|Type||Commuter rail, Suburban rail|
|Locale||South East England
East of England
|Termini||Maidenhead / Heathrow Terminal 4
Shenfield / Abbey Wood
|Opening||May 2015 Liverpool Street–Shenfield
2018/2019 Abbey Wood–Heathrow/Maidenhead
|Owner||TfL (Old Oak to Abbey Wood & Stratford)
Network Rail (other sections)
|Depot(s)||Old Oak Common
Plumstead (if TWAO approved)
|Rolling stock||Class 345
(Proposed) 10 carriages per trainset
|Line length||118 km|
|No. of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||25 kV 50 Hz AC (Overhead line)|
|Operating speed||Below 100 mph (160 km/h)|
Crossrail, when completed, will be a 118-kilometre (73-mile) railway line serving London and its environs in the United Kingdom. The central part of the line—a tunnel through central London—and other connections to existing lines that will become part of Crossrail are currently under construction; work began in 2009 after several decades of proposals. It is Europe's largest[dubious ] railway and infrastructure construction project, with work mainly under way in central London. Its aim is to provide a high-frequency commuter/suburban passenger service, also to be branded Crossrail, that will, from 2018, link parts of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, via central London, to Essex and South East London.
The main feature of the project is the construction of 42 km (26 miles) of new tunnels. The main tunnels will run from near Paddington Station to Stratford via central London and Liverpool Street Station. An almost entirely new line will branch from the main line at Whitechapel in east London. It will run to Canary Wharf, cross the Thames, serve a new station in Woolwich and connect with the North Kent Line at Abbey Wood in south east London.
Services due to use the new tunnels will run on a total line of 118 km (73 mi) that will run from Maidenhead (to the west of London) to Shenfield (to the north east) and Abbey Wood (to the south east). These services will share parts of existing lines with existing services. These are mainly parts of the Great Western Main Line in Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and London (Maidenhead to Paddington) and the Great Eastern Main Line in London and Essex (Stratford to Shenfield). Ten-car trains will run at frequencies of up to 24 trains per hour (tph) in each direction through the central tunnel section.
It is the first of two routes that are the responsibility of Crossrail Ltd, the other being the proposed Chelsea–Hackney line. It is based on new main-line-gauge east-west tunnels from Paddington in the west to beyond Whitechapel in the east. Cross London Rail Links (CLRL) (now Crossrail Ltd) was formed in 2001 to deliver the scheme. The project was approved in October 2007, and the Crossrail Act received Royal Assent in July 2008.
Crossrail will be operated as a London Rail concession of Transport for London, in a similar manner to the London Overground. Services will begin in May 2015 between Liverpool Street and Shenfield and will be extended to other parts of the route during 2018 and 2019. The original plan was that the first trains would run from 2017. However, in 2010 a spending review saving over £1 billion of the £15.9 billion projected cost meant that the first trains are now planned to run on the central section in 2018. It has become Europe's biggest construction project.
- 1 History
- 2 Design
- 3 Plans
- 4 Management and franchise
- 5 Controversy
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Planning and financing
The concept of large-diameter railway tunnels crossing central London to connect Paddington and Liverpool Street main-line stations was proposed by railwayman George Dow in the London newspaper The Star in June 1941. He also proposed north-south lines, anticipating the Thameslink lines of postwar years. The current Crossrail proposal has its origins in the 1943 County of London Plan and 1944 Greater London Plan by Sir Patrick Abercrombie. These led to a specialist investigation by the Railway (London Plan) Committee, appointed in 1944 and reporting in 1946 and 1948. Route A would have run from Loughborough Junction to Euston, replacing Blackfriars bridge and largely serving the same purpose as today's Thameslink Programme. Route F would have connected Lewisham with Kilburn via Fenchurch Street, Bank, Ludgate Circus, Trafalgar Square, Marble Arch and Marylebone. This was seen as a lower priority than Route A, but Route C was the only one built, as the Victoria line, but with smaller-diameter tube tunnels.
