Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS
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|E-8 Joint STARS|
|A U.S. Air Force E-8C Joint STARS, in flight.|
|Role||Airborne battle management|
|Primary users|| United States Air Force
Air National Guard
|Unit cost||US$244.4 million in 1998|
|Developed from||Boeing 707|
The Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) is a United States Air Force battle management and command and control aircraft. It tracks ground vehicles and some aircraft, collects imagery, and relays tactical pictures to ground and air theater commanders. The aircraft is operated by both active duty Air Force and Air National Guard units and also carries specially trained U.S. Army as additional flight crew.
Joint STARS evolved from separate United States Army and Air Force programs to develop, detect, locate and attack enemy armor at ranges beyond the forward area of troops. In 1982, the programs were merged and the U.S. Air Force became the lead agent. The concept and sensor technology for the E-8 was developed and tested on the Tacit Blue experimental aircraft. The prime contract was awarded to Grumman Aerospace Corporation in September 1985 for two E-8A development systems.
In late 2005, Northrop Grumman was awarded a contract for upgrading engines and other systems. Pratt & Whitney, in a joint venture with Seven Q Seven (SQS), will produce and deliver JT8D-219 engines for the E-8s. Their greater efficiency will allow the Joint STARS to spend more time on station, take off from a wider range of runways, climb faster, fly higher all with a much reduced cost per flying hour. The Joint STARS is to be used until 2025.
In December 2008, an E-8C test aircraft took its first flight with the new engines. In 2009, the company began engine replacement and additional upgrade efforts. However, the re-engining funding was temporarily halted in 2009 as the Air Force began to consider other options for performing the JSTARS mission.
The E-8C is an aircraft modified from the Boeing 707-300 series commercial airliner. The E-8 carries specialized radar, communications, operations and control subsystems. The most prominent external feature is the 40 ft (12 m) canoe-shaped radome under the forward fuselage that houses the 24 ft (7.3 m) side-looking APY-7 phased array antenna.
The E-8C can respond quickly and effectively to support worldwide military contingency operations. It is a jam-resistant system capable of operating while experiencing heavy electronic countermeasures. The E-8C can fly a mission profile for 9 hours without refueling. Its range and on-station time can be substantially increased through in-flight refueling.
Radar and systems 
To pick up moving targets, the radar looks at the Doppler frequency shift of the returned signal. It can look from a long range, which the military refers to as a high standoff capability. The antenna can be tilted to either side of the aircraft for a 120-degree field of view covering nearly 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²) and can simultaneously track 600 targets at more than 250 km (152 miles). The GMTI modes cannot pick up objects that are too small, insufficiently dense, or stationary. Data processing allows the APY-7 to differentiate between armored vehicles (tracked tanks) and trucks, allowing targeting personnel to better select the appropriate ordnance for various targets.
The system's SAR modes can produce images of stationary objects. Objects with many angles (for example, the interior of a pick-up bed) will give a much better radar signature, or specular return. In addition to being able to detect, locate and track large numbers of ground vehicles, the radar has a limited capability to detect helicopters, rotating antennas and low, slow-moving fixed-wing aircraft.
The radar and computer subsystems on the E-8C can gather and display broad and detailed battlefield information. Data is collected as events occur. This includes position and tracking information on enemy and friendly ground forces. The information is relayed in near-real time to the US Army's common ground stations via the secure jam-resistant surveillance and control data link (SCDL) and to other ground C4I nodes beyond line-of-sight via ultra high frequency satellite communications.
Other major E-8C prime mission equipment are the communications/datalink (COMM/DLX) and operations and control (O&C)subsystems. Eighteen operator workstations display computer-processed data in graphic and tabular format on video screens. Operators and technicians perform battle management, surveillance, weapons, intelligence, communications and maintenance functions.
Northrop Grumman has tested the installation of a MS-177 camera on an E-8C to provide real time visual target confirmation.
Battle management 
In missions from peacekeeping operations to major theater war, the E-8C can provide targeting data and intelligence for attack aviation, naval surface fire, field artillery and friendly maneuver forces. The information helps air and land commanders to control the battlespace.
