British Rail Class 455
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|British Rail Class 455|
A South West Trains Class 455/7 (trainset (45)5729) at Clapham Junction.
The interior of a South West Trains Class 455 EMU.
|In service||1982 - Current|
|Family name||BR Second Generation (Mark 3)
BREL 1972 "PEP" (Class 455/7 intermediate)
|Number built||137 trainsets|
|Formation||4 cars per trainset|
|Fleet numbers||455801 - 455874
455701 - 455742, 455750
455901 - 455920
|Capacity||315 seats (as-built)
272 seats (South West Trains)
310 seats (Southern)
|Operator||South West Trains
|Train length||80.92 m (265.5 ft)|
|Car length||19.83 m (65.1 ft)|
|Width||2.82 m (9.3 ft)|
|Maximum speed||75 mph (121 km/h)|
|Weight||135.95 tonnes (133.80 long tons; 149.86 short tons)|
|Electric system(s)||750 V DC third rail|
|Braking system(s)||Air (Westcode)3-step with wheel slide protection. 455/7 & 455/8 equipment manufactured by Davies and Metcalfe. 455/9 equipment from Westinghouse|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The British Rail Class 455 is a type of electric multiple unit drawing power from a 750 V DC third rail. Built by BREL at York works in the early and mid-1980s, they were initially categorised as Class 510 as the successor to the Class 508. They are used on suburban services in South London, by South West Trains and Southern.
There were three batches of Class 455 units, all consisting of 4 cars: driving carriages at each end, an intermediate trailer vehicle and an intermediate motorised vehicle (powered by four GEC507-20J of 185 kW carried on the bogies of the MSO vehicle, some recovered from Class 405), all originally built to the Standard Class 3+2 seating arrangement. Technically, they are formed DTSO+MSO+TSO+DTSO. They have the same bodyshell as the Class 317 and Class 318, but as they were designed for inner suburban services they do not feature first class seating or toilet facilities and are restricted to 75 mph (121 km/h). Like the Class 317/318, as well as the diesel Class 150, they are based on British Rail's Mark 3 coaches, with a steel construction, unlike the earlier PEP-based Class 313s, 314s, 315s, 507s and 508s which had an aluminium alloy body.
The first batch (known as phases one and two) now classified as Class 455/8, were built 1982-84. These include all 46 Southern units (allocated to Selhurst depot) and 28 allocated to South West Trains (at Wimbledon depot). Southern's 455/8s have a revised front end, with the gangway connection plated over.
The second batch (known as phase three), now classified as Class 455/7, were built 1984-85. There are 43 four-car units, all allocated to South West Trains at Wimbledon depot. They differ from the 455/8s in having a revised front end (air horns relocated next to the coupler and revised headlamp clusters) that was later used on the Class 317/2 and Class 318.
The 455/7s are easily distinguished from 455/8s as each TSO car is taken from a Class 508. The Class 508s that were transferred to Merseyrail were originally four carriage trains but were reduced to only three cars when transferred. Therefore, to cut production costs, the Class 455/7s built between 1984-85 used the existing surplus TSOs from the Class 508s instead of having expensive newly constructed TSOs built for them. These cars have a lower roofline and wider body sides, in common with the Class 313 / 314 / 315 / 507 / 508 units.
The final batch (known as phase four), now classified as Class 455/9, were built in 1985. These 20 units are all allocated to South West Trains at Wimbledon depot. These are similar to the 455/7s, except that they had new-build TSOs, however one unit, 455 912, has a TSO formerly part of the prototype Class 210 DEMU (which also had the same bodyshell).
South West Trains
The South West Trains units are used on most London commuter rail routes from London Waterloo to South West London and neighbouring areas.
Trains can be used as 4-car unit sets, but two units are usually coupled together to form 8-car trains.
- Caterham Line
- Tattenham Corner Line
- Sutton & Mole Valley Line to Horsham, Epsom Downs and Guildford
- London Victoria and London Bridge to West Croydon via Norbury
- Outer South London Line (London Bridge to Victoria via Crystal Palace)
- London Bridge to Beckenham Junction.