The term 'Crossrail' emerged in the 1974 London Rail Study Report by a steering group set up by the Department of the Environment and the Greater London Council to look at future transport needs and strategic plans for London and the South East. The report contained several options for new lines and extensions: the development of the Jubilee Line (then called the Fleet Line) to Fenchurch Street; the Jubilee Line Extension (River Line) project; and the Chelsea-Hackney line. The re-opening of the Snow Hill Tunnel was proposed, as were two deep-level railway lines:
- Northern Tunnel, Paddington to Liverpool Street, via Marble Arch, Bond Street/Oxford Circus, Leicester Square/Covent Garden (interchange), and Holborn/Ludgate (close to Paternoster Square);
- Southern Tunnel, Victoria to London Bridge, via Green Park/Piccadilly, Leicester Square/Covent Garden (interchange), Ludgate/Blackfriars, and Cannon Street/Monument.
The 1974 study estimated that 14,000 passengers would be carried in the peak hour in the northern tunnel between Paddington and Marble Arch and 21,000 between Liverpool Street and Ludgate Circus, which would also carry freight. Higher estimates were made for the southern tunnel. It commented that Crossrail would be similar to the RER in Paris and the Hamburg S-Bahn. Reference was also made to through services to Heathrow Airport. Although the idea was seen as imaginative, only a brief estimate of cost was given: £300 million. A feasibility study was recommended as a high priority so that the practicability and costs of the scheme could be determined. It was also suggested that the alignment of the tunnels should be safeguarded[non-primary source needed] while a final decision was taken.
The "Central London Rail Study" (1989) proposed standard (BR) structure gauge tunnels linking the existing rail network as the "East-West Crossrail", "City Crossrail", and "North South Crossrail" schemes; the east-west scheme was for a line from Liverpool Street to Paddington/Marylebone. The report also recommended a number of other schemes including a "Thameslink Metro" line enhancement, and a new underground Chelsea Hackney line. Cost of the east-west scheme including rolling stock was estimated at £885 million.
In 1991 a private Bill was submitted to Parliament for a scheme including a new underground line from Paddington to Liverpool Street. The bill was promoted by London Underground and British Rail, and supported by the government; the bill was rejected by the Private Bill Committee in 1994, on the grounds that a case had not been made, though the line route was protected from development that would jeopardise future schemes.
In 2001 Cross London Rail Links (CLRL), a 50/50 joint venture company between Transport for London and the Department of Transport, was formed to develop and promote the scheme, and also a Wimbledon-Hackney scheme. In 2003 and 2004, over 50 days of exhibitions were held to explain the proposals at over 30 different locations.[non-primary source needed]
A more ambitious proposal named "Superlink" was proposed in 2004, at an estimated cost of £13 billion, including additional infrastructure work outside London: in addition to Crossrail's east-west tunnel, lines would connect towns including Cambridge, Ipswich, Southend, Pitsea, Reading, Basingstoke and Northampton. According to the scheme's promoters, the line would carry four times as many passengers and require a lower public subsidy as a result. The proposal was rejected by Crossrail, and failed to receive the backing of the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, or the Department of Transport.
2005 Crossrail Bill and subsequent approval
The Crossrail Bill 2005, a hybrid bill, went through Parliament. The Crossrail Bill Select Committee met between December 2005 and October 2007. The Select Committee announced an interim decision in July 2006 which called on the promoter to add a station at Woolwich. The Government initially responded that it would not do so as it would jeopardise the affordability of the whole scheme, but a subsequent agreement has made this possible.
In February 2008 the bill moved to the House of Lords, where it was amended by a committee of peers. The act received Royal Assent on 22 July 2008 as the Crossrail Act 2008.[non-primary source needed] The act is accompanied by an Environmental Impact Statement, plans and other related information. The act gives Cross London Rail Links the powers necessary to build the line. In November 2008, while announcing an agreement for a £230 million contribution from BAA, Transport Minister Lord Adonis confirmed that funding was still in place despite the global economic downturn. On 4 December 2008 it was announced that Transport for London and the Department for Transport had signed the Crossrail Sponsors' Agreement. This commits them to financing the project, then projected to cost £15.9 billion, alongside contributions from Network Rail, BAA and the City of London. The accompanying Crossrail Sponsors' Requirements commits them to the construction of the full scheme.
