Ballistic Missile Early Warning System
|Ballistic Missile Early Warning System|
|System Originator||United States|
|Location||BMEWS Central Computer and Display Facility|
|- coordinates|| 'in Colorado
Site I*: in Greenland
|RCA Defense Electronics Products:29 was contracted in
January 1958 and "employed 485 large companies and
2415 smaller firms spread over 29 states"
($474,831,000 contract in February 1960)
|Constructed||1958-61 (complete FOC was January 15, 1964)|
|*Air Defense Command radar stations (cf. ADC general surveillance stations)|
The RCA 474L Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS, "474L System", Project 474L) was a USAF "Big L" Cold War system of radar, computer, and communications systems that included the first operational ballistic missile detection radar. The network of 12 radars for detecting "a mass ballistic missile attack launched on northern approaches [for] 15 to 25 minutes warning time" also provided Project Space Track satellite data (e.g., about 1/4 of SPADATS observations). BMEWS equipment included:
- General Electric AN/FPS-50 Radar Set, a UHF (440 MHz) detector with transmitter having an organ-pipe-scanner feed, fixed 1,500 ton parabolic-torus reflector, and receiver with Doppler filter bank to scan with 2 horizontally-sweeping fan for as many as ~12,000 observations per day for surveillance (determining range, position, and range rate) of space objects
- RCA AN/FPS-49 Radar Set, a five-horn monopulse tracker (e.g., 3 at Site III) and FPS-49A variant (different radome) at Thule ("vacuum tubes 10 feet tall [in] transmitter buildings [are] used to warm" the site.)
- RCA AN/FPS-92 Radar Set, an upgraded FPS-49 "featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings" at Clear
- Sylvania AN/FSQ-53 Radar Monitoring Set, with console and Signal Data Converter Group ("data take-off unit")
- Sylvania AN/FSQ-28 Missile Impact Predictor Set, with duplex IBM-709-TX solid-state computers e.g., in Building 2 at Thule and part of the AN/FPA-21's Radar Central Computer at Site III--Satellite Information Processor (SIP) software was later added at Site III for use on the backup IBM 7090.
- RCA Communications Data Processor (CDP), as used in the Western Electric Air Force Communications Network (AF DATACOM) of AUTODIN:21
- Western Electric BMEWS Rearward Communications System, a "network to link the separate elements" and 1 of 6 ADC comm systems: "BMEWS Rearward Long-Lines System" at CFS Resolution Island & CFS Saglek, (cf. Pole Vault Line, White Alice in Alaska, and to Fylingdales, NARS)
- BMEWS Central Computer and Display Facility (CC&DF) at Ent AFB (ZI portion of BMEWS), with RCA Display Information Processor (DIP)--DIPS displays were also at the Offutt AFB war room floor and balcony, as well as at the Pentagon
To predict when parts "might break down", the contractor also installed RCA 501 computers with 32k "high speed memory", 5-76KC 556 bpi 3/4" tape drives, & 200 track random access LFE drums. The initially-replaced portions of BMEWS included the Ent CC&DF by the Burroughs 425L Missile Warning System at Cheyenne Mountain (FOC July 1, 1966.) The original Missile Impact Predictors were replaced (IOC on August 31, 1984), and BMEWS systems were entirely replaced by 2001 (e.g., radars were replaced with AN/FPS-120 SSPARS) after Satellite Early Warning Systems had been deployed (e.g., 1961 MIDAS, 1968 Project 949, and 1970 DSP satellites).