These services are shared with the Class 377/6s, which are 5-car units.
South West Trains
For their refurbishments, South West Trains chose a 2+2 seat layout. The doorways have been modified so that the sliding doors can open further, to allow for faster boarding and alighting. The units are painted in a new red "Metro" version of the South West Trains livery. The units have also been fitted with high backed seats for better passenger comfort and audio and visual Customer Information Systems (CIS). This refurbishment was so comprehensive that many passengers thought the refurbished units were new trains.
On 28 September 2012, Stagecoach Group, the parent group of South West Trains, announced a £23 million refurbishment of its Class 455 trains, with a new £3.2 million state of the art paint shop to be based in Bournemouth.
Southern have retained the original 3+2 layout but with high-backed seats to improve passenger comfort especially for commuters travelling long distances. Southern have also removed the gangway and door from the front of the trains, replacing them with an air conditioning unit. Some do not consider the new front end plate aesthetically pleasing. Units are painted in the green Southern livery. They have also installed digital information boards and voiceover information. They have also given the lights new covers inside for a more pleasant ambiance, plus new inter-car doors and new handrails. New litter bins have been added under the seats to minimise littering. They have even added LED marker lights and tail lights. This has vastly modernised the interior and changed the exterior a considerable amount.
A refresh programme started for the Southern units in June 2012. This includes a repaint and interior changes, such as changes to the grab rails on the top between each door. 455 808 was the first unit to have this done, followed by 455 812 on 14 August 2012.
Accidents and incidents
On 5 November 2010, a lorry fell off a bridge over the railway line near Oxshott railway station, landing on the 3:05pm South West Trains service from Guildford to London Waterloo. The train was formed of two Class 455 units, 455 741 and 455 913. The end of the roof of the sixth carriage was severely crushed. Further damage was sustained to the fifth and sixth, seventh and eighth carriages, with the latter being derailed at its trailing bogie, although the train remained upright. The lorry driver and one passenger suffered serious injuries; a further five passengers suffered minor injuries. Unit 455913 is currently undergoing tests at Wimbledon Depot and should return to service in late spring 2013. It has been fitted with an ex Class 210 driving vehicle which has been converted to an intermediate vehicle.
Future - Fitting of a new Traction equipment
In April 2013 it was announced that the South West Trains units would be fitted with new Vossloh Kiepe traction equipment. As part of the re-powering of the fleet, the air operated camshaft and electrical resistance grids will be removed, as well as the EE507 traction motors. The new equipment will consist of DC to AC inverters of the IGBT type. This is needed as the replacement traction motors are AC rather than DC. Fitting new equipment both improves Miles per Breakdown values and overall reduces operating and maintaining costs.
|Class||Operator||Number of Trains||Built||Cars per Set||Unit numbers|
|Class 455/7||South West Trains||43||1984–1985||4||455 701 - 455 742, 455 750|
|Class 455/8||Southern||46||1982–1984||455 801 - 455 846|
|South West Trains||28||455 847 - 455 874|
|Class 455/9||20||1985||455 901 - 455 920|
- Lawford, Nick (June 2007). "Class 455s: suburban workhorses". Today's Railways (66) (Platform 5 Publishing Ltd.). ISSN 1475-9713.
- The Class 455 Units - Suburban Electric Railway Association. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- Class 455 - Southern E-Group. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- Class 455 2 Page. - Southern E-Group. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- Class 455 Refurbishment - Southern E-Group. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- "Class 455 suburban EMU refurbished". Railway Gazette International. 1 January 2005.
- "Multi-million-pound train fleet investment set to create jobs and boost disability travel" (Press release). Stagecoach Group. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- "Several injured as lorry falls on to a train". BBC News Online. 5 November 2010.
- Clinnick, Richard. "Lorry lands on train after plunging through bridge". Rail (Bauer Media) (657, 17 – 30 November 2010): 6–7.
- "Investigation into an accident involving a heavy goods vehicle and a train near Oxshott, Surrey, on 5 November 2010". Rail Accidents Investigation Branch. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
- "South West Trains EMUs to get AC traction equipment". Railway Gazette International. 15 April 2013.
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