Birkebeineren Ski Stadium

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Birkebeineren Ski Stadium
Full name Birkebeineren skistadion
Location Lillehammer, Norway
Coordinates 61°08′03″N 10°30′23″E / 61.134107°N 10.506368°E / 61.134107; 10.506368Coordinates: 61°08′03″N 10°30′23″E / 61.134107°N 10.506368°E / 61.134107; 10.506368
Owner Lillehammer Olympiapark
Capacity 31,000 (cross-country)
13,500 (biathlon)
Record attendance 100,000
Construction
Broke ground 1991
Opened 28 November 1992
Tenants
1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Paralympics
FIS Cross-Country World Cup (1993, 2000, 2002)
Biathlon World Cup (1993–97)
FIS Nordic Combined World Cup (1998, 2000, 2003, 2005–06, 2009–10)
2016 Winter Youth Olympics

Birkebeineren Ski Stadium (Norwegian: Birkebeineren skistadion) is a cross-country skiing and biathlon venue located in Lillehammer, Norway. Situated 3 kilometers (2 mi) from the town center and at 485 meters (1,591 ft) above mean sea level, it has two stadium areas, one for cross-country and one for biathlon. The former has a capacity for 31,000 spectators, and the latter for 13,500. The venue was built for the 1994 Winter Olympics, costing 83.6 million Norwegian krone (NOK). It was subsequently used by the 1994 Winter Paralympics for Paralympic Nordic skiing and Paralympic biathlon. After the games, ownership was transferred to the municipal Lillehammer Olympiapark. The venue has since been used for one Biathlon World Cup, three FIS Cross-Country World Cup and nine FIS Nordic Combined World Cup tournaments, the latter with the ski jumping competition taking place at the nearby Lysgårdsbakkene Ski Jumping Arena. Birkebeineren is scheduled to host the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics.

Construction[edit]

The location of the venue was decided in January 1990, following Lillehammer's successful bid to host the 1994 Winter Olympics. Construction was managed by the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee (LOOC). Architects were 2Ø Arkitekter and the main consultant was Tonning & Lieng.[1] Construction started in early 1991, before planning was completed, and lasted until 1993. The construction work was subcontracted to several companies. Landscaping was completed in 1994. The facilities used concrete and wood as the main materials. The stadium included 3,000-square-meter (32,000 sq ft) of temporary buildings, a 1,620-square-meter (17,400 sq ft) building converted to a riding center after the Olympics, and a 3,200-square-meter (34,000 sq ft) tent. The land around the venue is a swamp, and most of the surface soil had to be removed and replaced with harder earth. The soil was used as fertilizer or fill in other parts of the arena. A creek had to be bypassed with a 220 meters (720 ft) long pipe. The arena is also so flat that a drainage system had to be installed. After the Olympics, four temporary overpasses were removed.[2] Construction of the tracks was done to minimize the impact on the forest.[3]

The venue cost NOK 83.6 million,[1] and was inaugurated on 28 November 1992 with an international biathlon competition.[4] In December 1992, the LOOC stated that they wanted to upgrade the stadium spectator capacity, but that the transport systems would not allow more people.[5] In 1993, the stadium had World Cup tournaments in biathlon and cross-country skiing as a trial before the Olympics. During several events, the computer system controlling the scoreboard and television scores collapsed. President Johan Baumann of the Norwegian Ski Federation criticized the venue and demanded that a new stadium be built. He stated that the stadium had been built to optimize television pictures, and that it had insufficient facilities for the spectators. In particular, he criticized the fact that the spectators were too far away from the skiers and the lack of a television screen and more scoreboards.[6] In May, the LOOC announced that the stadium would be expanded for another 6,000 people before the Olympics.[7] On 7 September, the ownership of the venue was transferred from the LOOC to Lillehammer Municipality via the subsidiary Lillehammer Olympiavekst, which later changed its name to Lillehammer Olympiapark.[8] In October, the forest along the tracks were partially cleared to allow spectators without tickets to watch the events.[9]

Facilities[edit]

The arena covers an area of 200 hectares (490 acres),[2] and is 3 kilometers (2 mi) from the town center.[1] For the Olympics, 27 kilometers (17 mi) of cross-country tracks and 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) of biathlon tracks were built. There are two stadiums, one for cross-country skiing and one for biathlon. The former has a spectator capacity for 31,000, while the latter has a capacity for 13,500.[2] In addition, up to 75,000 people watched the events the trackside during the Olympics.[10] Permanent buildings include a 214-square-meter (2,300 sq ft) finishing house for biathlon, a 155-square-meter (1,670 sq ft) finishing house for cross-country, a 355-square-meter (3,820 sq ft) plant room. The cross-country stadium is 200 square meters (2,200 sq ft) long, while the biathlon stadium is 150 square meters (1,600 sq ft) long.[2] The biathlon stadium has 30 shooting stations.[11] The facility has a 1,250 kVA transformer, with an additional transformer used during the Olympics. Critical systems, such as computers and time-keeping equipment, have an uninterruptible power supply.[2]