Prime Minister Gordon Brown and Mayor of London Boris Johnson attended a ceremony at Canary Wharf on 15 May 2009 when construction started. On 7 September 2009, the project received £1 billion in funding. The money is being lent to Transport for London by the European Investment Bank.
In the lead-up to the 2010 general election, both the Labour Party and the Conservative Party made manifesto commitments to deliver the railway. The new Transport Secretary, appointed in May 2010, confirmed that the new coalition government was committed to the project. The original planned schedule was that the first trains would run in 2017. In 2010 a Comprehensive Spending Review identified savings of over £1 billion in projected costs, achieved by a simpler tunnelling strategy to reduce the number of tunnel boring machines and access shafts required. Construction will therefore be slower, and the first trains are now planned to run on the central section in 2018.
In April 2009, Crossrail announced that 17 firms had secured 'Enabling Works Framework Agreements' and would now be able to compete for packages of works. At the peak of construction up to 14,000 people are expected to be needed in the project's supply chain.[non-primary source needed]
The threat of diseases being released by work on the project was raised by Lord James of Blackheath at the passing of the Crossrail Bill. He told the House of Lords select committee that 682 victims of anthrax had been brought into Smithfield in Farringdon with some contaminated meat in 1520 and then buried in the area. On 24 June 2009 it was reported that no traces of anthrax or bubonic plague had been found on human bone fragments discovered during tunnelling.
Invitations to tender for the two principal tunnelling contracts were published in the Official Journal of the European Union in August 2009. 'Tunnels West' (C300) was for twin 6.2 kilometres (3.9 mi)-long tunnels from Royal Oak through to the new Crossrail Farringdon Station, with a portal west of Paddington. The 'Tunnels East' (C305) request was for three tunnel sections and 'launch chambers' in east London.[non-primary source needed] Contracts were awarded in late 2010; 'Tunnels West' contract was awarded to BAM Nuttall, Ferrovial Agroman and Kier Construction; the 'Tunnels East' contract was awarded to Dragados and John Sisk & Son.[non-primary source needed] The remaining tunnelling contract (C310, Plumstead to North Woolwich), which included a tunnel under the Thames, was awarded to Hochtief and J. Murphy & Sons in 2011.
By September 2009, preparatory work for the £1 billion developments at Tottenham Court Road station had begun, with buildings (including the Astoria Theatre) being compulsorily purchased and demolished.
In March 2010, contracts were awarded to civil engineering companies for the second round of 'enabling work' including 'Royal Oak Portal Taxi Facility Demolition', 'Demolition works for Crossrail Bond Street Station', 'Demolition works for Crossrail Tottenham Court Road Station' and 'Pudding Mill Lane Portal'. In December 2010, contracts were awarded for most of the tunnelling work.
In December 2011, a contract to ship the excavated material from the tunnel to Wallasea Island was awarded to a joint venture comprising BAM Nuttall Limited and Van Oord UK limited.[non-primary source needed] Between 4.5 - 5 million tonnes of soil will be used to construct a new wetland nature reserve.
On 27 September 2012, a gantry supporting a spoil hopper at a construction site near Westbourne Park tube station used to load rail wagons with excavated waste collapsed, tipping sideways and causing the adjacent Network Rail line to be closed.
In March 2013 Crossrail excavations uncovered thirteen skeletons 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) under the road which surrounds the gardens in Charterhouse Square, Farringdon. The remains are thought to be of victims of the Black Death from the 14th century.[non-primary source needed]
Crossrail is based on new east-west tunnels under central London connecting the Great Western Main Line near Paddington and the Great Eastern Main Line near Stratford. An eastern branch diverges at Whitechapel, running through Docklands and emerging at Custom House on a disused part of the North London Line, and then under the River Thames to Abbey Wood. Trains will run from Maidenhead and Heathrow in the west to Shenfield and Abbey Wood in the east. On the Shenfield, Heathrow and Maidenhead routes Crossrail will take over existing stopping services.
