Yongzheng Emperor

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"Yinzhen" redirects here. For the tea, see Yinzhen tea.
Yongzheng Emperor
雍正帝
Portrait of the Yongzheng Emperor in Court Dress.jpg
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1889.svg 5th Qing Emperor of China
Reign 27 December 1722 – 8 October 1735
Predecessor Kangxi Emperor
Successor Qianlong Emperor
Spouse Empress Xiaojingxian
Empress Xiaoshengxian
Consort Qi
Issue Honghui
Hongyun
Hongshi
Hongli
Hongzhou
Hongpan
Fuhe
Fuhui
Fupei
Hongyan
Full name
Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Yinzhen 愛新覺羅胤禛
Manchu: Aisin Gioro hala-i In Jen
Posthumous name
Emperor Jingtian Changyun Jianzhong Biaozheng Wenwu Yingming Kuanren Xinyi Ruisheng Daxiao Zhicheng Xian
敬天昌運建中表正文武英明寬仁信毅睿聖大孝至誠憲皇帝
Temple name
Qing Shizong
清世宗
Father Kangxi Emperor
Mother Empress Xiaogongren
Born (1678-12-13)13 December 1678
Died 8 October 1735(1735-10-08) (aged 56)
Beijing, China
Burial Tailing, Western Qing Tombs, China

The Yongzheng Emperor (Yung-cheng Emperor; Chinese: 雍正帝; pinyin: Yōngzhèng Dì; Wade–Giles: Yung1-cheng4 Ti4, Manchu: ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠰᡠᠨ ᡨᠣᠪ, Hūwaliyasun Tob hūwangdi, Mongolian: Nairalt Töv Khaan; 13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen (Yin-chen; Chinese: 胤禛; pinyin: Yìnzhēn; Wade–Giles: Yin4-chen1 ; Manchu language: ᡳᠨ ᠵᡝᠨ ; Möllendorff transliteration: in jen), he was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and the third Qing emperor from 1722 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, Yongzheng's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known as despotic, efficient, and vigorous.

Although Yongzheng's reign was much shorter than the reigns of both his father (the Kangxi Emperor) and his son (the Qianlong Emperor), his sudden death was probably brought about by a heavy workload. Yongzheng continued an era of peace and prosperity; he cracked down on corruption and waste, and reformed the financial administration.[1] During his reign, the formulation of the Grand Council began, an institution which had an enormous impact on the future of imperial China.

Prince Yong[edit]

Yinzhen was the fourth son of Kangxi to survive into adulthood and the eldest son from Empress Xiaogongren, a lady of the Manchu Uya clan who was then known as De-fei. Kangxi knew it would be a mistake to raise his children inside the palace alone; therefore, he exposed his sons (including Yinzhen) to the outside world and gave them a rigorous education. Yongzheng went with Kangxi on several inspection trips around the Beijing area, as well as one trip further south. He was honorary leader of the Plain Red Banner during Kangxi's second battle against the Mongol khan Gordhun. Yinzhen was made a beile (Chinese: 貝勒, "lord") in 1689 and rose to the position of second-class prince in 1698.

In 1704, the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers saw unprecedented flooding. The economy and livelihood of people around these areas were severely damaged. Yongzheng was sent out as an envoy of the emperor with the 13th Imperial Prince Yinxiang to deal with relief efforts in southern China. The imperial treasury, which had been drained due to unpaid loans by many officials and nobles, did not have sufficient funds to deal with the flooding; Yongzheng had the added responsibility of securing relief funds from the wealthy southern tycoons. These efforts ensured that funds were distributed properly and people would not starve. He was given the title of first-class prince, Prince Yong (Chinese: 雍親王), in 1709.