As a recreational venue, Birkebeineren connects to 450 kilometers (280 mi) of skiing tracks, including a 5 kilometers (3 mi) lighted track which is lit until 22:00 every day during winter, and is open to the public. During the summer, the tracks are available for jogging, running, roller skiing and similar activities. There is a café between the two stadiums, which also have dressing rooms and showers. The biathlon venue can be rented to hold private biathlon competition, with or without skis.[11]

The dominant means of transport during the Olympics was by railway. Spectators heading to Birkebeineren were transported by train to Hovemoen Station on the Dovre Line, and would then be transported by shuttle bus to the stadium. In addition, spectators from certain areas were transported by bus directly to the stadium.[12]

Events[edit]

During the 1994 Winter Olympics, the venue hosted ten cross-country skiing events, six biathlon events and two Nordic combined events. Over 203,000 people applied for the 31,000 seats for the relay.[13] During the 1994 Winter Paralympics, the venue hosted the Paralympic Nordic skiing events and Paralympic biathlon.[11]

The FIS Cross-Country World Cup has been hosted three times, in 1993, 2000 and 2002, all in February or March.[14] The FIS Nordic Combined World Cup has been hosted seven times at the stadium, in 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2010. All tournaments have been held in December, and have seen the ski jumping competition hosted at Lysgårdsbakken, the Olympic ski jumping hill in Lillehammer.[15] Birkebeineren hosted Biathlon World Cup events from 1993 to 1997.[16] The stadium has also since 1992 been used as the goal area for Birkebeinerrennet, an annual ski marathon with thousands of participants.[17] It has also hosted the Norwegian Nordic Ski Championships in 1993.[18] Lillehammer is scheduled to host the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics.[19] Birkebeineren will host cross-country, Nordic combined and biathlon events.[20]

Results[edit]

The following is a list of all Winter Olympics and World Cup events to be held at the stadium. It includes date, sport (cross-country skiing, Nordic combined or biathlon), tournament, distance, and top three athletes (gold, silver and bronze).

