Grumman F8F Bearcat

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F8F Bearcat
F8F Bearcat (flying).jpg
Role Fighter aircraft
Manufacturer Grumman
First flight 21 August 1944
Introduction 1945
Retired 1961 VNAF [1]
Status Retired
Primary users United States Navy
United States Marine Corps
French Air Force
Royal Thai Air Force
Number built 1,265

The Grumman F8F Bearcat (nicknamed "Bear") was an American single-engine naval fighter aircraft of the 1940s. It went on to serve into the mid-20th century in the United States Navy, the United States Marine Corps, and the air forces of other nations. It would be Grumman Aircraft's final piston engined fighter aircraft. Modified versions have broken speed records for piston-engined aircraft, and are popular among warbird owners.

Design and development[edit]

The Bearcat concept began during a meeting between Battle of Midway veteran F4F Wildcat pilots and Grumman Vice President Jake Swirbul at Pearl Harbor on 23 June 1942. At the meeting, Lieutenant Commander Jimmie Thach emphasized one of the most important requirements in a good fighter plane was "climb rate", which connoted "power."[2] After intensively analyzing carrier warfare in the Pacific Theater of Operations for a year and a half, Grumman commenced designing the F8F Bearcat, and the first prototype flew on 31 August 1944.[3][4] Prior to the F8F Bearcat, F6F Hellcats had been tasked with the primary missions of fighting exceptionally long range and highly maneuverable late-model Japanese fighter aircraft such as the A6M5 Zero;[5] a later role was defending the fleet against incoming airborne kamikaze attacks.[6]

Work on the Grumman G-58 Bearcat began in 1943 with the specifications calling for an aircraft able to operate from the smallest carrier, primarily in the interceptor role. The F6F's Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engine was retained but compared to the Hellcat, the Bearcat was 20% lighter, had a 30% better rate of climb and was 50 mph (80 km/h) faster. To achieve this, range was sacrificed.[7]

An XF8F-1 prototype at the NACA, in 1945.

Compared to the Vought F4U Corsair, the initial F8F-1 Bearcat series was marginally slower but was more maneuverable and climbed more quickly. Its huge 12 ft 4 in Aeroproducts four-bladed propeller required a long landing gear, giving the Bearcat a "nose-up" profile. The hydraulically operated undercarriage used an articulated trunnion which extended the length of the oleo legs when lowered; as the undercarriage retracted the legs were shortened, enabling them to fit into a wheel well which was entirely in the wing. An additional benefit of the inward retracting units was a wide track, which helped counter propeller torque on takeoff and gave the F8F good ground and carrier deck handling.[8] For the first time from the initial version of an all-new airframe design for a production U.S. Navy fighter, a bubble canopy offered 360° visibility.

The target loaded weight of 8,750 lb/3,969 kg was essentially impossible to achieve as the structure of the new fighter had to be made strong enough for aircraft carrier landings. Structurally the fuselage used flush riveting as well as spot welding, with a heavy gauge 302W aluminum alloy skin.[8] Armor protection was provided for the pilot, engine and oil cooler; weight-saving measures included restricting the internal fuel capacity to 160 gal (606 l) [8](later 183)[9] and limiting the fixed armament to four .50 cal Browning M2/AN machine guns, two in each wing.

As a weight-saving concept the designers came up with detachable wingtips; if the "g"-force exceeded 7.5 "g", then the tips would snap off, leaving a perfectly flyable aircraft still capable of carrier landing. While this worked very well under carefully controlled conditions in flight and on the ground, in the field, where aircraft were repetitively stressed by landing on carriers and since the wings were slightly less carefully made in the factories, there was a possibility that only one wingtip would break away with the possibility of the aircraft crashing.[10] This was replaced with an explosives system to blow the wing tips off together, which also worked well, but this ended when a ground technician died due to accidental triggering. In the end the wings were reinforced and the aircraft limited to 7.5 "g".[11]

An unmodified production F8F-1 set a 1946 time-to-climb record (after a run of 115 ft/35 m) of 10,000 ft (3,048 m) in 94 seconds (6,383 fpm). The Bearcat held this record for 10 years until it was broken by a modern jet fighter (which still could not match the Bearcat's short takeoff distance).