Disputed Succession[edit]

Further information: Kangxi Emperor

In 1712, the Kangxi Emperor removed his second son, Yinreng, as successor to the throne and did not designate an heir in his place. This led to a competition amongst sons of the Emperor for the position of crown prince. The most promising candidates were Yinzhi, Yinzhen, Yinsi, and Yinti (the third, fourth, eighth and fourteenth Imperial Princes respectively). Of the princes, Yinsi had the most support from the mandarins, but was disfavoured by Kangxi himself. Yinzhen had supported Yinreng prior to the latter's demise, and did not build a large political base until the final years of Kangxi's reign. When the Emperor died in December 1722, the field of contenders was reduced to three princes after Yinsi pledged his support to the 14th prince, Yinti.[2]

At the time of the Kangxi Emperor's death, Yinti, as border-pacification general-in-chief (Chinese: 撫遠大將軍), was at war in the northwest in what is present-day Xinjiang. Some historians believe that this implied Kangxi's favouring Yinti for succession, and was training the next emperor in military affairs; others maintain that Kangxi intended to keep Yinti a large distance away from the capital to ensure a peaceful succession for Yinzhen. It was Yinzhen who nominated Yinti for the post — not Yinsi, with whom Yinti was closely affiliated.

The official record states that on 20 December 1722 the ailing Kangxi Emperor called seven of his sons and the general commandant of the Peking gendarmerie, Longkodo, to his bedside; Longkodo read the will, and declared that Yinzhen succeed the emperor on the throne. Some evidence has suggested that Yinzhen contacted Longkodo months before the will was read in preparation for his succession by military means, although in their official capacities frequent encounters were expected. Legend has it that Yongzheng changed Kangxi's will by adding strokes and modifying characters. The best-known rumor says that Yongzheng changed "transfer the throne to Prince Fourteen" (Chinese: 傳位十四子shísì) to "transfer the throne to Prince four" (Chinese: 傳位于四子yúsì); others say it was "fourteen" to "fourth" (Chinese: 第四dìsì). While widely accepted, there is little supporting evidence—especially considering that the character was not widely used during the Qing Dynasty; on official documents, () is used. Secondly, Qing tradition insists that the will was done in both Manchu and Chinese; Manchu writing, however, is more intricate and (in this case) impossible to modify. Furthermore, princes in the Qing Dynasty are referred to as "the Emperor's son", in the order which they were born (for example, "the emperor's fourth son": Chinese: 皇四子). But it has been long refuted by scholars: the will was written in three languages:Chinese,Mongolian and Manchurian,not just in Chinese. Also in traditional Chinese, the character should be written into 於,not 于.[3] Therefore, Yinzhen couldn't have changed the will to ascend to the throne. Also some occurings showed Kangxi had chosen Yongzheng as heir,for example, in the first month of 1721, Kangxi's 60th anniversary of his throne, he sent Yongzheng and his 12th prince and grandson born by third prince to hold the veneration ritual at royal tombs. None of the princes who supported 14th prince (namely, third, eighth, ninth and tenth prince) was sent.[4]

In 2013, an exhibit in Liaoning Province's Archive Bureau showed Kangxi Emperor's succession will for the first time, and the exhibit finally disproved any notion that Yongzheng changed his father's will.[5]

Painting of Chinese man, in Western clothes, attacking a tiger with a pitchfork-like staff
18th-century Chinese painting of the Yongzheng Emperor wearing a European wig and dress, preparing to strike a tiger with a trident
Painting of people on a path in a large courtyard, flanked by soldiers, viewed from a distance
The Yongzheng Emperor offering sacrifices at the altar of the god of agriculture, Shennong
Painting of the Yongzheng Emperor sitting on the ground near a waterfall
18th-century painting of the Yongzheng Emperor in costume

Yinzhen chose an era name similar in sound to his given name; 1723 was to be the first year of the Yongzheng era. For his first official act as emperor Yongzheng released his long-time ally—the 13th prince Yinxiang, who had been imprisoned by the Kangxi Emperor at the same time as the crown prince. Some sources indicate that Yinxiang, the most militant of the princes, then assembled a group of special Peking soldiers from the Fengtai command to seize immediate control of the Forbidden City and surrounding areas to prevent usurpation by Yinsi's cronies. Yongzheng's personal account stated that he was emotionally unstable and deeply saddened over his father's death, and knew it would be a burden "much too heavy" for himself if he were to succeed the throne. In addition, after the will was read Yinzhen wrote that the officials (premier Zhang Tingyu, Longkedo and Yinzhi) and Prince Cheng led the other princes in the ceremonial Three-Kneels and Nine-Salutes to the emperor. The following day Yongzheng issued an edict summoning Yinti back from Qinghai, bestowing on their mother the title "Holy Mother Empress Dowager" the day Yinti arrived at the funeral.