The tunnelled sections will be about 22 kilometres (14 mi) in length.
There are five tunnelled sections, each with an internal diameter of 6.2 metres (20 ft) (compared with the 3.81 metres (12.5 ft) for the deep-tube Victoria line), totalling 21 km (13 miles) in length: a 6.4 km (4.0 miles) tunnel from Royal Oak to Farringdon; an 8.3 km (5.2 miles) tunnel from Limmo Peninsula to Farringdon; a 2.7 km (1.7 miles) tunnel from Pudding Mill Lane to Stepney Green; a 2.6 km (1.6 miles) tunnel from Plumstead to North Woolwich (Thames tunnel section); and a 0.9 km (0.6 miles) tunnel from Limmo Peninsula (Royal Docks) to Victoria Dock portal which will re-use the Pudding Mill-Stepney tunnelling machines. Each section consists of two tunnels excavated at the same time – two TBMs per section. The tunnel linings will be constructed from concrete sections. Tunnelling is expected to progress at around 100 metres per week. The main tunnelling contracts are valued at around £1.5 billion.
Tunnel boring machines
The project will use eight 7.1m diameter tunnel-boring machines (TBM) from Herrenknecht AG (Germany); two types of machine are used; 'slurry' type TBMs for the Thames tunnel, which involves tunnelling through chalk, and 'Earth Pressure Balance Machines' (EPBM) for tunnelling through clay, sand and gravel (at lower levels through Lambeth Group and Thanet Sands ground formation). The TBMs weight approaches 1,000 tonnes and they are over 100 m long.
The TBMs were named following tunnelling tradition. Crossrail ran a competition in January 2012 in which over 2500 entries were received and 10 pairs of names short listed. Following a public vote in February 2012, the first three pairs of names were announced on 13 March.[non-primary source needed]
- Ada and Phyllis, Royal Oak to Farringdon section, named after Ada Lovelace and Phyllis Pearsall.
- Victoria and Elizabeth, Limmo Peninsula to Farringdon section, named after Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II.
- Mary and Sophia, Plumstead to North Woolwich section, named after the wives of Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Marc Isambard Brunel.
- Jessica and Ellie, Pudding Mill Lane to Stepney Green section, named after Jessica Ennis-Hill and Ellie Simmonds.
The western section is on the surface from Maidenhead to Acton Main Line, with an underground spur to Heathrow Airport. The main route will include upgrading all the stations: Maidenhead, Taplow, Burnham, Slough, Langley, Iver, West Drayton, Hayes and Harlington, Southall, Hanwell, West Ealing, Ealing Broadway and Acton Main Line.
The Crossrail route was protected as far as Reading but this is now almost irrelevant as electrification to Reading and beyond is now government policy and should be implemented by the time Crossrail is complete. If Crossrail were to be extended to Reading both Twyford and Reading stations would be added to Crossrail.
There will be new stations at Paddington, Bond Street, Tottenham Court Road, Farringdon, Liverpool Street, Whitechapel and Canary Wharf, with interchange with the London Underground, London Overground, National Rail and/or the Docklands Light Railway. Due to the size and positioning of new platforms required for these stations, some will be connected to two underground stations.
- Paddington (additional facilities)
- Bond Street (additional facilities)
- Tottenham Court Road (major reconstruction)
- Farringdon (additional facilities) – also connects to Thameslink and Barbican
- Liverpool Street (additional facilities) – also connects to Moorgate
- Whitechapel (additional facilities)
Whitechapel to Shenfield
This section runs underground from Whitechapel to Stratford then on the surface on existing lines. It will include the following stations: Stratford, Maryland, Forest Gate, Manor Park, Ilford, Seven Kings, Goodmayes, Chadwell Heath, Romford, Gidea Park, Harold Wood, Brentwood, and Shenfield.