On June 2, 1955, a General Electric AN/FPS-17 "XW-1" radar at Site IX in Turkey that had beenn expedited was completed by the US in "proximity to the ballistic missile launch test site at Kapustin Yar in the Soviet Union" for tracking Soviet rockets and "to demonstrate the feasibility of advanced Doppler processing, high-power system components, and computerized tracking needed for BMEWS [sic]". The first missile tracked was on June 15, and the radar's parabolic reflector was replaced in 1958, and its range was "extended from 1000 to 2000 nautical miles" after the 1957 Gaither Commission identified that because of expected Soviet ICBM development, there would be "little likelihood of SAC's bombers surviving since there was no way to detect an incoming attack until the first warhead landed". BMEWS' General Operational Requirement 156 was issued on November 7, 1957 (BMEWS was "designed to go with the active portion of the WIZARD system") and on February 4, 1958; the USAF informed Air Defense Command (ADC) that BMEWS was an "all-out program" and the "system has been directed by the President, has the same national priority as the ballistic missile and satellite programs and is being placed on the Department of Defense master urgency list." By July 1958 after NORAD manning began, ADC's 1954 blockhouse for the Ent AFB command center had inadequate floor space; and Ent's "requirement for a ballistic missile defense system display tacility...brought renewed action...tor a new command post" (the JCS approved the nuclear bunker on February 11, 1959.).
Planning and development
On January 14, 1958, the US announced its "decision to establish a Ballistic Missile Early Warning System" with Thule to be operational in 1959--total Thule/Clear costs in a May 1958 estimate were ~$800 million (an October 13, 1958, plan for both estimated completion in September 1960.) The Lincoln Laboratory's radar at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts, was built and provided data to a 1958 CG-24 computer for "trajectory estimates", e.g., Cape Canaveral missiles, and an "adjunct high-power UHF test facility employed the Millstone transmitter to stress-test the components that were candidates for the operational BMEWS." (A twin of the Millstone Hill radar was dedicated at Saskatchewan's Prince Albert Radar Laboratory on 6 June 1959.) A prototype AN/FPS-43 BMEWS radar completed at Trinidad in 1958 went operational on February 4, 1959, the date of an Atlas IIB firing from Cape Canaveral Launch Complex 11 (lunar reflection was tested January-June 1960.) On June 30, 1958, "NORAD emphasized that the BMEWS could not be considered as a self-contained entity separate from the Nike-Zeus, or vice versa."
On March 18, 1959, the USAF told the BMEWS Project Office[where?] to proceed with an interim facility:93 for the "AICBM control center" with an anti-ICBM C3 computer:148 (e.g., for when the USAF Wizard:157 and/or Army Nike Zeus ABMs became operational), and the basement of the 1954 ADC blockhouse was considered for the interim center.:158 A "satellite prediction computer" could be added to the planned missile warning center if Cheyenne Mountain's "hardened COC slipped considerably beyond January 1962":93 (tunneling began in June 1961.) In early 1959 for use at Ent in September 1960, a BMEWS display facility with "austere and economical construction with minimum equipment" was planned in an "annex to the current COC building". In late 1959, ARPA opened[where?] the 474L System Program Office, and BMEWS' "12th Missile Warning Squadron at Thule…began operating in January 1960." Following a Nike ABM intercept of a test missile, the planned Cheyenne Mountain mission was expanded in August 1960 to "a hardened center from which CINCNORAD would supervise and direct operations against space attack as well as air attack" (NORAD assumed "operational control of all space assets with the formation of" SPADATS in October 1960.) The 1st Aerospace Surveillance and Control Squadron (1st Aero) was activated at Ent AFB on February 14, 1961; and Ent's Federal Building was completed c. 1960-1.
Clear AFS construction began in August 1958 with 700 workers (completed July 1, 1961), and Thule J-site construction began by May 18, 1960, with radar pedestals complete by June 2. Thule testing began on May 16, 1960, IOC was on September 30, and the initial operational radar transmission was in October 1960 (initially duplex vacuum tube IBM 709s occupied 2 floors).
- False alarm
- On October 5, 1960, when Khrushchev was in New York, radar returns during moonrise at Thule produced a false alarm (on January 20, 1961, CINCNORAD approved 2-second FPS-50 frequency hopping to eliminate reception of echoes beyond artificial satellite orbits.) On November 24, 1961, an AT&T operator failure at their Black Forest Microwave Station northeast of Colorado Springs caused a BMEWS communications outage to Ent and Offutt (a B-52 near Thule confirmed the site still remained.)