In the first major comprehensive biography of the Yongzheng Emperor by Feng Erkang, the author puts the Yongzheng succession in perspective. Feng writes that there were some suspicious signs from the lost wills and the dates released, but the majority of evidence points to Yinzhen succeeding the throne legitimately (although with political and military maneuvering deemed necessary by the situation).[2] The eighth prince (Yinsi) had been bribing officials for support throughout his life, and his influence penetrated the Fengtai command. Furthermore, Feng suggests that "although we are not yet altogether certain on what happened with the succession, and which side is correct, it is reasonable to think that Yongzheng's political enemies manipulated all suspicion behind the will in an attempt to put a dark image on Yongzheng; Imperial Chinese tradition had led certain schools of thought in believing that Yongzheng's whole reign can be discredited simply because his succession of the throne did not come as a will of his father, the emperor and ultimate decision maker in China." He further suggests that Kangxi made a grave mistake by allowing his sons to become major political players (especially since the position of crown prince was empty) and a bloody battle of succession (including a possible usurpation) was the inevitable result of imperial Chinese institutions. Therefore, it would be an even-bigger mistake to judge a ruler solely on the way he came to power. Certainly, the Yongzheng Emperor ensured his successor would have a smooth transition when his turn came.

Reign[edit]

After ascending to the throne in December 1722, Yinzhen took the era name "Harmonious Justice" (Chinese: 雍正yōngzhèng) in 1723 from his peerage title "harmonious" (Chinese: yōng) and "just, correct, upright" (Chinese: zhèng). It has been suggested that the second character of his era name was an attempt to cover up his illegal claim to the throne by calling himself "justified". Immediately after succeeding to the throne, Yongzheng chose his new governing council. It consisted of the eighth prince Yinsi, the 13th prince Yinxiang, Zhang Tingyu, Ma Qi, and Longkodo. Yinsi was given the title of Prince Lian, and Yinxiang was given the title of Prince Yi; both held the highest positions in the land.

Battle with princes[edit]

The nature of his succession is deeply disputed, and Yongzheng saw challenges in all his surviving brothers. Yinzhi, the eldest, continued to live under house arrest; Yinreng, the former crown prince, died two years into his brother's reign (although they were both imprisoned not by Yongzheng, but by Kangxi). The biggest challenge was to separate Yinsi's party (consisting of Yinsi, the ninth and tenth princes and their minions), and isolate Yinti to reduce their power. Yinsi (who had nominally held the position of President of the Feudatory Affairs Office, the title "Prince Lian" and later the office of Prime Minister) was held under close watch by Yongzheng. Yintang was sent to Qinghai under the pretext of military service, but in reality fell within Yongzheng's trusted protégé Nian Gengyao's territory. Yin'e, the tenth prince, was stripped of all his titles in May 1724 and sent north to the Shunyi area. The 14th Prince Yinti (Yongzheng's full-brother) was placed under house arrest at the Imperial Tombs under the pretext of guarding their parents' tombs. The first few years of Yongzheng's reign saw an increase in partisan politics. Yinsi wanted to use his position to manipulate Yongzheng into errors, while appearing supportive. Yinsi and Yintang (both supporters of Yinti for the throne) were stripped of their titles, languished in prison and died in 1727.