The E-8's ground-moving radar can tell approximate number of vehicles, location, speed, and direction of travel. It cannot identify exactly what type of vehicle a target is, tell what equipment it has, or discern whether it is friendly, hostile, or a bystander, so commanders often crosscheck the JSTARS data against other sources. In the Army, JSTARS data is analyzed in and disseminated from a Ground Station Module (GSM).
Operational history 
The two E-8A development aircraft were deployed in 1991 to participate in Operation Desert Storm under the direction of Albert J. Verderosa, even though they were still in development. The joint program accurately tracked mobile Iraqi forces, including tanks and Scud missiles. Crews flew developmental aircraft on 49 combat sorties, accumulating more than 500 combat hours and a 100% mission effectiveness rate.
These Joint STARS developmental aircraft also participated in Operation Joint Endeavor, a NATO peacekeeping mission, in December 1995. While flying in friendly air space, the test-bed E-8A and pre-production E-8C aircraft monitored ground movements to confirm compliance with the Dayton Peace Accords agreements. Crews flew 95 consecutive operational sorties and more than 1,000 flight hours with a 98% mission effectiveness rate.
The 93d Air Control Wing, which activated 29 January 1996, accepted its first aircraft, 11 June 1996, and deployed in support of Operation Joint Endeavor in October. The provisional 93d Air Expeditionary Group monitored treaty compliance while NATO rotated troops through Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first production E-8C and a pre-production E-8C flew 36 operational sorties and more than 470 flight hours with a 100% effectiveness rate. The wing declared initial operational capability 18 December 1997 after receiving the second production aircraft. Operation Allied Force saw Joint STARS in action again from February to June 1999 accumulating more than 1,000 flight hours and a 94.5% mission-effectiveness rate in support of the U.S. lead Kosovo War.
On 1 October 2002, the 93d Air Control Wing (93 ACW) was "blended" with the 116th Bomb Wing in a ceremony at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. The 116 BW was an Air National Guard wing equipped with the B-1B Lancer bomber at Robins AFB. As a result of a USAF reorganization of the B-1B force, all B-1Bs were assigned to active duty wings, resulting in the 116 BW lacking a current mission. Extensive efforts by the Georgia's governor and congressional delegation led to the resulting "blending", with the newly created wing designated as the 116th Air Control Wing (116 ACW). The 93 ACW was deactivated the same day. The 116 ACW constituted the first fully blended wing of active duty and Air National Guard airmen.
The 116 ACW has been heavily involved in both Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, earning high marks for operational effectiveness and recently completing 10,000 combat hours. The wing took delivery of the 17th and final E-8C on 23 March 2005. The E-8C Joint STARS routinely supports various taskings of the Combined Force Command Korea during the North Korean winter exercise cycle and for the United Nations enforcing resolutions on Iraq. The twelfth production aircraft, outfitted with an upgraded operations and control subsystem, was delivered to the USAF on 5 November 2001.
On 13 March 2009, a Joint STARS aircraft was damaged beyond economical repair when a test plug was left on a fuel tank vent, subsequently causing the fuel tank to rupture during in-flight refueling. There were no casualties but the aircraft sustained $25 million in damage.
On 3 September 2009, Loren B. Thompson of the Lexington Institute raised the question of why most of the JSTARS fleet was sitting idle instead of being used to track insurgents in Afghanistan. Thompson states that the JSTARS' radar has an inherent capacity to find what the Army calls 'dismounted' targets—insurgents walking around or placing roadside bombs. Thompson's neutrality has been questioned by some since Lexington Institute is heavily funded by defense contractors, including Northrop.
Recent trials of JSTARS in Afghanistan are destined to develop tactics, techniques and procedures in tracking dismounted, moving groups of Taliban.
On 28 November 2010, amidst escalating danger of war breaking out between North and South Korea, the South Korean government requested the U.S. to implement JSTARS in order to monitor and track North Korean military movements near the DMZ.
On 17 January 2011, Northrop Grumman's E-8C Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) test bed aircraft recently completed the second of two deployments to Naval Air Station Point Mugu, California, in support of the U.S. Navy Joint Surface Warfare Joint Capability Technology Demonstration to test its Network-Enabled Weapon architecture.