Operational history[edit]

On 25 August 1946, the Blue Angels transitioned to the Grumman F8F-1 Bearcat and introduced the famous "diamond" formation.
A fully restored Bearcat in Blue Angels colors; seen at EAA AirVenture 2011

The F8F prototypes were ordered in November 1943 and first flew on 21 August 1944, a mere nine months later.[N 1] The first production aircraft was delivered in February 1945 and the first squadron, Fighter Squadron 19 (VF-19), was operational by 21 May 1945, but World War II was over before the aircraft saw combat service.

Postwar, the F8F became a major U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps fighter, equipping 24 fighter squadrons in the Navy and a smaller number in the Marines. Often mentioned as one of the best-handling piston-engine fighters ever built, its performance was sufficient to outperform many early jets.[N 2]Its capability for aerobatic performance is illustrated by its selection as the first demonstration aircraft for the navy's elite Blue Angels flight demonstration squadron in 1946, who flew it until the team was temporarily disbanded in 1950 during the Korean War and pressed into operational combat service. The F9F Panther and McDonnell F2H Banshee largely replaced the Bearcat as their performance and other advantages eclipsed piston-engine fighters.

First combat[edit]

The first combat for the F8F Bearcat was during the French Indochina War (aka First Indochina War 1946-1954) when nearly 200 Bearcats were delivered to the French forces in 1951. When the war ended in 1954, 28 surviving Bearcats were supplied to the State of Vietnam and entered service in 1956.[15] The VNAF retired their F8Fs in 1959 which were replaced by North American T-28 Trojans, then later Douglas A-1 Skyraiders as the Vietnam War (aka Second Indochina War 1957–1975) continued through the 1960s. F8Fs were also supplied to Thailand during the same time period.[16][17][18]

Air racing[edit]

Record-breaking Rare Bear racer

Bearcats have long been popular in air racing. A stock Bearcat flown by Mira Slovak and sponsored by Bill Stead won the first Reno Air Race in 1964. Rare Bear, a highly modified F8F owned by Lyle Shelton, went on to dominate the event for decades, often competing with Daryl Greenamyer, another famous racer with victories in his own Bearcat (Conquest I, now at the Smithsonian's NASM) and holder of a propeller-driven aircraft world speed record in it. Rare Bear also set many performance records, including the 3 km World Speed Record for piston-driven aircraft (528.33 mph/850.26 km/h), set in 1989, and a new time-to-climb record (3,000 m in 91.9 seconds (6,425.9 fpm), set in 1972, breaking the 1946 record cited above).[19][N 3][20][21]

Variants[edit]

An F8F Bearcat aboard the USS Valley Forge (CV-45)
An F8F-2P reconnaissance aircraft from VC-62 over USS Midway (CVB-41), 1949.
G-58A/B
Two civil aircraft. The first was owned by the Gulf Oil Company for the use of Major Alford Williams, the second one was used by Grumman as a demonstrator aircraft.
XF8F-1
Prototype aircraft, two built.
F8F-1 Bearcat
Single-seat fighter aircraft, equipped with folding wings, a retractable tailwheel, self-sealing fuel tanks, a very small dorsal fin, powered by a 2,100 hp (1,566 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-34W Double Wasp radial piston engine, armed with four 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns, 658 built.
F8F-1B Bearcat
Single-seat fighter version, armed with four AN/M3 20 mm cannons, 100 built.
F8F-1B Bearcat
Originally designated F8F-1C, redesignated as F8F-1B, 126 built.
F8F-1D
F8F-1s converted into drone control aircraft.
F8F-1(D)B Bearcat
Unofficial designation for export version for France and Thailand.
F8F-1E Bearcat
F8F-1 conversion night-fighter prototype, APS-4 radar.
XF8F-1N
F8F-1 conversion into night fighter prototypes.
F8F-1N Bearcat
Night fighter version, equipped with an APS-19 radar, 12 built.
F8F-1P Bearcat
F8F-1 conversion photo reconnaissance conversion.
F3M-1 Bearcat
Planned designation for F8F aircraft constructed by General Motors.
F4W-1 Bearcat
Planned designation for F8F aircraft constructed by Canadian Car and Foundry.[22]
XF8F-2
F8F-1 conversion with engine upgrade, revised engine cowling, taller tail.
F8F-2 Bearcat
Improved version, equipped with a redesigned engine cowling, taller fin and rudder, armed with four 20 mm (.79 in) cannons, powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-2800-30W radial piston engine, 293 built.
F8F-2D
F8F-2s converted into drone control aircraft.
F8F-2N Bearcat
Night-fighter version, equipped with an APS-19 radar, 12 built.
F8F-2P Bearcat
Photo-reconnaissance version, fitted with camera equipment, armed with two 20 mm (.79 in) cannons, 60 built.