Nian and Long[edit]

Nian Gengyao was a supporter of Yongzheng long before he succeeded to the throne. In 1722, when he was recalling his brother Yinti from the northwest, Yongzheng appointed Nian general. The situation in Xinjiang at the time was still precarious, and a strong general was needed in the area. After several military conquests, however, Nian Gengyao's lust for power grew; he reportedly wanted to be equal to Yongzheng. Seeing the situation unfold, Yongzheng issued an imperial edict demoting Nian to general of the Hangzhou Command. Continuing to be unrepentant, Nian was given an ultimatum and committed suicide by poison in 1726. Longkodo was commander of Peking's armies at the time of Yongzheng's succession. He fell in disgrace in 1728, and died under house arrest.

After becoming emperor, Yongzheng suppressed writings he deemed unfavorable to his regime, particularly those with an anti-Manchu bias.[1] Foremost among these were those of Zeng Jing, an unsuccessful degree candidate heavily influenced by 17th-century scholar Lü Liuliang. Zeng had been so affected by what he read that he attempted to incite the governor-general of Shaanxi-Sichuan, Yue Zhongqi, to rebellion. The general promptly turned him in, and in 1730 the case reached Yongzheng Emperor. Highly concerned with the implications of the case, Yongzheng had Zeng Jing brought to Beijing for trial. The emperor's verdict seemed to demonstrate a Confucian sovereign's benevolence: He ascribed Zeng's actions to the gullibility and naïveté of a youth taken in by Lü's abusive and overdrawn rhetoric. In addition to this the emperor suggested that Lü's original attack on the Manchus was misplaced, since they had been transformed by their long-term exposure to the civilizing force of Confucianism.

Yongzheng is also known for establishing a strict autocracy rule during his reign. He detested corruption, and punished officials severely when they were found guilty of an offense. In 1729 he issued an edict prohibiting the smoking of madak,[citation needed] a blend of tobacco and opium. During Yongzheng's reign the Qing Dynasty became a great power in Asia as well as a peaceful land, and he enhanced the Kangqian Period of Harmony (Chinese: 康乾盛世). In response to his father's tragedy, Yongzheng created a sophisticated procedure for choosing a successor. He was known for his trust in Mandarin officials. Li Wei and Tian Wenjing governed China's southern areas, with the assistance of Ortai.

"The Yongzheng Emperor Offering Sacrifice at the Xiannong Altar" in Beijing, Qing Dynasty painting

Expansion in the northwest[edit]

1734 map of China
French map of "China and Chinese Tartary" from the Yongzheng era (1734)

Like his father, Yongzheng used military force in order to preserve the dynasty's position in Outer Mongolia.[1] When Tibet was torn by civil war in 1727–1728, he intervened militarily. After withdrawing, he left a Qing citizen (the amban) backed up with a military garrison to safeguard the dynasty's interests.[1] For the Tibetan campaign Yongzheng sent an army of 230,000 (led by Nian Gengyao) against the Dzungars, who had an army of 80,000. Due to geography, the Qing army (although superior in numbers) was unable to engage the more-mobile enemy at first. Eventually, however, they engaged the Dzungars and defeated them. This campaign cost the treasury at least 8,000,000 taels of silver. Later in Yongzheng's reign, he would send a small army of 10,000 to fight the Dzungars. However, that army was annihilated and the Qing had faced the danger of losing control of Mongolia. Fortunately, a Khalkha ally of the Qing Dynasty would later defeat the Dzungars.

Following the reforms of 1729, the treasury increased from the 1721 total of 32,622,421 taels to about 60,000,000 taels in 1730, surpassing the record set during Yongzheng's father's (the Kangxi Emperor's) regime; however, the pacification of the Qinghai area and the defense on the border areas were heavy burdens. For safeguarding the borders alone, 100,000 taels were needed each year. The total military budget was up to 10,000,000 taels a year. By the end of 1735 military spending depleted half the treasury, which totaled 33,950,000 taels. It was because of this burden that the Yongzheng Emperor considered making peace with the Dzungars.