Training for civilian technicians included a February 1961 RCA class in New Jersey for a Tracking Radar Automatic Monitoring class. The "Clear Msl Early Warning Stn, Nenana, AK" was assigned to Hanscom Field, Massachusetts, by the JCA on April 1, 1961. By May 16, 1961, Ent's "War Room at NORAD" had a glass map for plotting aircraft and had a "map [that] lights up" to show multiple impact ellipses and times "before the huge missile[s] would burst" (separate from Ent's BMEWS CC&DF building, the 2 story blockhouse had a war room with, left of the main NORAD region display, a BMEWS display map and "threat summary display" with a count of incoming missiles.) The Trinidad Test Site transferred from Rome AFB to Patrick AFB on July 1, 1961 (closed as "Trinidad Air Station" in 1971) and the same month, the 1st Aero began using Ent's Space Detection and Tracking System (SPADATS) operation center in building P4's annex (Cheyenne Mtn's Space Defense Center became fully operational in 1967.) The BRCS undersea cable was cut "presumably by fishing trawlers" in September, October, and November 1961 (the BMEWS teletype and backup SSB substituted); and in December 1961, Capt. Joseph P. Kaufman was charged "with giving [BMEWS] defense data to…East German Communists."
BMEWS surveillance wing
The 71st Surveillance Wing, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, was activated on 6 December 1961 at Ent AFB (renamed 71st Missile Warning Wing on 1 January 1967, at McGuire AFB July 21, 1969-April 30, 1971). Syracuse's BMEWS Test Facility at GE's High-Power Radar Laboratory became the responsibility of Rome Air Development Center on April 11, 1962 (Syracuse's Eagle Hill Test Annex closed in 1970) and on July 31, 1962, NORAD recommended a tracking radar at Clear to close the BMEWS gap with Thule for low-angle missiles (vice those with the 15-65 degree angle for which BMEWS was designed.) By mid-1962, BMEWS "quick fixes" for ECCM had been installed at Thule and Clear and by June 30, integration of BMEWS and SPADATS at Ent AFB was completed. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Moorestown AN/FPS-49 radar on October 24 was "withdrawn from SPADATS and realigned to provide missile surveillance over Cuba." 1962 "strikes and walkouts" delayed Fylingdales' planned completion from March until September 1963 and on November 7, the Pentagon BMEWS display subsytem installation was complete. At tthe end of 1962, NORAD was "concerned over BMEWS' virtual inability to detect objects beyond a range of 1500 nautical miles." The Moorestown FPS-49 completed a BMEWS "signature analysis program" on scale models by January 1963.
Air Defense Command
Operations transferred from civilian contractors (RCA Government Services):29 to ADC on January 5, 1962 (renamed Aerospace Defense Command in 1968.) Fylingdales became operational on September 17, 1963, and Site III transferred to RAF Fighter Command on January 15, 1964 (after becoming operational on September 17, 1963.) Remaining BMEWS development responsibilities transferred to the "Space Track SPO (496L)" when the BMEWS SPO closed on February 14, 1964--e.g., the AN/FPS-92 with "66-inch panels" (hexagonal) was added to Clear in 1966 (last of the 5 tracking radars), and in 1967, BMEWS modification testing was complete on May 15, when the system cost totalled $1.259 billion. In 1968, Ent's 9th Division HQ had a Spacetrack/BMEWS Maintenance Section.
  In 1975, SECDEF told Congress that Clear would be closed when Cobra Dane and the Beale AFB PAVE PAWS became operational. By 1976, BMEWS included IBM 7094, CDC 6000, and Honeywell 800 computers.
USAF Space Command
On October 1, 1979, Thule and Clear transferred to Strategic Air Command when ADCOM was broken up then to Space Command in 1982. By 1981 Cheyenne Mountain had been averaging 6,700 messages per hour compiled via sensor inputs from BMEWS, the JSS, the 416N SLBM "Detection and Warning System, COBRA DANE, and PARCS as well as SEWS and PAVE PAWS" for transmission to the NCA. To replace AN/FSQ-28 predictors, a late 1970s plan for processing returns from MIRVs installed in new Missile Impact Predictor computers was complete by September 1984.