Whitechapel to Abbey Wood
This section runs underground from Whitechapel to Canary Wharf, then to Abbey Wood. It takes over the disused Custom House to North Woolwich via Connaught tunnel stretch of the North London Line, built by the Eastern Counties and Thames Junction Railway, and connects it with the North Kent Line via a tunnel under the River Thames at North Woolwich. It will include a new 'station box' at Woolwich, subject to resolution of the 2007 outline funding agreement with developer Berkeley Homes.[non-primary source needed]
Restoration of the Connaught tunnel by filling with concrete foam and reboring, as originally intended, is now deemed too risky to the structural integrity of the tunnel, and the docks above will be drained to give access to the tunnel roof in order to enlarge its profile. This work is scheduled to begin in early 2013.
- Canary Wharf (new station) formerly called 'Isle of Dogs'
- Custom House (rebuild with additional facilities)
- Woolwich (new station projected)
- Abbey Wood for Thamesmead (additional platforms, existing tracks will be re-aligned)
On the central segment between Paddington and Whitechapel stations will be served by 24 tph at peak times. To the east, this service splits into 12 to Abbey Wood and 12 to Shenfield (supplemented by 6 tph National Rail service into Liverpool Street). To the west, the initial plan is for 14 tph to terminate at Paddington, but this is under review for the longer term (see "Extensions to Milton Keynes" below). The remaining trains continue, with 4 branching off to Heathrow (supplemented by 4 Heathrow Express trains), 2 continuing to West Drayton, and 4 to Maidenhead.[non-primary source needed]
|Other peak services||Other Off-peak services|
|Shenfield branch||12tph||6tph||To Liverpool Street mainline station;
6tph serving all stations except Ilford, Harold Wood, Brentwood and Shenfield
4tph serving only Shenfield
|To Liverpool Street mainline station;
2tph serving Romford and Shenfield
3tph serving only Shenfield
|Abbey Wood branch||12tph||unknown||none||none|
|4tph to Maidenhead
4tph to Heathrow
2tph to West Drayton
|2tph to Maidenhead
4tph to Heathrow
|To Paddington mainline station;
4tph serving Maidenhead only
2tph serving Maidenhead, Slough, Hayes & Harlington and Ealing Broadway
|To Paddington mainline station;
2tph serving Maidenhead, Slough, Hayes & Harlington and Ealing Broadway
However on the Maidenhead branch, between Paddington and West Drayton, not all stations will be equally served:
- Hayes & Harlington: 10tph peak, 6tph off-peak
- Southall: 8tph peak, 6tph off-peak
- Hanwell: 2tph peak, 2tph off-peak
- West Ealing: 4tph peak, 4tph off-peak
- Ealing Broadway: 10tph peak, 6tph off-peak
- Acton Mainline: 4tph peak, 4tph off-peak
A full east-west service may not begin until 2019 due to signalling changes on the Great Western Main Line. The projected start of service dates are:
- Heathrow to Paddington (mainline platforms): May 2018
- Paddington (Crossrail platforms) to Abbey Wood: December 2018
- Paddington (Crossrail platforms) to Shenfield: May 2019
- Full service: December 2019
Although a 24tph service will be run from opening, the line has been built with redundant capacity to allow for growth. When required, 32tph could operate; combined with provision for two extra cars per train, this would allow a 30–40% capacity increase.
The signalling will be a mixture of ETCS 2 on the western branches from 2019, CBTC with ATO on the core and Abbey Wood branch (with a possible later upgrade to ETCS), and AWS with TPWS on the Great Western Main Line and Great Eastern Main Line.[non-primary source needed]
Crossrail will use 25 kV, 50 Hz AC overhead line, as on the Great Eastern Main Line and the Great Western Main Line as far as Heathrow, rather than the fourth-rail electrification used by the London Underground or the third rail on the North Kent line. Overhead electrification will be installed between Heathrow Airport junction and Maidenhead.
Crossrail has registered the designation Class 345 for its trains.[non-primary source needed] The requirement is for 60 trains, each 200 m long and carrying up to 1,500 passengers. The trains will be disabled-accessible, including dedicated areas for wheelchairs, with audio and visual announcements, CCTV and speaker phones to the driver in case of emergency. Crossrail has stated that the new trains will be based on existing designs to minimise costs associated with development.[non-primary source needed]
They are intended to run at up to 160 kilometres per hour (100 mph) on the surface and 100 kilometres per hour (60 mph) in the tunnels.[dead link][contradictory] The government's rolling stock plan (2008) expected that the stock for Crossrail would be similar to the new rolling stock procured for the Thameslink Programme and would displace Class 315 EMUs, Class 165 DMUs and Class 360/2 EMUs for use elsewhere on the national network.