Operators[edit]

 France
 Thailand
 United States
 South Vietnam

Survivors[edit]

Grumman F8F-2P Bearcat G-RUMM N700HL at Flying Legends, Duxford, UK

Thailand[edit]

Airworthy
F8F-1
  • 122120 - Tango Squadron, Foundation for the Preservation and Development of Thai Aircraft.[23]
On display
F8F-1

United Kingdom[edit]

Airworthy
F8F-2

United States[edit]

Airworthy
F8F-1
F8F-1B
F8F-2
G-58 Gulfhawk (two civilian built Bearcats)
On display
F8F-2
F8F-2P
Under Restoration
F8F-1
F8F-2

Specifications[edit]

F8F-2 Bearcat

F8F-1[edit]

Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II,[5][page needed][51]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 4 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns (Four 20mm M3 cannon F8F-1B)
  • Rockets: 4 × 5 in (127 mm) unguided rockets
  • Bombs: 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs

F8F-2[edit]

Data from F8F Bearcat in Action[55]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 4 × 20 mm (.79 in) M3 cannon
  • Rockets: 4 × 5 in (127 mm) unguided rockets
  • Bombs: 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Grumman's project pilot for the Bearcat series was noted test pilot Corwin F. "Corky" Meyer.[12][13]
  2. ^ Neil Armstrong had flown the type in 1950 during his Navy Advanced Training, field qualifying in it at age 19; when asked his favorite aircraft to fly, his immediate and unequivocal answer was "Bearcat".[14]
  3. ^ Note that Shelton's claim to be the "fastest propeller-driven aircraft in the world" does not acknowledge faster turboprop aircraft such as the Russian Tupolev Tu-95 "Bear" bomber. Other sources credit "Rare Bear" as the fastest "piston-driven" aircraft.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Historical Listings: Vietnam, South (SVN)." World Air Forces. Retrieved: 19 May 2011.
  2. ^ Ewing 2004, pp. 182, 308.
  3. ^ Gunston 1988, p. 48.
  4. ^ Francillon 1989, p. 243.
  5. ^ a b Maloney 1969
  6. ^ "F8F Bearcat." U.S. Naval Air Museum. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  7. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1991, p. 241.
  8. ^ a b c Scrivner 1990, p. 4.
  9. ^ Scrivner 1990, p. 7.
  10. ^ Scrivner 1990, p. 14.
  11. ^ Meyer, Corwin W. "Clipping the Bearcat's wing." Flight Journal, August 1998, p. 1. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  12. ^ Dittmeier, Chris. "Grumman test pilots." www.GrummanPark.org. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  13. ^ Meyer, Corwin. Corky Meyer's Flight Journal: A Test Pilot's Tales Of Dodging Disasters-Just In Time. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2006. ISBN 1-58007-093-0.
  14. ^ Hanson 2005, p. 78.
  15. ^ Francillon 1989, pp. 252–253.
  16. ^ "The war in Indo-China goes on." The News Magazine of the Screen: Warner Pathé News, 12/1953. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  17. ^ Manevy 1993, pp. 278–280.
  18. ^ "AVIA Camouflage Profiles: Grumman F8F Bearcat." Wings Palette. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  19. ^ "Lyle Shelton's "Rare Bear." www.RareBear.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  20. ^ "Aircraft speed records." www.AeroSpaceWeb.org. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  21. ^ "Speed records from archives of the Society of Air Racing Historians." www.AirRace.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  22. ^ Hardy, M. J. Sea, Sky and Stars: An Illustrated History of Grumman Aircraft. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-85368-832-7.
  23. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 122120." Tango Squadron. Retrieved: 16 Dec 2013.
  24. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 94956." Royal Thai Air Force Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012.
  25. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 121714." The Fighter Collection Duxford. Retrieved: 11 April 2012.
  26. ^ "FAA Registry: N9G" FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  27. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 95255." Lewis Air Legends. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  28. ^ "FAA Registry: N58204." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  29. ^ "FAA Registry: N2209." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  30. ^ "FAA Registry: N1DF." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  31. ^ "FAA Registry: N800H." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  32. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 121752." Historic Flight Foundation. Retrieved: 14 July 2014.