Religion[edit]

Yongzheng was firmly against Christian converts among his own Manchu people. He warned them that the Manchus must follow only the Manchu way of worshipping Heaven since different peoples worshipped Heaven differently.[6] Yongzheng stated: "The Lord of Heaven is Heaven itself. . . . In the empire we have a temple for honoring Heaven and sacrificing to Him. We Manchus have Tiao Tchin. The first day of every year we burn incense and paper to honor Heaven. We Manchus have our own particular rites for honoring Heaven; the Mongols, Chinese, Russians, and Europeans also have their own particular rites for honoring Heaven. I have never said that he [Urcen, a son of Sunu] could not honor heaven but that everyone has his way of doing it. As a Manchu, Urcen should do it like us."[7]

Death and succession[edit]

The Yongzheng Emperor ruled the Qing Empire for thirteen years before dying suddenly in 1735 at age 56. Legend holds that he was assassinated by Lü Siniang, daughter or granddaughter of Lü Liuliang, whose family was executed for literary crimes against the Manchu Regime. Another version was that he had been a lover of Lü Siniang; Siniang was the real mother of Qianlong, but Yongzheng refused to allow Siniang to be the queen. It is generally accepted that he died while reading files. It is likely that his death was the result of an overdose of the medication he was consuming which he believed would prolong his life. Yongzheng Emperor's family life seems to have tragic undertones. Of the 14 children born to him and his Empress and consorts, only five are known to have survived into adulthood. To prevent the succession tragedy which he had faced, he ordered his third son (Hongshi, an ally of Yinsi) to commit suicide. He also put in place a system to choose his successor in secret. Yongzheng wrote his chosen successor's name on two pieces of paper, placed one piece of paper in a sealed box and had the box stored behind the stele in the Qianqing Palace. He then kept the other copy with him or hid it. With his passing, the ministers would compare the paper in the box and with the copy Yongzheng had. If they were deemed identical, the person whose name was on the paper would be the new emperor.[8]

His son Hongli, Prince Bao, then became the sixth emperor of the Qing dynasty under the era name of Qianlong. The Yongzheng Emperor was interred in the Western Qing Tombs (Chinese: 清西陵), 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Tailing (Chinese: 泰陵) mausoleum complex (known in Manchu as the Elhe Munggan).

Evaluation[edit]

Historian Jonathan D. Spence thinks highly of Yongzheng,attributing the longevity of Qing Dynasty as an alien regime(such regime usually only sustained for a century) to Yongzheng's reforms,such as anti-corruption salary(養廉銀) and unified supertaxes(火耗归公).[9] There are also criticisms of his callousness.The good examples are purges of Longkodo and Nian Gengyao,without whom he couldn't have fulfilled ascension and early ruling.Also to suppress opposition he built a secret police force which was often related with fictional weapon flying guillotine in legends.The agency had a funny name:Glue Rod Agency.[10][11]

Family[edit]

  • Father: Kangxi Emperor (of whom he was the fourth son)
  • Mother: Concubine from the Manchu Uya clan (1660–1723), who became known as Empress Dowager Renshou (仁壽皇太后) when her son became emperor. She is posthumously known as Empress Xiaogongren (孝恭仁皇后; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Gungnecuke Gosin Hūwanghu).

Consorts[edit]

Sons[edit]

  • Honghui (弘暉; 1697–1704), posthumously granted title of Prince Duan of the First Rank (端親王) by the Qianlong Emperor
  • Hongpan (弘昐; 1697–1699)
  • Hongyun (弘昀; 1700–1710)
  • Hongshi (弘時; 1704–1726)
  • Hongli (弘曆; 1711–1799), the Qianlong Emperor
  • Hongzhou (弘晝; 1712–1770), Prince Hegong of the First Rank (和恭親王)
  • Fuyi (福宜; 1720–1721)
  • Fuhui (福惠; 1721–1728), posthumously the title of Prince Huai of the First Rank (懷親王)
  • Fupei (福沛; 1723)
  • Hongyan (弘曕; 1733–1765): Prince Guogong of the Second Rank (果恭郡王)

Daughters[edit]

  • Oldest daughter (1695)
  • Heshuo Princess Huaike (和碩懷恪公主; 1695–1717)
  • Third daughter (1706)
  • Fourth daughter (1715–1717)
  • Foster daughters:
    • Heshuo Princess Shushen (和碩淑慎公主; 1708–1784), sixth daughter of Yunreng.
    • Heshuo Princess Hehui (和碩和惠公主; 1714–1731), fourth daughter of Yunxiang.
    • Heshuo Princess Duanrou (和碩端柔公主; 1714–1754), eldest daughter of Yunlu (允祿).