- "AN/FPS-120 Solid State Phased-Array System [SSPARS]: Clear Radar Upgrade". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
"Clear AFS, AK". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- "title tbd". AlaskaWingCAF.org. Retrieved 2014-03-05. "...facilities to accommodate the radar came to $62 million. More than 1,100 workers worked on the project. It involved excavating 185,000 cubic yards of dirt and gravel and the pouring of 65,000 yards of concrete. Materials totaled 4,000 tons of structural steel, 2,600 tons of reinforcing steel and 900,000 square feet of fabricated panels."
- "FYLINGDALES: Home of the Number One BMEWS Detachment" (image copy at Radomes.org). Q Point (9th Aerospace Defense Division). Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- Stone & Banner. Radars for the Detection and Tracking of Ballistic Missiles, Satellites, and Planets (Report). https://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol12_no2/12_2detectsatellitiesplanets.pdf. Retrieved 2014-03-05. "The Millstone radar served as a development model for RCA’s AN/FPS-49, AN/FPS-49A, and AN/FPS-92 radars, all of which were used in the BMEWS. … Millstone was used to develop a fundamental understanding of several important environmental challenges facing the BMEWS. These challenges included the measurement of UHF propagation effects in the ionosphere, the impact of refraction close to the horizon, the effect of Faraday rotation on polarization, and the impact of backscatter from meteors and the aurora on the detection performance of the radar and its false-alarm rate [15–17]. ... In the early 1960s, the Millstone radar was converted from a UHF to an L-band system. ...the Air Force in the 1960s sponsored the development of Haystack, a versatile facility in Tyngsboro, Massachusetts, that supports radar- and radio-astronomy research and the national need for deep-space surveillance."
- Bate, Mueller, and White (1971 edition) [origyear tbd]. Fundamentals of Astronautics (Google books). Retrieved 2014-03-05. "fan-shaped beams, about 1° in width and 3½° in elevation… The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected."
- "USS Rancocas: The Cornfield Cruiser". LockheedMartin.com. Retrieved 2014-03-10. "Originally owned by the Air Force, the building was constructed in the 1950s. For years it was an Air Force-operated radar site, operating a ballistic missile early warning system. The warehouse-like gray building was topped by a radome..."
- Scale Model Radar Cross Section Data (Report). BLDG 116-20, RCA, Moorestown NJ: Detachment 3, 9th...Division. 10 January 1963. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/460987.pdf. "eventual transfer to a Spacetrack Analysis Center at Colorado Springs."
- Flack, John S. Jr. "Moorestowns Giant Golf Ball" (personal anecdote w/ photos). Homestead.com. Retrieved 2014-03-10. "It was taken out of service in December, 1974 and dismantled in early 1976. After this, RCA built a replica of a US Navy cruiser deckhouse atop the building that the golf ball sat on for testing its Aegis Combat System and for training Navy personnel. The Aegis facility is still located here, operated jointly by Lockheed Martin (which now operates the radar plant) and the Navy."
- Shore, Bruce (Spring 1963). "the fourth state of matter". electronics age (RCA). "Several hundred RCA management, technical, and engineering personnel run the 80 control stations that make up White Alice, the country's largest over -the horizon communications system. The stations, mostly on mountaintops, employ two types of antennas - one a 30 -foot, disc -shaped structure and the other a 100 -ton scoop- shaped unit 60 feet tall. The antennas relay signals from one to the other, sometimes over distances up to 170 miles. … In 1952, Mr. Heller led a group of RCA field engineers to a minor military installation at Cape Canaveral. From this simple beginning, the RCA Service Company became a subcontractor to Pan American for the planning, systems engineering, operation, and maintenance of the vast complex instrumentation systems that constitute the Atlantic Missile Range."
- Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director. (Report). "NORAD looked at the Zl portion ot the BMEWS not oal.y as an integral portion ot the system, but as the heart ot the entire ballistic m1asUe detense system."
