Anza (missile)

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Anza
ANZA MK 2.JPG
Anza Mk-II
Type Man-portable air-defence system (MANPADS)
Place of origin Pakistan
Service history
In service 1989-Present
Used by See Operators
Wars Kargil War
Production history
Manufacturer Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) [1][2]
(or AQ Khan Research Laboratories) [2][3]
Produced 1988 [4]
Variants Anza Mk-I
Anza Mk-II
Anza Mk-III
Specifications (Anza Mk-II)
Weight 16.5 kg [1]
Length 1.44 m
Diameter 7.2 cm
Warhead 0.55 kg shaped charge [1]

Engine Rocket motor
Propellant Solid propellant
Operational
range
500 - 5000 m
Flight altitude 30 - 4000 m
Speed 600 m/s [5]
Guidance
system
Infra-red homing [1]
Launch
platform
Human, vehicle.

Anza (لانس Anas) is a series of shoulder-fired, man-portable surface-to-air missiles produced by Pakistan. Guided by an infra-red homing seeker, Anza is used for low level air defence.[6][7]

Anza is produced by Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL), being one of the facility's main conventional weapons projects. Development was originally undertaken to eliminate dependence on importing expensive foreign systems.[8] Various versions of the Anza are currently in service with the Pakistan Army,[9] with the Mk-III version being the most recent.[10] The Anza is also offered for export, Malaysia being its only known export customer after receiving 100 Anza Mk-I in 2002 and, later, a further 500 Anza Mk-II systems.[11][12]

Development and design[edit]

Some sources state that the Anza Mk-II was co-developed in a joint project by Pakistan and China.[13]

The Anza Mk-I entered service with the Pakistan Army in January 1990,[10][14][15] followed by the Anza Mk-II in September 1994.[15] Serial production of Anza Mk-III for the Pakistan Army was announced in 2006.

In recent years, Pakistan has advertised the Anza series for export,[16] displaying it at the International Defense Exhibition (IDEX) 2007 event in the United Arab Emirates [17] and at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Pakistan.[18][19]

Training aids[edit]

The Mk-II is known to have the ATS-II Training Simulator included, which consists of a set of four Mk-II training missiles, four firing units, simulated ground batteries, cable interconnectors, PC-based control, monitoring and scoring unit with a target simulator made up of an infrared electric bulb moving along an overhead wire.[20]

The High Speed Aerial Target Drone, or HISAT-DK, is a high speed, low maintenance target drone that can be used in training operators to use the Anza.[21] It is manned by a four-man crew using Optical Tracking Pod devices.[21] The drones can be used for MANPAD training, though they are also used for other purposes, such as artillery fire support training.[21]

Variants[edit]

  • Anza Mk-I - The first MANPADS produced by Pakistan for use by the Pakistan Army. Development is believed to have been assisted by China [22] ((citation needed/not mentioned in reference)) and the design is similar to the HN-5B MANPADS.[23]((bogus source/expired)). A British source the Anza is a copy of the SA-7 Grail.[24]((non reliable source/confirmation needed)) Approximately 1000 Anza Mk-I were produced between 1989-1998.[4]
Anza Mk-II on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition, Pakistan.
  • Anza Mk-II - A third generation MANPADS,[25] believed to be based on the Chinese QW-1 MANPADS.[26](bogus source/expired) Uses a dual-band, cross-scan infra-red homing seeker to counter decoy flares.[27] Also believed to use American missile technology.[28] Approximately 1650 Anza Mk-II were produced between 1994-2012.[29]
  • Anza Mk-III - Believed to be based on the Chinese QW-2 MANPADS,[30]((bogus source/expired) modifications made to meet Pakistan Army requirements include increased range up to 5 km, improved sensors and a new firing unit similar to the Russian 9K38 Igla MANPADS.[31][32]((non reliable sources)) All-aspect attack capability and improved ECCM capability.[10] It also has a vehicle-mounted launcher variant.

Operators[edit]

 Pakistan


 Malaysia


- 1500 Anza MK.III systems delivered as part of a RM446 million arms deal with Pakistan,[33] used to arm the 10th Paratrooper Brigade.[34]


 China

- 500 Anza Mk-II systems.