Ancestry[edit]

In fiction and popular culture[edit]

  • The Yongzheng Emperor is mentioned in Qing Dynasty writer Wenkang (文康)'s wuxia novel Ernü Yingxiong Zhuan (兒女英雄傳). It was adapted into the 1983 Hong Kong television series The Legend of the Unknowns (十三妹), and the 1986 Chinese film Lucky 13 (侠女十三妹).
  • A popular legend tells of the Yongzheng Emperor's death at the hands of a female assassin Lü Siniang (呂四娘), a fictitious granddaughter (or daughter, in some accounts) of Lü Liuliang. She did so to avenge her grandfather (or father), who was wrongly put to death by Yongzheng. The legend was adapted into many films and television series.
  • There were two legends about the origins of the Yongzheng Emperor's son and successor, the Qianlong Emperor. The first, more widely circulated in southern China, says that Qianlong is actually the son of Chen Shiguan (陳世倌), a Qing minister from Haining, Zhejiang. Shortly after birth, Qianlong was exchanged with one of Yongzheng's daughters and raised as Yongzheng's son and eventually succeeded to the throne. Wuxia writer Louis Cha (Jin Yong) adapted this legend for his novel The Book and the Sword. The second legend on Qianlong's origins, more popular in northern China, stated that during a trip to the Mulan Hunting Ground (木蘭圍場) in Rehe Province, Yongzheng had an illegitimate affair with a palace maid and they conceived a son, who would become the Qianlong Emperor.
  • The Yongzheng Emperor is featured as an important character in Tong Hua's novel Bu Bu Jing Xin and he had a romantic relationship with the protagonist Ma'ertai Ruoxi. In 2011 the novel was adapted into the Chinese television series Scarlet Heart.
  • The Yongzheng Emperor appears in the romance fantasy novel series Meng Hui Da Qing (梦回大清) by Yaoye (妖叶).
The Yongzheng Emperor in film and television
Year Region Title Type Yongzheng Emperor actor Notes
1975 Hong Kong The Flying Guillotine
血滴子
Film Chiang Yang Produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio
1980 Hong Kong Dynasty
大內群英
Television series Alex Man 57 episodes
1988 Hong Kong The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty Season 2
滿清十三皇朝2
Television series Wai Lit 50 episodes
1994 Mainland China The Book and the Sword
书剑恩仇录
Television series Liu Dagang 32 episodes
1995 Hong Kong Secret Battle of the Majesty
九王奪位
Television series Kwong Wa 40 episodes
1996 Taiwan 雍正大帝 Television series Tou Chung-hua
1997 Taiwan Legend of YungChing
江湖奇俠傳
Television series Adam Cheng 58 / 59 episodes
1997 Hong Kong The Hitman Chronicles
大刺客
Television series Eddie Cheung 35 episodes
1997 Mainland China Yongzheng Dynasty
雍正王朝
Television series Tang Guoqiang 44 episodes
2001 Taiwan 玉指環 Television series Chin Han alternative Chinese title 才子佳人乾隆皇
2001 Mainland China Emperor Yong Zheng
雍正皇帝
Television series Liu Xinyi 31 episodes
2002 Mainland China Li Wei the Magistrate
李卫当官
Television series Tang Guoqiang 30 episodes; also known as Li Wei Becomes an Official
2002 Hong Kong Doomed to Oblivion
郑板桥
Television series Savio Tsang 30 episodes
2002 Mainland China Jiangshan Weizhong
江山为重
Television series Liu Guanxiong 31 episodes; alternative Chinese title 大清帝国
2003 Mainland China Palace Painter Master Castiglione
宫廷画师郎世宁
Television series Kenny Bee 24 episodes
2003 Hong Kong The King of Yesterday and Tomorrow
九五至尊
Television series Kwong Wa 20 episodes
2004 Mainland China 36th Chamber of Southern Shaolin
南少林三十六房
Television series Zhang Tielin 32 episodes
2004 Mainland China Huang Taizi Mishi
皇太子秘史
Television series Zhao Hongfei 32 episodes
2004 Mainland China Li Wei the Magistrate 2
李卫当官2
Television series Tang Guoqiang 32 episodes
2005 Mainland China Shang Shu Fang
上书房
Television series Kou Zhenhai 52 episodes
2005 Mainland China The Juvenile Qianlong Emperor
少年宝亲王
Television series Zhang Guoli 40 episodes
2008 Mainland China The Book and the Sword
书剑恩仇录
Television series Shen Baoping 40 episodes
2010 Mainland China The Legend of Zhen Huan
后宫甄嬛传
Television series Chen Jianbin 76 episodes
2011 Mainland China Scarlet Heart
步步惊心
Television series Nicky Wu 35 episodes
2011 Mainland China Palace
宫锁心玉
Television series Mickey He 35 episodes
2012 Mainland China Palace II
宫锁珠帘
Television series Mickey He 35 episodes
2014 Hong Kong Gilded Chopsticks
食為奴
Television series Ben Wong 25 episodes