In March 2011, Crossrail announced that five bidders had been shortlisted for the contract to build the Class 345 and its associated depot. One of the bidders, Alstom, withdrew from the process in July 2011. In February 2012 Crossrail issued an invitation to negotiate to CAF, Siemens, Hitachi and Bombardier, with tenders expected to be submitted in mid-2012.
In July 2013 Siemens withdrew its rolling stock bid, citing capacity concerns due to the size of the project as the main reason. Nevertheless, Siemens will provide signalling and control systems for Crossrail.
The revised submission date for Crossrail Rolling Stock Tenders is now 29 July 2013.
Crossrail requires significant work on station infrastructure. Although initially the trains will be 200 metres long, platforms at the ten new stations in the central core are being built to enable 240-metre-long trains in case passenger numbers make this necessary. At existing stations platforms will be lengthened accordingly.
Maryland and Manor Park will not have platform extensions, so they will use selective door opening. For Maryland this is because of the prohibitive cost of extensions and the poor business case, and for Manor Park it is due to a freight loop that would otherwise be cut off.
A mock-up of the new stations has been built in Bedfordshire to ensure that their architectural integrity would last for a century. It is planned to bring at least one mock-up to London for the public to try out the design and give feedback before final construction takes place.
Of the 37 stations, 28 will have step-free access to both platforms; train doors will be level with the platforms at central stations and at Heathrow. The stations will be fully equipped with CCTV[non-primary source needed] and, due to the length of the platforms, train indicators will be above the platform-edge doors in central stations.
Crossrail ticketing is intended to be integrated with the other London transport systems, and Oyster Card Pay As You Go will be valid on the entire line. Travelcards will be valid within Greater London with the exception of the Heathrow branch, which will continue to be subject to special fares. Crossrail has often been compared to Paris' RER system due to the length of the central tunnel. Crossrail will be integrated with the London Underground and National Rail networks, and it is planned to include it on the standard London Underground Map.
Old Oak Common
As part of the former Labour government's plans for the High Speed 2 rail link from London to Birmingham, a new Crossrail-High Speed 2 interchange would be built at Old Oak Common (between Paddington and Acton Main Line stations). This would be built as part of High Speed 2 (which would start construction, under Labour's plans, in 2017), so would not be built in the first phase of Crossrail. It would provide interchange to other mainline and TfL lines. The succeeding Conservative-Liberal Democrat government adopted that proposal in the plans it put forward for public consultation. This means it is likely to go forward as part of High Speed 2, potentially giving Crossrail an interchange with High Speed 2, the Great Western Main Line (GWML), Central line and London Overground services running through the area.
This would lead to the demolition of the Old Oak Common MPD, the last steam-era shed still standing in London. It was announced in 2008 that Crossrail had acquired the shed, with the indication that the shed would have to go before Crossrail opened in 2014. This related to the original G. J. Churchward-designed roundhouse (originally housed four turntables, now reduced to one), and the British Railways-built Blue Pullman shed built to house the Class 251 and 261 trains running between London Paddington, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and Bristol. The compulsory purchase order used to acquire Old Oak Common does not include the carriage workshop there, or the Old Oak Common TMD used by FGW further down the line.