Date Sport Tournament Distance Gender Gold Silver Bronze Ref
4 March 1993 Biathlon World Cup 15 km F Russia Reztsova, AnfisaAnfisa Reztsova Italy Santer, NathalieNathalie Santer Canada Bédard, MyriamMyriam Bédard [21]
4 March 1993 Biathlon World Cup 20 km M Italy Pallhuber, WilfriedWilfried Pallhuber Germany Groß, RiccoRicco Groß Italy Zingerle, AndreasAndreas Zingerle [22]
6 March 1993 Biathlon World Cup 7.5 km F Russia Reztsova, AnfisaAnfisa Reztsova Belarus Paramygina, SvetlanaSvetlana Paramygina Germany Harvey, AntjeAntje Harvey [23]
6 March 1993 Biathlon World Cup 10 km M Germany Luck, FrankFrank Luck Germany Fischer, SvenSven Fischer Austria Gredler, LudwigLudwig Gredler [24]
9 March 1993 Cross-country World Cup 5 km C F Norway Dybendal Hartz, TrudeTrude Dybendal Hartz Russia Yegorova, LyubovLyubov Yegorova Italy Di Centa, ManuelaManuela Di Centa [25]
9 March 1993 Cross-country World Cup 5 km C F Russia Yegorova, LyubovLyubov Yegorova Italy Di Centa, ManuelaManuela Di Centa Russia Välbe, ElenaElena Välbe [26]
8 February 1994 Combined Olympics 15 km M Norway Lundberg, Fred BørreFred Børre Lundberg Japan Kono, TakanoriTakanori Kono Norway Vik, Bjarte EngenBjarte Engen Vik [27]
9 February 1994 Combined Olympics 3 × 10 km team M Japan Japan Norway Norway Switzerland Switzerland [28]
13 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 15 km F F Italy Di Centa, ManuelaManuela Di Centa Russia Yegorova, LyubovLyubov Yegorova Russia Gavrilyuk, NinaNina Gavrilyuk [29]
14 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 30 km F M Norway Alsgaard, ThomasThomas Alsgaard Norway Dæhlie, BjørnBjørn Dæhlie Finland Myllylä, MikaMika Myllylä [30]
15 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 5 km C F Russia Yegorova, LyubovLyubov Yegorova Italy Di Centa, ManuelaManuela Di Centa Finland Kirvesniemi, Marja-LiisaMarja-Liisa Kirvesniemi [31]
17 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 15 km M pursuit F Russia Yegorova, LyubovLyubov Yegorova Italy Di Centa, ManuelaManuela Di Centa Italy Belmondo, StefaniaStefania Belmondo [32]
17 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 10 km C M Norway Dæhlie, BjørnBjørn Dæhlie Kazakhstan Smirnov, VladimirVladimir Smirnov Italy Albarello, MarcoMarco Albarello [33]
18 February 1994 Biathlon Olympics 15 km F Canada Bédard, MyriamMyriam Bédard France Briand, AnneAnne Briand Germany Disl, UschiUschi Disl [34]
19 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 25 km M pursuit M Norway Dæhlie, BjørnBjørn Dæhlie Kazakhstan Smirnov, VladimirVladimir Smirnov Italy Fauner, SilvioSilvio Fauner [35]
20 February 1994 Biathlon Olympics 20 km M Russia Tarasov, SergeySergey Tarasov Germany Luck, FrankFrank Luck Germany Fischer, SvenSven Fischer [36]
22 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 4 × 10 km relay M Italy Italy Norway Norway Finland Finland [37]
22 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 4 × 5 km relay F Russia Russia Norway Norway Italy Italy [38]
23 February 1994 Biathlon Olympics 15 km F Canada Bédard, MyriamMyriam Bédard Belarus Paramygina, SvetlanaSvetlana Paramygina Ukraine Tserbe Nessina, ValentinaValentina Tserbe Nessina [39]
23 February 1994 Biathlon Olympics 20 km M Russia Tchepikov, SergeySergey Tchepikov Germany Groß, RiccoRicco Groß Russia Tarasov, SergeySergey Tarasov [40]
24 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 30 km C F Italy Di Centa, ManuelaManuela Di Centa Norway Mikkelsplass, MaritMarit Mikkelsplass Finland Kirvesniemi, Marja-LiisaMarja-Liisa Kirvesniemi [41]
25 February 1994 Biathlon Olympics 4 × 7.5 km relay F Russia Russia Germany Germany France France [42]
26 February 1994 Biathlon Olympics 4 × 7.5 km relay M Germany Germany Russia Russia France France [43]
27 February 1994 Cross-country Olympics 50 km C M Kazakhstan Smirnov, VladimirVladimir Smirnov Finland Myllylä, MikaMika Myllylä Norway Sivertsen, StureSture Sivertsen [44]
16 March 1995 Biathlon World Cup 15 km F Russia Paramygina, SvetlanaSvetlana Paramygina Russia Talanova, NadezhdaNadezhda Talanova Russia Koukleva, GalinaGalina Koukleva [45]
16 March 1995 Biathlon World Cup 20 km M Finland Hietalahti, VesaVesa Hietalahti Austria Gredler, LudwigLudwig Gredler Germany Sendel, PeterPeter Sendel [46]
18 March 1995 Biathlon World Cup 7.5 km F Russia Koukleva, GalinaGalina Koukleva France Briand, AnneAnne Briand France Claret, EmmanuelleEmmanuelle Claret [47]
