhou, the national monuments known as "The Muslim's Loyal Trio" are the tombs of Ming loyalist Muslims who were martyred while fighting in battle against the Qing in the Manchu conquest of China in Guangzhou.[10]

Koxinga[edit]

Main articles: Koxinga and Southern Ming

The Ming loyalist general Zheng Chenggong, better known by his title Koxinga, led a military movement to oppose the Qing dynasty from 1646 to 1662.


Joseon[edit]

Joseon Korea was a tributary state of Ming China and was grateful for Ming assistance during the recent Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98). This put Joseon in a dilemma when both Nurhaci and the Ming requested support. King Gwanghaegun tried to maintain neutrality, but most of his officials opposed him for not supporting the Ming, which had saved Joseon during Hideyoshi's invasions.

In 1623 King Gwanghaegun was deposed and replaced by King Injo (r. 1623–1649), who banished Gwanghaejun's supporters. Reverting his predecessor's foreign policy, the new king decided to support the Ming openly, but a rebellion led by military commander Yi Gwal erupted in 1624 and wrecked Joseon's military defenses in the north. Even after the rebellion had been suppressed, King Injo had to devote military forces to ensure the stability of the capital, leaving fewer soldiers to defend the northern borders.[11]

The Manchus invaded Korea twice, in 1627 and 1636, eventually forcing Joseon to sever its ties with the Ming and instead to become a tributary of the Manchus. However, there remained popular opposition to the Manchus in Korea. Joseon continued to use the Ming calendar rather than the Qing calendar, and Koreans continued to wear Ming-style clothing and hairstyles, rather than the Manchu queue. After the fall of the Ming dynasty, Joseon Koreans saw themselves as continuing the traditions of Neo-Confucianism.[12]

Anti-Qing rebellions[edit]

Mongol Rebellions[edit]

The Mongols under Qing rule were divided into three primary groups- the Inner Mongols, the Outer Khalkha Mongols, and the Eastern Oirat Mongols.

The Inner Mongolian Chahar Khan Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing in 1636 and was given the title of Prince (Qin Wang, 親王), and Inner Mongolian nobility became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrested in 1669 in Shenyang and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai then bid his time and then he and his brother Lubuzung revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The Qing then crushed the rebels in a battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy.

The Khalkha Mongols were more reluctant to come under Qing rule, only submitting to the Kangxi Emperor after they came under an invasion from the Oirat Mongol Dzungar Khanate under its leader Galdan.

The Oirat Khoshut Upper Mongols in Qinghai rebelled against the Qing during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor but were crushed and defeated.

The Oirat Mongol Dzungars in the Dzungar Khanate offered outright resistance and war against the Qing for decades until they Qing annihilated the Dzungars in the Dzungar genocide. Khalkha Mongol rebels under Prince Chingünjav had plotted with the Dzungar leader Amursana and led a rebellion against the Qing at the same time as the Dzungars. The Qing crushed the rebellion and executed Chingünjav and his entire family.

During the Xinhai Revolution, the Outer Khalkha Mongols staged an uprising against the Qing and expelled the Manchu Ambans.

Tibetan rebellions[edit]

Tibetan Buddhist Lamas rebelled against the Qing at Batang during the 1905 Tibetan Rebellion, assasinating the Manchu leader Fengquan, and also killing French Catholic missionaries and Tibetans converts to Catholicism.

A drawing of Hong Xiuquan as the "Heavenly King" (ca. 1860)

Hong Xiuquan[edit]

Main article: Taiping Rebellion

Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全, Hóng Xiùquán) was a Hakka Chinese who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) against the Qing dynasty. He proclaimed himself to be the Heavenly King and called Jesus Christ his brother.[citation needed]

Du Wenxiu[edit]