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is pushing for an additional station in the north of the Borough, east of Old Oak Common, at Kensal off Ladbroke Grove and Canal Way. A turn-back facility will have to be built not far west of Paddington anyway, and siting it at Kensal, rather than next to Paddington itself, would provide a frequent service to the new station, helping to regenerate the area. Mayor Boris Johnson stated that a station would be added if it met three tests: it must not delay construction of Crossrail; it must not compromise performance of Crossrail or any other railway; and it must not increase Crossrail's overall cost. In response, Kensington and Chelsea Council agreed to underwrite the projected £33 million cost of a Crossrail station, to the extent that section 106 payments from the promoters of property developments expected near the station do not reach this sum. The Council also funded a consultancy study which concluded that in many scenarios a Kensal station would not compromise Crossrail performance. TfL is conducting a feasibility study on the station. The project is supported by local MPs, the residents of the Borough, National Grid, retailers Sainsbury's and Cath Kidston, and Jenny Jones (Green Party member of the London Assembly). It is also supported by the adjoining London Borough of Brent. If the station goes ahead Kensington & Chelsea Council would like to see it called Portobello Central, capitalising on the fashionable Portobello Road market the main part of which is a half a mile to the south.
Crossrail takes over the old North London Line (NLL) alignment east of Custom House. On the south side of the docks there used to be a station at Silvertown. This is being demolished, but there will be passive provision for a new station slightly to the east. This would serve London City Airport (now served only by London City Airport DLR station), and construction will be considered after local development. There is no provision for it in the Crossrail Act, and it will not be part of the initial construction. For now it is considered that the DLR provides adequate service to the areas served by the former Silvertown and North Woolwich NLL stations. The DLR service is more frequent than the former NLL service to North Woolwich.[non-primary source needed]
The Great Western Electrification project, announced in July 2009, will complement Crossrail and electrify the Great Western Main Line westwards from Maidenhead to Reading and beyond. The UK Government and Transport for London are now considering whether to extend Crossrail from Maidenhead to Reading from the outset.
Extending Crossrail to Reading looks more attractive now that the government has confirmed that the GWML will be electrified to Swansea. This proposal is now recommended by Network Rail's Route Utilisation Strategy.
Crossrail is a political football in Reading. The Labour council supports an extension to Reading but the Conservative MP for Reading East, Rob Wilson, is less enthusiastic. According to Wilson, "We need the right Crossrail, not any Crossrail". His concern is that the Crossrail trains (which will stop at every station) will actually be slower than the present Reading-Paddington service.
The route to Gravesend has been safeguarded by the Department for Transport, although it was made clear that as at February 2008 there was no plan to extend Crossrail beyond the then-current scheme.
To Milton Keynes
Network Rail's July 2011 London & South East Route Utilisation Strategy (RUS) recommended diverting West Coast Main Line (WCML) local services between London and Milton Keynes away from Euston on to Crossrail via Old Oak Common to free up capacity at Euston for High Speed 2. This would provide a direct service from the WCML to the West End, Canary Wharf and other key destinations, release London Underground capacity at Euston, make better use of Crossrail's capacity west of Paddington, and improve access to Heathrow Airport from the North. Under this scheme, all Crossrail trains would continue west of Paddington, instead of some of them terminating there. They would serve Heathrow Airport (10 tph), stations to Maidenhead and Reading (6 tph), and stations to Milton Keynes (8 tph).
Network Rail's RUS also proposes integrating Heathrow Express into Crossrail to relieve the GWML and reduce the need for passengers to change at Paddington.
Crossrail 2 (Chelsea-Hackney)
Cross London Rail Links Ltd has inherited London Underground's "Chelsea-Hackney Line" plans, sometimes referred to as "Merton-Hackney". A route for this has been safeguarded since 1991, and a 2007 consultation to renew the safeguarding gives the following route:[non-primary source needed]
- Wimbledon to Parsons Green, using the existing Wimbledon branch of the District Line, interchange at Wimbledon with District Line, Tramlink, South West Trains and First Capital Connect
- Chelsea: new station
- Sloane Square: interchange with Circle and District Lines.
- Victoria: interchange with Victoria, District and Circle Lines, Southern and Southeastern
- Piccadilly Circus: interchange with Bakerloo and Piccadilly Lines
- Tottenham Court Road: interchange with Northern (Charing Cross Branch) and Central lines and Crossrail Line 1
- King's Cross St Pancras: interchange with Piccadilly, Victoria, Hammersmith & City, Northern (Bank Branch), Circle and Metropolitan Lines, East Coast, Grand Central, First Hull Trains, First Capital Connect, East Midlands Trains, Southeastern and Eurostar
- Angel: interchange with Northern Line (Bank Branch)
- Essex Road: Interchange with First Capital Connect
- Dalston Junction: interchange with East London Line, part of London Overground
- Hackney Central: new station with interchange to North London Line, part of London Overground
- Homerton: interchange with North London Line, part of London Overground
- Leytonstone: interchange with Central Line
- then taking the Epping branch of the Central Line from Leytonstone to Epping, although previously the line was intended to take over the Central Line to Hainault.