18 March 1995 Biathlon World Cup 10 km M Russia Maigourov, ViktorViktor Maigourov Italy Passler, JohannJohann Passler Norway Bjørndalen, Ole EinarOle Einar Bjørndalen [48]
30 November 1996 Biathlon World Cup 15 km F Germany Behle, PetraPetra Behle Germany Greiner-Petter-Memm, SimoneSimone Greiner-Petter-Memm Russia Melnik, OlgaOlga Melnik [49]
30 November 1996 Biathlon World Cup 20 km M Germany Fischer, SvenSven Fischer Russia Tarasov, SergeySergey Tarasov Russia Rostovtsev, PavelPavel Rostovtsev [50]
1 December 1996 Biathlon World Cup 7.5 km F Germany Greiner-Petter-Memm, SimoneSimone Greiner-Petter-Memm Russia Koukleva, GalinaGalina Koukleva Sweden Forsberg, MagdalenaMagdalena Forsberg [51]
1 December 1996 Biathlon World Cup 10 km M Germany Fischer, SvenSven Fischer Russia Rostovtsev, PavelPavel Rostovtsev Italy Cattarinussi, ReneRene Cattarinussi [52]
6 December 1997 Biathlon World Cup 10 km M Norway Luck, FrankFrank Luck Norway Bjørndalen, Ole EinarOle Einar Bjørndalen France Poiree, RaphaelRaphael Poiree [53]
6 December 1997 Biathlon World Cup 7.5 km F Russia Koukleva, GalinaGalina Koukleva Russia Melnik, OlgaOlga Melnik Sweden Forsberg, MagdalenaMagdalena Forsberg [54]
7 December 1997 Biathlon World Cup 20 km M Belarus Aidarov, AlexeiAlexei Aidarov Norway Hanevold, HalvardHalvard Hanevold Russia Mouslimov, PavelPavel Mouslimov [55]
7 December 1997 Biathlon World Cup 15 km F Russia Koukleva, GalinaGalina Koukleva Sweden Forsberg, MagdalenaMagdalena Forsberg Germany Disl, UschiUschi Disl [56]
27 November 1998 Combined World Cup 15 km M Norway Vik, Bjarte EngenBjarte Engen Vik Czech Republic Rygl, LadislavLadislav Rygl Finland Manninen, HannuHannu Manninen [57]
29 November 1998 Combined World Cup 7.5 km M Finland Manninen, HannuHannu Manninen Austria Gottwald, FelixFelix Gottwald Norway Vik, Bjarte EngenBjarte Engen Vik [58]
5 February 2000 Cross-country World Cup 5+5 km F Russia Lazutina, LarissaLarissa Lazutina Russia Danilova, OlgaOlga Danilova Russia Nageykina, SvetlanaSvetlana Nageykina [59]
5 February 2000 Cross-country World Cup 10+10 km M Finland Isometsä, JariJari Isometsä Spain Mühlegg, JohannJohann Mühlegg Austria Botvinov, MichailMichail Botvinov [60]
29 December 2000 Combined World Cup 15 km M Norway Hammer, KristianKristian Hammer Norway Vik, Bjarte EngenBjarte Engen Vik Finland Lajunen, SamppaSamppa Lajunen [61]
30 December 2000 Combined World Cup 7.5 km M Norway Vik, Bjarte EngenBjarte Engen Vik Finland Lajunen, SamppaSamppa Lajunen Czech Republic Rygl, LadislavLadislav Rygl [62]
23 March 2002 Cross-country World Cup 58 km C MS F Norway Moen, AnitaAnita Moen Norway Skofterud, VibekeVibeke Skofterud Germany Henkel, ManuelaManuela Henkel [63]
23 March 2002 Cross-country World Cup 58 km C MS M Norway Alsgaard, ThomasThomas Alsgaard Norway Aukland, AndersAnders Aukland Norway Estil, FrodeFrode Estil [64]
3 December 2005 Combined World Cup 15 km M Finland Manninen, HannuHannu Manninen Austria Gottwald, FelixFelix Gottwald Germany Ackermann, RonnyRonny Ackermann [65]
3 December 2005 Combined World Cup 7.5 km M Finland Manninen, HannuHannu Manninen United States Lodwick, ToddTodd Lodwick Germany Ackermann, RonnyRonny Ackermann [66]
2 December 2006 Combined World Cup 15 km M Norway Moan, MagnusMagnus Moan Germany Haseney, SebastianSebastian Haseney Finland Manninen, HannuHannu Manninen [67]
3 December 2006 Combined World Cup 7.5 km M Austria Bieler, ChristophChristoph Bieler Finland Koivuranta, AnssiAnssi Koivuranta France Laheurte, MaximeMaxime Laheurte [68]
5 December 2009 Combined World Cup 10 km M France Lamy-Chappuis, JasonJason Lamy-Chappuis Norway Tande, PetterPetter Tande Germany Frenzel, EricEric Frenzel [69]
6 December 2009 Combined World Cup 10 km M Germany Edelmann, TinoTino Edelmann Finland Koivuranta, AnssiAnssi Koivuranta France Lamy-Chappuis, JasonJason Lamy-Chappuis [70]
4 December 2010 Combined World Cup 10 km M Norway Kokslien, MikkoMikko Kokslien France Lamy-Chappuis, JasonJason Lamy-Chappuis Austria Gottwald, FelixFelix Gottwald [71]
5 December 2010 Combined World Cup 10 km M France Lamy-Chappuis, JasonJason Lamy-Chappuis Norway Kokslien, MikkoMikko Kokslien Austria Stecher, MarioMario Stecher [72]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d e LOOC (III): 33
  3. ^ LOOC (III): 36
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