Operational history[edit]

On 27 May 1999, the Anza Mk-II was used to attack Indian aircraft during the Kargil conflict with India. A MiG-27 of the Indian Air Force was shot down by Pakistan Army Air Defence forces. The MiG-27 was searching for a MiG-21 pilot who ejected when its aircraft experienced an engine flameout[14]

In December 2002, it was reported that Indian soldiers of the 24 Rashtriya Rifles found an Anza Mk-I in a militant hideout near the Line of Control in Kupwara, Kashmir.[35] An Anza system had previously been found at a militant hideout by Indian Army soldiers in 2001. Pakistan denied supplying Anza systems to the militants.[36][37][38]

Reports have been circulated that an Anza MANPADS was fired at an Indian Air Force Antonov An-32 in 2002 over the Line of Control; the plane was able to land safely.[39]

In 2004, Saudi Assistant Minister for Defense Prince Khaled ibn Sultan of Saudi Arabia and Defense Minister Rao Sikandar Iqbal of Pakistan had been in talks for joint production of the Anza.[40]

In 2008, the Pakistan Army conducted exercises with the Anza Mk-II [41] in a semi-desert area near Muzaffargarh [42] in response to covert attacks on targets in north-west Pakistan by American unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), also known as drones.[43] In November 2008, the chief of the Pakistan Air Force told reporters that his forces are fully capable of shooting down the American drones but it was the responsibility of the government to decide whether the drone attacks were stopped through diplomacy or military engagement.[44] In the 2010 Azm-e-Nau 3 exercises, the air defence of Pakistan Army exhibited accurate targeting of enemy's aircraft while in its attacking position, with a pinpoint precision through shoulder operated system of Anza Missiles[45]

Specifications[edit]

Anza Mk-I [14] Anza Mk-II [15] Anza Mk-III
Length (missile and booster) 1.44 m 1.447 m 1.59 m
Weight (launcher and missile) 15 kg 16.5 kg 18 kg
Missile weight 9.8 kg 10.68 kg 11.32 kg
Propulsion Solid fuel rocket motor (solid fuel booster rocket on launch)
Guidance Uncooled PbS passive infra-red homing seeker Cooled InSb passive infra-red homing seeker Dual-band infra-red homing seeker
Warhead HE fragmentation
(containing 0.37 kg HE)
with contact and graze fusing
HE fragmentation
(containing 0.55 kg HE)
with contact and graze fusing
HE fragmentation
(containing 1.42 kg HE)
with contact and graze fusing
Average cruise speed 500 m/s 600 m/s >600 m/s
Max maneuvering 6 g 16 g
Self destruction time 14 to 17 s 14 to 18 s
Slant range 1,200 m to 4,200 m 500 m to 5,000 m 6,000 m
Altitude 50 m to 2300 m 30 m to 4,000 m 10 m to 3,500 m
Weapon reaction time 5 s 3.5 s 3.5 s
Ready from the march 10 s 10 s 10 s
Battery life 40 s 50 s 50 s