The Joint STARS aircraft executed three Operational Utility Assessment flights and demonstrated its ability to guide anti-ship weapons against surface combatants at a variety of standoff distances in the NEW architecture. The Joint STARS aircraft served as the network command-and-control node, as well as a node for transmitting in-flight target message updates to an AGM-154 C-1 Joint Standoff Weapon carried by U.S. Navy F/A-18 Hornets using its advanced long range tracking and targeting capability.
On 1 October 2011, the "blended" wing construct of the 116th Air Control Wing (116 ACW), combining Air National Guard and Regular Air Force personnel in a single unit was discontinued. On this date, the 461st Air Control Wing (461 ACW) was established at Robins AFB as the Air Force's sole active duty E-8 JSTARS wing while the 116 ACW reverted to a traditional Air National Guard wing within the Georgia Air National Guard. Both units share the same E-8 aircraft and will often fly with mixed crews, but now function as separate units.
- Original platform configuration.
- Single aircraft with mission equipment removed, used for flight crew training.
- Single aircraft, was to be a United States Navy E-6 but transferred to the United States Air Force as a development aircraft before it was decided to convert second-hand Boeing 707s for the JSTARS role.
- Production Joint Stars platform configuration converted from second-hand Boeing 707s.
- United States Air Force
- Air National Guard
Specifications (E-8C) 
Data from USAF Factsheet
- Crew: 4 flight crew
- Capacity: 18 specialists (crew size varies according to mission)
- Length: 152 ft 11 in (46.61 m)
- Wingspan: 145 ft 9 in (44.42 m)
- Height: 42 ft 6 in (12.95 m)
- Empty weight: 171,000 lb (77,564 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 336,000 lb (152,407 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × Pratt & Whitney TF33-102C low-bypass turbofan engines, 19,200 lbf (85 kN) thrust each
- Cruise speed: 390 kn (449 mph; 722 km/h) to 510 kn (945 km/h)
- Optimum orbit speed: 449 mph (723 km/h) to 587 mph (945 km/h)
- Endurance: 9 hours
- Service ceiling: 42,000 ft (13,000 m)
See also 
- Related development
- C-137 Stratoliner
- CC-137 Husky – parts from most the ex-Canadian Forces 707 obtained for spares for the E-8 STARS program and two ex-CF converted as E-8 and E-8C
- Boeing E-3 Sentry
- Boeing E-6 Mercury
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "Re-engining the E-8 JSTARS". Defense Industry Daily, Mar. 23, 2010. Retrieved:
- USA Spending $532M to Upgrade its E-8 J-STARS Eyes in the Sky. Defense Industry Daily, Nov. 23, 2005. Retrieved:
- Boeing 767-400ER E-10A. Spyflight, June, 2008.
- Matthews, William Joint STARS Aircraft Tests U-2 Camera in Tandem With Radar Def News, 1 November 2010
- Coskuner, Nevin, Multimission Aircraft Design Study - Operational Scenarios. Air Force Institute of Technology
- http://defensetech.org/2012/01/27/a-basic-mistake-that-trashed-a-jstars/ A Basic Mistake that Trashed a JSTARS
- http://usaf.aib.law.af.mil/E-8C_AOR_13Mar09.pdf Accident Report
- Failure To Use Radar Planes Against Taliban Is Foolish
- Analyst's switch stirs tanker talk al.com
- DefenceNews, Issue November 23, 2009.
- Gilligan, Andrew (28 November 2010). "North and South Korea move close to war footing". The Daily Telegraph.
- Photo Release - Northrop Grumman's Joint STARS is Key Enabler in Success of U.S. Navy/Air Force Joint Surface Warfare Network-Enabled Weapon Joint Capability Technology Demons... tradershuddle.com
- DoD 4120.15L, Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles
- "Factsheets : E-8C Joint Stars". U.S. Air Force. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: E-8 Joint STARS|
- Northrop Grumman Joint STARS System Information
- Northrop Grumman Joint STARS Radar Information
- Boeing Integrated Defense Systems
- Northrop Grumman ISR overview
- Joint STARS Re-engine Program Info[dead link]