- Del Papa, Dr. E. Michael; Warner, Mary P (October 1987). A Historical Chronology of the Electronic Systems Division 1947-1986 (Report). http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a201708.pdf. Retrieved 2014-03-08. "7 November  Installation of [SSPARS] radar hardware at Site I, Thule, Greenland, for the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) was begun."
- "Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS): AN/FPS-50 Detection Radar AN/FPS-92 Tracking Radar". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- title tbd (Google Books). "SAGE—Air Force project 416L—became the pattern for at least twenty-five other major military command-control systems… These were the so-called "Big L" systems [and] included 425L, the NORAD system; 438L, the Air Force Intelligence Data Handling System; and 474L, the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). … Project 465L, the SAC Control System (SACCS)"
- (MDA.mil excerpt) Department of Defense Annual Report (Report). FY 1960. http://www.mda.mil/global/documents/pdf/1960%20BMD%20extract.pdf. Retrieved 2014-03-06. "The imminent shift in the air threat to our security from aircraft alone to ballistic missiles and aircraft led to [require] a reduction in the programs for the BOMARC missile and the hardened "supercombat" centers for the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system, and an acceleration in the modernization of the fighter interceptor forces and in the construction of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) [with] three widely dispersed, long-range radar stations, a central computer and display facility in the United States, and a communications network to link the separate elements."
- "AN/FPS-49, 49A". Retrieved 2014-03-05. "The prototype unit operated at Moorestown, New Jersey"
- "Thule's Electronic Sentinel" (Google news archive). The Milwaukee Journal. January 4, 1961. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- title tbd (Report). http://www.liberatedmanuals.com/TM-11-487C-1.pdf. Retrieved 2014-03-07. "Missile Impact Predictor Set AN/FSQ-28 accepts output of Radar Set AN/FPS-19 or AN/FPS-19A and Radar Set AN/FPS-50(V) to determine the trajectory of space objects and predicts the point of impact. Furnishes designation data to tracking Radar for enhancing target data accuracy. The AN/FSQ-28 is a duplex, general purpose computer (IBM-709-TX with real-time terminal and control equipment added)."
- https://www.esrc.ac.uk/my-esrc/grants/R000238555/outputs/Download/623cc844-6b4d-4d58-a0da-2ef70b6cc202 the USA and UK agreed to be separately responsible for their own rearward data handling systems.’  The UK systems were to meet Air Staff Requirement 2208 and called for ‘display of processed IRBM data at the Air Defence Operations Centre (ADOC), the Bomber Command Operations Centre (BCOC), the Air Ministry Operations Centre and, for standby purposes, at the Air Defence Main Control Centre and Headquarters No. 1 Group. The processed data will also be passed to NORAD over the USA rearward data handling system and this system
- Moora, Robert L (Autumn 1960). "BMEWS Takes Shape…On Schedule: Greenland radar site begins early warning operations…". electronic age. Retrieved 2014-03-06. "a "data takeoff" computer translates the visual image into digital form, calculating distance, range, angle of flight, speed and direction. In split seconds, this data is on its way to a high-speed "missile impact predictor" computer. … prime system contractor is the Radio Corporation of America, with headquarters at the Missile and Surface Radar Division, Moorestown… Principal subcontractors to RCA include General Electric Company…"
- http://www.alternatewars.com/WW3/WW3_Documents/Fortifications/ABMWSP_Summary_23_Apr_1960.htm Progress is satisfactory on the establishment of rearward communications from the forward sites to the Zone of the Interior display facilities at Colorado Springs, Colorado. On 1 December, through communication was established between the switchboard at Thule and the BMEWS Project Office in New York City. This tie line, together with a similar one between Thule and Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts, represents the first use to be made of the submarine cable completed this last summer between Thule and Cape Dyer.