  33. ^ "FAA Registry: N68RW." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  34. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 122614." Lewis Air Legends. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  35. ^ "FAA Registry: N747NF." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  36. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 122619." Lewis Air Legends. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  37. ^ "FAA Registry: N14WB." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  38. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 122629." Lewis Air Legends. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  39. ^ "FAA Registry: N777L." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  40. ^ "FAA Registry: N8TF." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  41. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 122674." CAF Southern California Wing. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  42. ^ "FAA Registry: N7825C." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  43. ^ "FAA Registry: N3025." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  44. ^ "Grumman G-58B Gulfhawk." Palm Springs Air Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
  45. ^ "FAA Registry: N700A." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  46. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 121646." National Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012.
  47. ^ "Grumman F8F Bearcat/Bu. 121710." National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 11 April 2012.
  48. ^ "FAA Registry: N14HP." FAA.gov Retrieved: 26 August 2014.
  49. ^ "FAA Registry: N4752Y." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  50. ^ "FAA Registry: N818F." FAA.gov Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  51. ^ Bridgman 1946, p. 233.
  52. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1991, p. 243.
  53. ^ http://www.ww2aircraft.net/forum/engines/r-2800-34-vs-34w-41019.html
  54. ^ http://www.ww2aircraft.net/forum/engines/terminology-engine-data-36560-3.html#post1006503
  55. ^ Scrivner 1990, p. 31.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andrews, Hal. The Grumman F8F Bearcat (Aircraft in profile 107). Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1972 (reprinted from 1966).
  • Bridgman, Leonard. "The Grumman Bearcat". Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1-85170-493-0.
  • Brown, Eric. "Last of the Wartime 'Cats'". Air International, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1980. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Chant, Christopher. Grumman F8F Bearcat: Super Profile. Sparkford, Yeovil, UK: Haynes Publishing, 1985. ISBN 0-85429-447-3.
  • Drendel, Lou. U.S. Navy Carrier Fighters of World War II. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1987. ISBN 0-89747-194-6.
  • Ewing, Steve. Thach Weave: The Life Jimmie Thach. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. 2004. ISBN 1-59114-248-2.
  • Francillon, Rene J. Grumman Aircraft Since 1929. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989. ISBN 0-87021-246-X.
  • Green, William. "Grumman F8F-1 Bearcat". War Planes of the Second World War, Volume Four: Fighters. London: Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1961, pp. 109–111. ISBN 0-356-01448-7.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. "Grumman F8F Bearcat". WW2 Fact Files: US Navy and Marine Corps Fighters. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1976, pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-356-08222-9.
  • Gunston, Bill. Grumman: Sixty Years of Excellence. London: Orion Books, 1988. ISBN 1-55750-991-3.
  • Hanson, James R. First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 0-7432-5751-0.
  • Maloney, Edward T. Grumman F8F Bearcat (Aero Series Vol. 20). Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, 1969. ISBN 0-8168-0576-8.
  • Manevy, Jean Christophe. "French Bearcats in Indo-China 1951–1954". Air International, Vol. 44, No. 6, June 1993, pp. 278–280. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Meyer, "Corky". "Clipping the Bearcat's Wing". Flight Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, August 1998.
  • Morgan, Eric B. "Grumman's Hot Rod". Twenty-first Profile, Volume 1, no. 12. New Milton, Hantfordshire, UK: Profile Publications, 1972. ISSN 0961-8120.
  • Morgan, Eric B. "Grumman Bearcat part II". Twenty-first Profile, Volume 2, no. 17. New Milton, Hantfordshire, UK: Profile Publications, 1972. ISSN 0961-8120.
  • O'Leary, Michael. United States Naval Fighters of World War II in Action. Poole, Dorset, UK: Blandford Press, 1980. ISBN 0-7137-0956-1.
  • Scrivner, Charles L. F8F Bearcat in Action (Aircraft Number 99). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1990. ISBN 0-89747-243-8.
  • Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press 1991, pp. 241–243. ISBN 0-87021-792-5.
  • Taylor, John W.R. "Grumman F8F Bearcat". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

External links[edit]