This line is known as the Chelsea – Hackney line and will not be built until after Crossrail 1 and probably also High Speed 2, which itself will probably not begin construction until after Crossrail 1 is completed. It has yet to be decided whether it will be built to National Rail (like Crossrail) or London Underground standards; however, the route safeguarding provides for the former.
Crossrail 3, backed by former London Mayor Ken Livingstone and incumbent Boris Johnson would include a 4-kilometre underground section in new tunnels connecting Euston and Waterloo, connecting the West Coast Main Line corridor with services to the south. However, Crossrail 3 is an unofficial proposal and not within the remit of Cross London Rail Links Ltd (and is not safeguarded as Crossrail 2 is).
Management and franchise
Crossrail is being built by Crossrail Ltd, jointly owned by Transport for London and the Department for Transport until December 2008, when full ownership was transferred to TfL. Crossrail has a £15.9 billion funding package in place for the construction of the line. Although the branch lines to the west and to Shenfield will still be owned by Network Rail, the tunnel will be owned and operated by TfL.
It is intended that Crossrail be operated as a concession let by TfL London Rail, like London Overground.[non-primary source needed] It is planned to initially let the franchise for 7 years from 2014, taking over control of Shenfield metro services from Greater Anglia, and Maidenhead / Heathrow services from First Great Western in 2016.
In anticipation of an April 2015 transfer of Shenfield to Liverpool Street services from the Greater Anglia franchise to Crossrail, the invitation to tender for the 2012–2013 Greater Anglian franchise requires the new rail operator to set up a separate "Crossrail Business Unit" for those services before the end of 2012. This unit would allow transfer of services to the new Crossrail Train Operating Concession (CTOC) operator during the next franchise, or if the 2012–2013 franchise implements the optional 1-year extension. The scope of the franchise may include, in addition to the main Shenfield-Liverpool Street services, additional peak services terminating at Liverpool Street main line and the Romford to Upminster shuttle.
Some East London politicians objected to the scheme, which they saw as an expensive service that will primarily benefit City and Docklands businesses and bring much disruption to East London. As a result, the tunnelling strategy was changed to remove excavated material by barge from Leamouth rather than the originally proposed complex conveyor system in Mile End.
Some freight-train operators, including DB Schenker Rail (UK) (then EWS), opposed the current plan because they claimed it would use up much of the remaining rail capacity and not provide the necessary extra capacity on connecting lines. This would make it harder to route freight services from the southern ports to the north and would increase freight transit times.
There had been complaints from music fans, as the redevelopment of the area forced the closure of a number of historic music venues. The London Astoria, the Astoria 2, The Metro, Sin nightclub and The Ghetto have been demolished to allow expansion of the ticket hall and congestion relief at Tottenham Court Road tube station in advance of the arrival of Crossrail.
There was considerable annoyance in Reading that Crossrail would terminate at Maidenhead, not Reading. However, the promoters and the government had always stressed that there was nothing to prevent extension to Reading in future if it could be justified. In February 2008 it was announced that the route for an extension to Reading was being safeguarded. This has become more likely now that the government has announced that the Great Western Main Line will be electrified beyond Reading in any event.
In February 2010, Crossrail was accused of bullying residents whose property lay on the route into selling for less than the market value. A subsequent London Assembly report was highly critical of the insensitive way in which Crossrail had dealt with compulsory purchases and the lack of assistance given to the people and businesses affected.
- British Rail Class 341 and 342, proposed rolling stock for an earlier unbuilt Crossrail scheme
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- Heathrow Connect, the Heathrow Connect service will be taken over by Crossrail once Crossrail operations begin
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