||This article may contain original research. (April 2012)|
The "Popeye" standoff missile
|Place of origin||Israel|
|In service||1985 – present|
|Used by||See Users|
|Designer||Rafael Advanced Defense Systems|
|Manufacturer||Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Turkish Aerospace Industries
|Weight||1,360 kg (3,000 lb)|
|Length||4.82 m (15 ft 10 in)|
|Diameter||533 mm (21 in)|
|Warhead||340 kg (750 lb) blast fragmentation or 360 kg (800 lb) I-800 penetrating|
|Engine||Single-stage Solid-fuel rocket
|Wingspan||198 cm (78 in)|
|78 km (48 miles)|
|Inertial plus IIR or TV|
|Fixed-wing aircraft, Dolphin class submarine (Popeye Turbo SLCM)|
Popeye is the name of a family of air-to-surface missiles developed and in use by Israel, of which several types have been developed for Israeli and export users. A long-range cruise missile variant of the Popeye Turbo has been speculated as being employed in Israel's submarine-based nuclear forces. The United States operates the Popeye under a different designation according to US naming conventions as the AGM-142 Have Nap.
The Popeye is designed for precision attack against large targets from stand off ranges. The standard Popeye and smaller Popeye-Lite are powered by a single-stage solid rocket; a Popeye Turbo air launched variant featuring turbo-jet engine, folding wings, and a range of over 200 km was offered for sale to the UK in 1994. An inertial guidance system pilots the missile towards the target; for terminal homing the pilot can control the missile directly via an INS and data link, aiming via either a television or imaging infrared seeker depending on the missile model. It is not necessary for the launching aircraft to direct the missile - control can be passed to another platform whilst the firing aircraft escapes the area. There are two choices of warhead for the export versions, a 340 kg (750 lb) blast/fragmentation or 360 kg (800 lb) penetrator.
The alleged Israeli submarine-launched cruise missile variant is reported to be jet powered and nuclear armed with a greatly increased range, though according to the Federation of American Scientists "open literature provides little information on this system" but in a May 2000 test launch was tracked for 1500 km.
- Popeye (also known as Have Nap) - this is the standard solid-rocket–powered stand off missile, 4.82 m (15 ft 10 in) long and weighing 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) with a 340 kg (750 lb) blast fragmentation or 360 kg (800 lb) I-800 penetrating warhead, inertial and imaging infrared or TV guidance.
- Popeye II or Popeye Lite (also known as Have Lite) - this is a reduced size (shortened to 424 cm/167 in) and weight version (weight is now 1125 kg/2500 lb) of the Popeye to give light aircraft such as the F-16I Sufa a precision standoff strike capability.
- Popeye Turbo ALCM - The air-launched Popeye Turbo which uses a jet engine and liquid fuel is approx 6.25 m (20.5 ft) long, it is reported to have a range of more than 320 km (200 mi).
- Popeye Turbo SLCM - A suspected stretched version of the Popeye Turbo developed primarily for use as a submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM) was widely reported in a US Navy observed 2002 test in the Indian Ocean to have hit a target at 1500 km, it can allegedly carry a 200 kg nuclear warhead. It is suspected that the stretched Popeye Turbo is the primary strategic second strike nuclear deterrent weapon which can be fired from the 650mm secondary torpedo tubes of the Israeli Dolphin class submarines. It is believed that the SLCM version of the Popeye was developed by Israel after the US Clinton administration refused an Israeli request in 2000 to purchase Tomahawk long range SLCM's because of international MTCR proliferation rules. While the standard Popeye is 533mm the Dolphin class submarines have four 650mm torpedo tubes in addition to the six standard 533mm tubes allowing for the possibility that a SLCM Popeye derivative may be a larger diameter.
- Have Rain - A 2004 report indicated that Rafael was developing a new anti-ship version known as the “Have Rain.” The new missile is believed to have a launch weight of 900 kg, for deployment aboard P-3 Orion aircraft.
- SPICE - In 2000, Rafael promoted a "Smart Precise Impact Cost Effective" (SPICE) add-on "smart bomb" guidance kit for Mk 84 bombs, this system was based on the Popeye seekers.
The Popeye is compatible with a variety of aircraft from tactical fighters to heavy bombers.
Since their inception, the missiles have gone through a variety of improvement programs designed to increase reliability and reduce costs. These efforts have included changes in the materials and manufacturing processes of the wings, fins and rocket motor, new components in the inertial guidance unit, an upgraded processor, and an improved imaging infrared seeker.
Israel is suspected of using the airframe and avionics to produce a long-range submarine-launched cruise missile with a liquid-fueled jet engine similar to the Popeye Turbo rather than a rocket.
In US use, the Popeye is intended primarily to equip the B-52H, allowing it to attack fixed targets of high value at sufficient range to provide protection from defences. The missile represented the first precision guided munition to be carried by the B-52H.
First developed for use by the Israeli Air Force it has been in service since 1985.
The United States Air Force first bought a batch of 154 missiles in 1989 followed by a second batch of 54 missiles in 1996.
The Royal Australian Air Force has also purchased a number of Popeye missiles in the late 1990s for use by the RAAF's F-111 bombers. Due to the greater-than-expected difficulty of integrating the missile with the F-111, it was not expected to attain Initial Operation Capability (IOC) with the RAAF prior to 2006. The F-111 was taken out of Australian service in 2010.
Israel and Turkey co-production
In May 1997, Israel and Turkey signed an agreement valued in excess of US$500 million for the establishment of a joint-venture between Israel's Rafael and Turkey's Turkish Aerospace Industries for the co-production of Popeye I and Popeye II missiles in Turkey.
- Australia: Royal Australian Air Force
- India: Indian Air Force
- Israel: Israeli Air Force, Israeli Navy
- South Korea: Republic of Korea Air Force
- Turkey: Turkish Air Force
- United States: United States Air Force
- Weight : 1,360 kg (3,000 lb)
- Length : 4.82 m (15 ft 10 in)
- Diameter : 533 mm (21 in)
- Wing Span : 1.98 m (78 in)
- Guidance : Inertial plus IIR or TV
- Engine : Single-stage solid rocket
- Range : 78 km (48 mi)
- Warhead : 340 kg (750 lb) blast fragmentation or 360 kg (800 lb) I-800 penetrating
- Israel missile. FAS
- Dodd, Mark (3 December 2010). "RAAF puts F-111 out to pasture". The Australian.
- AGM-142 Raptor / Have Nap / Popeye - Smart Weapons
- "Israel". NTI. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Popeye-2". Missile threat. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: AGM-142 missiles|
- Popeye on Rafael's official site
- AGM-142 The RAAF's New Standoff Weapon
- Federation of American Scientist section page on Popeye
- Excerpts from www.jinsa.org