Comparable Systems[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "PAF Weapons & Missiles". Pakistani Defence. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  2. ^ a b "Kahuta - Pakistan Special Weapons Facilities". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  3. ^ "Over-View Of Pakistani Weapon Systems". Pakistani Defence. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  4. ^ a b "Transfers and licensed production of major conventional weapons". Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  5. ^ Robin Hughes (2002-12-02). "SAM attack on jet reignites old fears". Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  6. ^ "MBDA Spada 2000 Air Defence System for Pakistan Air Force". Defence Talk. 2007-09-11. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  7. ^ B. Muralidhar Reddy (2001-03-28). "Pak. testfires missiles". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  8. ^ Malik Qasim Mustafa. "PAKISTAN DEFENCE PRODUCTION: PROSPECTS FOR DEFENCE EXPORT". Retrieved 2009-02-20. [dead link]
  9. ^ a b "Pakistan ad MorePakistan Armée Pakistanaise forces terrestres équipements et véhicules". Army Recognition. Retrieved 2009-02-09 & French.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)[dead link]
  10. ^ a b c "Anza-III missile to end Indian dominance". The Fact. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  11. ^ "Big Issue, Big Problems?". Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  12. ^ "IICS Anza Mk II low-altitude surface-to-air missile system (Pakistan), Land systems - Air defence - Missiles". Jane's Information Group. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  13. ^ http://www.wisconsinproject.org/countries/pakistan/pak-help-missiles.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ a b c John Pike (1999-03-21). "SA-7 GRAIL". FAS. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  15. ^ a b c John Pike (1999-08-10). "QW-1". FAS. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  16. ^ Pakistan Pushing Military Exports (2005-05). "Pakistan Pushing Military Exports". National Defense. Retrieved 2009-02-20.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  17. ^ Xinhua. "Pakistani defense industry in "perpetual quest" for international alliances: report". People's Daily. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  18. ^ "Special Supplement on IDEAS 2008 - Global Industrial and Defence Solutions (GIDS)". Financial Daily International. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  19. ^ "Global Industrial & Defence Solutions(GIDS)". Asian Defence Journal. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  20. ^ "Training Simulator for Anza MK-II (ATS-II)". Defence Export Promotion Organisation. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  21. ^ a b c "High Speed Aerial Target Drone, HISAT-DK". Defence Export Promotion Organization. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  22. ^ "China's Missile Exports and Assistance to South Asia". James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. 1999-08. Retrieved 2009-02-09.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  23. ^ "HN-5 Man-Portable Surface-to-Air Missile". 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  24. ^ Cloughley, Brian. "Pak armour has edge over India". Jane's Intelligence Review. Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  25. ^ James C. "Chris" Whitmire. "SHOULDER LAUNCHED MISSILES (A.K.A. MANPADS): The Ominous Threat to Commercial Aviation". USAF Counterproliferation Center. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  26. ^ "QW-1 Man-Portable Surface-to-Air Missile". Sino Defence. 2007-07-30. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  27. ^ Michael Puttré (2001-04-01). "Facing the Shoulder-Fired Threat". eDefenseonline.com & Horizon House Publications. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  28. ^ "Trends in Small Arms and Light Weapons Development: Non-Proliferation and Arms Control Dimensions". Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  29. ^ SIPRI Arms Transfers Database. "Transfers and licensed production of major conventional weapons". Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  30. ^ "QW-2 Man-Portable Surface-to-Air Missile". Sino Defence. 2007-07-30. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  31. ^ "Pakistan builds on Chinese missile system". Punjab Kesari. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  32. ^ "China Hustles Stinger Tech to Pakistan". strategypage.com. May 31, 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  33. ^ MAH (2007-04-02). "MENGENAL AD MALAYSIA". Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Anza Mk II anti-aircraft missile for elite Rapid Deployment Force". Worldsources Online. 2003-10-15. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  35. ^ "Missile found in Valley". The Telegraph. 2002-01-15. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  36. ^ "Jawans recover surface-to-air missile near LoC". J&K News. 2002-12-14. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  37. ^ Press Trust of India (2002-12-15). "Pak-made missile found at militant hideout in J-K". Express India. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  38. ^ "Missile found in Kashmir". BBC News. 2002-12-14. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  39. ^ "WHAT'S HOT? –– ANALYSIS OF RECENT HAPPENINGS". INDIA DEFENCE CONSULTANTS. Archived from the original on 16 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  40. ^ Mohammed Rasooldeen (2004-10-17). "More Saudi Soldiers to Be Trained in Pakistan". Arab News. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  41. ^ "Gilani says no agreement with US on drone attacks; army practice shoot downs". South Asia Monitor. Retrieved 2009-02-20. [dead link]
  42. ^ "Pakistan army flexes muscles to shoot down drone aircraft". Khaleej Times. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  43. ^ "Pakistan army stages UAV shoot-down exercise". Army Times. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  44. ^ "‘Pakistan capable of shooting down US drones’". Sindh Today. 2008-11-25. Retrieved 2009-02-20. [dead link]
  45. ^ "Pakistan air defence demonstrates Anza-II in Azm-e-Nau 3". 

External links[edit]