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Schirokauer, Conrad; Brown, Miranda (2006). A Brief History of Chinese Civilization. Belmont, California: Thomson Higher Education. ISBN 0-534-64305-1. 
  2. ^ a b Feng, Erkang. A Biography of Yongzheng (Chinese: 雍正传) China Publishing Group, People's Publishing House, Beijing: 2004. ISBN 7-01-004192-X
  3. ^ 雍正得位紛紜 增添觀展趣味
  4. ^ original words are:「康熙六十年正月,命皇四子雍親王胤禛、皇十二子貝子胤祹、世子弘晟以御極六十年,告祭永陵、福陵、昭陵。」
  5. ^ "康熙遺詔首曝光:傳位皇四子 雍正沒篡位 (Kangxi's Will Revealed For The First Time: He Actually Transferred The Throne To His Fourth Son. Yongzheng Did Not Scheme To Take The Thronw)" (in Traditional Chinese). Liaoning Evening News (Via Xinhua News Agency). 2 September, 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  6. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 240. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. "In his indictment of Sunu and other Manchu nobles who had converted to Christianity, the Yongzheng emperor reminded the rest of the Manchu elite that each people had its own way of honoring Heaven and that it was incumbent upon Manchus to observe Manchu practice in this regard:" 
  7. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 241. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. "The Lord of Heaven is Heaven itself. . . . In the empire we have a temple for honoring Heaven and sacrificing to Him. We Manchus have Tiao Tchin. The first day of every year we burn incense and paper to honor Heaven. We Manchus have our own particular rites for honoring Heaven; the Mongols, Chinese, Russians, and Europeans also have their own particular rites for honoring Heaven. I have never said that he [Urcen, a son of Sunu] could not honor heaven but that everyone has his way of doing it. As a Manchu, Urcen should do it like us." 
  8. ^ http://www1.chinaculture.org/library/2008-02/09/content_22919.htm
  9. ^ http://sn.people.com.cn/n/2013/1008/c346862-19644715-5.html
  10. ^ Glue Rod is the tool to catch cicada
  11. ^ "血滴子"与雍正特务政治的真相
  12. ^ Draft history of the Qing dynasty (Chinese: 清史稿 卷二百十四.列傳一.后妃傳)

Further reading[edit]

Beatrice S. Bartlett. Monarchs and Ministers: The Grand Council in Mid-Ch'ing China, 1723-1820. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). ISBN 0520065913.

External links[edit]

Yongzheng Emperor
Born: 13 December 1678 Died: 8 October 1735
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Kangxi Emperor
Emperor of China
1722–1735
Succeeded by
The Qianlong Emperor
Preceded by
Kangxi Emperor
Great Khan of the Mongols
1722–1735
Succeeded by
Qianlong Emperor