- Mitchell, Walt. "Memories of Troposcatter at Resolution Island". Retrieved 2014-03-09. "he BMEWS Rearward link came from Thule to Dye to ResX1 to ResX on Resolution and then on to Goose Bay. I suspect that was the link maintained by Canadian Marconi under contract in the 1961 to 1974 period." (see also "DEWDROP Troposheric Scatter AM Communications Link between Thule BMEWS and Cape Dyer")
- 1962 NORAD/CONAD Historical Summary, July-December
- SAC Command Post, Reel 2. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- "Watchful eye of BMEWS turns toward Soviets" (Google news archive). Ellensburg Daily Record. June 18, 1961. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- "NORAD's Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability?" (Report to Congress). Comptroller General. September 21, 1978. Retrieved 2013-01-24. "The 496L Spacetrack system uses a Philco 212 computer as its primary processor. … The off-line utility processors are two Philco 1000 computers which can also serve as backup processors for the 496L system and the Automatic Digital Relay Switch, if necessary. … The NCS segment will replace the 425L Command and Control system including the Univac 1218s, the 425L Back-up system, the Command Center Processing system, and the Display Information Processor."
- Hanley, Charles J--Associated Press (August 17, 1987). "Soviets, Eskimos protest Thule radar" (Google news archive). Star-News. Retrieved 2014-03-09. "The radar, a Phased Array Warning System…can "see" 3,200 miles, 200 miles farther than the old system, and has a 240-degree arc…40 degrees more than the old."
- Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director. (Report).
- Skolnik, Merrill. "Oral-History" (audio transcript). IEEE Global History Network. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- "Fylingdales". Raytheon.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
- Stocker, Jeremy (2004). Gray, Colin S. & Murray, Williamson, ed. Britain and Ballistic Missile Defence 1942-2002. Frank Cass. ISBN 0-203-30963-4 (Master e-book) Check
|isbn=value (help). ISSN 1473-6403. Retrieved 2014-03-09. "in March 1963 an Air Ministry review of ABM systems said of MIDAS that ‘performance to date has been disappointing’.78 … A teletype circuit was established between NORAD and the ADOC in Britain to pass information derived from Site 1 at Thule.95 This was supplemented by a voice circuit with agreed formatted messages, and both were operational by October 1960. … AN/FPS-49 Range resolution 240 nm Maximum range 2,650 nm Minimum target at 1,650 m 2.8 m2 Impact accuracy North America 135 nm"
- Zabetakis, Stanley G; Peterson, John F (2 July 1996). The Diyarbakir Radar (Report). https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol8no4/html/v08i4a05p_0001.htm. Retrieved 2014-03-10. "Data on target missiles or satellites are recorded in each radar channel by photographing a five-inch intensity-modulated oscilloscope with the camera shutter open on a 35-mm film moving approximately five inches per minute. ... The FTD Oscar equipment consists of a film reader which gives time and range data in analog form, a converter unit which changes them to digital form, and an IBM printing card punch which receives the digital data. The Oscar equipment and human operator thus generate a deck of IBM cards for...each target's position through time." (also available as Fall 1964 version)
- Development of the Soviet Ballistic Missile Threat (George Washington University video). USAF Aerospace Audio Visual Service. 1960. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- Freeman, Maj Steve. "Visionaries, Cold War, hard work built the foundations of Air Force Space Command". "Guardian Magazine…funded Air Force newspaper" (Peterson Air Force Base). pp. 6, 9.
- USAF memo to Air Defense Command cited in 1958 NORAD/CONAD Historical Summry, Jan-Jun
- "NORAD Selected Chronology". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2014-03-05. "14 Jan 58 -- United States announced decision to establish a Ballistic Missile Early Warning System" (list also at NORAD.mil & in 2008 book
- Wainstein, et al. Evolution of Command and Control… (Report). http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a331702.pdf. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- NORAD BMEWS and AICBM System Display (Report). June 30, 1958. (cited by 1958 NORAD/CONAD Historical Summary, Jan-Jun)
- Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director. (Report).
