Anti-Qing sentiment (Chinese: 反清, fǎn Qing) refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), which was often resented for being foreign and barbaric. The Qing was accused of destroying traditional Chinese culture by banning traditional Chinese clothes (the hanfu) and forcing Chinese to wear their hair in a queue in the Manchu style. It was blamed for suppressing Chinese science, causing China to be transformed from the world's premiere power to a poor, backwards nation. The people of the Eight Banners enjoyed much better social welfare than the non-Manchu population.
In the broadest sense, an anti-Qing activist was anyone who engaged in anti-Manchu direct action. This included people from many mainstream political movements and uprisings, such as Taiping Rebellion, the Xinhai revolution, the Revive China Society, the Tongmenghui, the Panthay Rebellion, White Lotus Rebellion, and others.
Ming loyalism in the early Qing dynasty
Muslim Ming loyalists
Zheng Chenggong (鄭成功) (1624–1662), son of Zheng Zhilong (a Han Chinese) and Tagawa Matsu (Japanese), was a prominent leader of a military movement that opposed the Qing Dynasty from the 1640s to the 1660s. He is considered to be a Han-Chinese "ethnic hero" (民族英雄).
Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全, Hóng Xiùquán) was a Hakka Chinese who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) against the Qing Dynasty. He proclaimed himself to be the Heavenly King and called Jesus Christ his brother.
|“||To restore our national independence, we must first restore the Chinese nation. To restore the Chinese nation, we must drive the barbarian Manchus back to the Changbai Mountains. To get rid of the barbarians, we must first overthrow the present tyrannical, dictatorial, ugly, and corrupt Qing government. Fellow countrymen, a revolution is the only means to overthrow the Qing government!||”|
Born in Sichuan province in West China in 1885 to a merchant family, Zou (1885–1905) received a classical education but refused to sit for the civil service exams. He worked as a seal carver while pursuing classical studies. He gradually became interested in Western ideas and went to Japan to study in 1901, where he was exposed to radical revolutionary and anti-Manchu ideas.
Here are some quotations of Zou Rong:
"Sweep away millennia of despotism in all its forms, throw off millennia of slavishness, annihilate the five million and more of the furry and horned Manchu race, cleanse ourselves of 260 years of harsh and unremitting pain"
"I do not begrudge repeating over and over again that internally we are slaves of the Manchus and suffering from their tyranny, externally we are being harassed by the Powers, and we are doubly enslaved."
"Kill the emperor set up by the Manchus as a warning to the myriad generations that despotic government is not to be revived."
"Settle the name of the country as the Republic of China."
Overthrow of the Qing
In 1911 Xinhai revolutionaries proclaimed that Han and Muslims were equal, but deliberately left out the Manchus in the original proclamation, and thus "can be seen as sanctioning" the massacre of Manchus in Xi'an. The Muslims, led by Ma Anliang and Ma Qi proceeded to ignore the proclamation, and continued to fight for Qing against the revolutionaries. After the Manchu men in Xi'an were all killed, the Chinese Muslims rescued attractive Manchu girls and converted them into Islam.
- Jing Tsu, Failure, Nationalism, and Literature, p. 42.
- "Zou Rong The Revolutionary Army". Retrieved 2008-12-12.
- Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. University of Washington Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-295-98040-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Charles Patrick Fitzgerald, Norman Kotker (1969). The Horizon history of China. American Heritage Pub. Co. p. 365. Retrieved 2010-06-28.