Main article: Panthay Rebellion

The Panthay Rebellion leader Du Wenxiu declared his intention of overthrowing the Qing and driving the Manchus out of China. The rebellion started after massacres of Hui perpetrated by the Manchu authorities.[13] Du used anti-Manchu rhetoric in his rebellion against the Qing, calling for Han to join the Hui to overthrow the Manchu Qing after 200 years of their rule.[14][15] Du invited the fellow Hui Muslim leader Ma Rulong to join him in driving the Manchu Qing out and "recover China".[16]For his war against Manchu "oppresion", Du "became a Muslim hero", while Ma Rulong dfected to the Qing.[17] On multiple occasions Kunming was attacked and sacked by Du Wenxiu's forces.[18][19] His capital was Dali.[20] The revolt ended in 1873.[21] Du Wenxiu is regarded as a hero by the present day government of China.[22]

Late-Qing revolutionaries[edit]

Sun Yat-sen[edit]

Main article: Xinhai Revolution

Zou Rong[edit]

Main article: Zou Rong

Born in Sichuan province in West China in 1885 to a merchant family, Zou (1885–1905) received a classical education but refused to sit for the civil service exams. He worked as a seal carver while pursuing classical studies. He gradually became interested in Western ideas and went to Japan to study in 1901, where he was exposed to radical revolutionary and anti-Manchu ideas.

Here are some quotations of Zou Rong:

"Sweep away millennia of despotism in all its forms, throw off millennia of slavishness, annihilate the five million and more of the furry and horned Manchu race, cleanse ourselves of 260 years of harsh and unremitting pain"
"I do not begrudge repeating over and over again that internally we are slaves of the Manchus and suffering from their tyranny, externally we are being harassed by the Powers, and we are doubly enslaved."
"Kill the emperor set up by the Manchus as a warning to the myriad generations that despotic government is not to be revived."
"Settle the name of the country as the Republic of China."[23]

Overthrow of the Qing[edit]

The Xinhai Revolution of 1911 saw attacks and massacres on Manchu Banner garrisons in cities throughout China.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 298. ISBN 0804729336. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 53. ISBN 0295800550. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 54. ISBN 0295800550. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  4. ^ Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 0804729336. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Dwyer, Arienne M. (2007). Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes, Part 1 (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 3447040912. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  6. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 55. ISBN 0295800550. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  7. ^ WAKEMAN JR., FREDERIC (1986). GREAT ENTERPRISE. University of California Press. p. 802. ISBN 0520048040. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  8. ^ WAKEMAN JR., FREDERIC (1986). GREAT ENTERPRISE. University of California Press. p. 803. ISBN 0520048040. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Brown, Rajeswary Ampalavanar; Pierce, Justin, eds. (2013). Charities in the Non-Western World: The Development and Regulation of Indigenous and Islamic Charities. Routledge. ISBN 1317938526. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Ring & Salkin & La Boda 1996, p. 306.
  11. ^ Ebrey, Walthall & Palais 2006, p. 349
  12. ^ Holcombe 2011, p. 176
  13. ^ Schoppa, R. Keith (2008). East Asia: identities and change in the modern world, 1700-present (illustrated ed.). Pearson/Prentice Hall. p. 58. ISBN 0132431467. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  14. ^ Dillon, Michael (1999). China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects. Curzon Press. p. 59. ISBN 0700710264. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  15. ^ Dillon, Michael (2012). China: A Modern History (reprint ed.). I.B.Tauris. p. 90. ISBN 1780763816. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Atwill, David G. (2005). The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856-1873 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0804751595. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  17. ^ Asian Research Trends, Volumes 3-4. Contributor Yunesuko Higashi Ajia Bunka Kenkyū Sentā (Tokyo, Japan). Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies. 1993. p. 137. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  18. ^ Mansfield, Stephen (2007). China, Yunnan Province. Compiled by Martin Walters (illustrated ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 69. ISBN 1841621692. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  19. ^ China's Southwest. Regional Guide Series. Contributor Damian Harper (illustrated ed.). Lonely Planet. 2007. p. 223. ISBN 1741041856. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  20. ^ Giersch, Charles Patterson (2006). Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 217. ISBN 0674021711. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  21. ^ Mosk, Carl (2011). Traps Embraced Or Escaped: Elites in the Economic Development of Modern Japan and China. World Scientific. p. 62. ISBN 9814287520. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  22. ^ Comparative Civilizations Review, Issues 32-34. 1995. p. 36. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  23. ^ "Zou Rong The Revolutionary Army". Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  24. ^ Rhoads 2011, pp. 188-204.]