- Rogers, Warren Jr. (June 2, 1960). "Summit Failure Speeds Up Development of BMEWS". Herald Tribune News Service. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- Muolo. "Chapter 1: Space History". Space Handbook (manual). Air University Press. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
- title tbd (Report). Air Research and Development Command. (cited by Schaffel, p. 262)
- "Big Rocket Detector Is Set for Operation" (Google news archive). The Fort Scott Tribune. May 18, 1960. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- "Ballistic Warning Is Aim of BMEWS" (Google news archive). The Evening News (Newburgh, New York). June 19, 1964. Retrieved 2014-03-09. "high-speed scanning switches and a massive array of feedhorns… Federal Electric Corp., Paramus, N.J. , is the prime contractor for manning and maintaining the Thule BMEWS site."
- Pearson, Drew (May 16, 1961). "A Day In The War Room At NORAD" (Google news archive). The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- Sampson, Curt (2010-01-25). "The Moon as a Soviet Missile Attack". Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- "AT&T caused NORAD blackout…" (web post of newspaper article). EVER WONDER?. Colorado Springs Gazette. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2014-03-10. "an engineer we’ll call “Q” didn’t follow instructions “for routining a TD2 transmitter and receiver.” He enclosed diagrams showing what went wrong. There was no “500A termination on the Channel Dropping Network when he was running the Radio Frequency (RF) Sweep Generator to adjust the equipment.” That generator leaked RF into the Channel Separating Filter “interfering with all the other transmitters in the Black Forest Microwave Station, causing a complete failure of all channels going to Ent. SAC scrambled all aircraft. Later SAC billed AT&T for all the fuel used.” Read more at http://gazette.com/ever-wonder-at-cresterra-parkway/article/123954#kMXyIBELvhhuVpOc.99"
- Philips, Alan F. "20 Mishaps That Might Have Started Accidental Nuclear War". NuclearFiles.org. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- McManus, Gene. "BMEWS - 51- Full Days". Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases (Report). VolumeI: Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6. http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100921-026.pdf.
- "NORAD Center Located At Colorado Springs Site" (Google news archive). The Othello Outlook. November 26, 1964. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-03-09. "COMMAND POST - The main battle staff position in the Combat Operations Center (COC)...fronts a display area which allows observers to see the positions of airborne objects thousands of miles away." (NOTE: The p. 4 command post photo caption does not identify if it is in the Ent blockhouse (1954-1963) or in the Chidlaw Building, where war room operations moved to the NORAD/CONAD Combined Operations Center in 1963.)
- [full citation needed]1961–1969 Historical reports from the Squadron on file at the Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB AL, AFHRA Microfilm reel KO363
- Forty Years of Research and Development at Griffis Air Force Base: June 1951-June 1991 (Report). Rome Laboratory. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA250435. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- plaque in the Tactical Operations Room, retrieved 2014-03-06, ""This plaque commemorates the commissioning of Royal Air Force Fylingdales as Site III of the Balistic Missile Early Warning System on 17 September 1963 . This site is a joint enterprise of the United States of America and Great Britain for the protection of both the North American Continent and the United Kingdom.")
- "Electronic Eye Watches For Sneak Missile Attack" (Google news archive). Herald-Journal. July 8, 1966. Retrieved 2014-03-09. "rotating 84-foot parabolic radar dish antenna…weighing 185 tons, can detect and track a 16-inch piece of wire 1-32nd of an inch in diameter, at a distance of 2,500 miles… The electronic dishes, each costing $19 million…"
- "Electronic Technicians BMEWS" (job advertisement). p. 27 accessdate=2014-03-06. "FELEC Services…a subsidiary of Federal Electric…newly awarded contract at Thule…IBM 360-7090 and 7094; CDC 6000; Honeywell 800"
- compiled by Johnson, Mildred W (31 December 1980) [Feb 1973 original by Cornett, Lloyd H. Jr]. A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980. Peterson AFB: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- (minutes of "hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-seventh Congress; May 19 and 20, 1981") Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) attack warning system: (Report). United States Government Printing Office. http://books.google.com/books?id=Lo5Chva3cVgC&q=mountain. Retrieved 2013-01-23. "at Norad is the establishment of a Systems Integration Office"
- (ADA095409) Modernization of the WWMCCS Information System (WIS) (Report). United States House Committee on Armed Services. 19 January 1981. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a095409.pdf. Retrieved 2012-08-29.