|Fate||Acquired by GEC|
headquartered at Strand, London
|Subsidiaries||Napier & Son (1942–)
The Marconi Company (1948–)
Vulcan Foundry (1955–)
Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns (1955–)
English Electric Aviation (1958–)
English Electric Leo Marconi (1964–)
English Electric (EE) was a British industrial manufacturer. Founded in 1918, it initially specialised in industrial electric motors and transformers. Its activities would expand to include railway locomotives and traction equipment, steam turbines, consumer electronics, guided missiles, aircraft and computers.
Although only a handful of aircraft designs were produced under the English Electric name, two would become landmarks in British aeronautical engineering; the Canberra and the Lightning. English Electric Aircraft would become a founding member of the British Aircraft Corporation in 1960 with the other industrial operations acquired by GEC in 1968.
- 1 History
- 2 Products
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
In 1917 Dick, Kerr & Co., a partnership of Glaswegian merchants W. B. Dick and John Kerr, acquired the United Electric Car Company, a tram manufacturer of Preston, Lancashire. In 1918, The English Electric Company, Limited (EE) was formed. In 1918 and 1919, EE took over Dick, Kerr & Co., Willans & Robinson of Rugby, the Coventry Ordnance Works and the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company of Bradford. It also bought the Stafford works of Siemens Brothers Dynamo Works Ltd. In 1930, the manufacture of electrical equipment was moved to Bradford; tram, bus body and rolling stock production staying at Preston. That same year, the man most associated with EE, George Nelson, became managing director.
From 1912–1918, United Electric and English Electric supplied 2nd and 3rd generation tramcars for Hong Kong Tramways.
In 1923 EE supplied electric locomotives for the New Zealand Railways for use between Arthurs Pass and Otira, in the Southern Alps. Between 1924 and 1926 English Electric delivered nine box-cab electric (B+B) locomotives to the Harbour Commissioners of Montreal (later called National Harbours Board). In 1927 EE delivered 20 electric motor cars for the Warsaw’s Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa. During the 1930s, EE supplied equipment for the electrification of the Southern Railway system, reinforcing its position in the traction market, and continued to provide traction motors to them for many years. In 1936, production of diesel locomotives commenced in the former tramworks in Preston. Between late 1930s and 1950s EE supplied electric multiple units for the electrified network in and around Wellington, New Zealand. Between 1951 and 1959, EE supplied the National Coal Board with five 51 ton, 400 hp electric shunting locomotives for use on the former Harton Coal Company System at South Shields (which had been electrified by Siemens in 1908) to supplement the existing fleet of ten ageing Siemens and AEG locomotives. EE took over Vulcan Foundry and Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns, both with substantial railway engineering pedigrees, in 1955.
English Electric produced nearly 1000 diesel and electric locomotives, of nine different classes, for British Rail as part of the Modernisation Plan in the 1950s and 1960s. All these classes of locomotive gave long service to British Rail and its successor train operating companies, with some still being active well into the 21st century.
Both Dick, Kerr & Co. and the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company built aircraft in the First World War, including flying boats designed by the Seaplane Experimental Station at Felixstowe, 62 Short Type 184 and 6 Short Bombers designed by Short Brothers. Aircraft manufacture under the EE name began in Bradford in 1922 with the English Electric Wren but lasted only until 1926 after the last English Electric Kingston flying boat was built.
With War in Europe looming, EE was instructed by the Air Ministry to construct a "shadow factory" at Samlesbury Aerodrome in Lancashire to build Handley Page Hampden bombers. Starting with Flight Shed Number 1, the first Hampden built by EE made its maiden flight on 22 February 1940 and, by 1942, 770 Hampdens had been delivered – more than half of all the Hampdens produced. In 1940, a second factory was built on the site and the runway was extended to allow for construction of the Handley Page Halifax four-engined heavy bomber to begin. By 1945, five main hangars and three runways had been built at the site, which was also home to No. 9 Group RAF. By the end of the war, over 2,000 Halifaxes had been built and flown from Samlesbury.
In 1942, EE took over Napier & Son, an aero-engine manufacturer. Along with the shadow factory, this helped to re-establish the company's aeronautical engineering division. Post-war, EE invested heavily in this sector, moving design and experimental facilities to the former RAF Warton near Preston in 1947. This investment lead to major successes with the Lightning and Canberra, the latter serving in a multitude of roles from 1951 until mid-2006 with the Royal Air Force.
At the end of the war, EE started production under licence of the second British jet fighter, the de Havilland Vampire, with 1,300 plus built at Samlesbury. Their own design work took off after the Second World War under W. E. W. Petter, formerly of Westland Aircraft. Although EE produced only two aircraft designs before their activities became part of BAC, the design team put forward suggestions for many Air Ministry projects.
The aircraft division was formed into the subsidiary English Electric Aviation Ltd. in 1958, becoming a founding constituent of the new British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) in 1960; EE having a 40% stake in the latter company. The guided weapons division was added to BAC in 1963.
The Industrial Electronics Division was established at Stafford. One of the products produced at this branch was the Igniscope, a revolutionary design of ignition tester for petrol engines. This was invented by Napiers and supplied as Type UED for military use during World War 2. After the war, it was marketed commercially as type ZWA.
Mergers and acquisition
In 1946, EE took over the Marconi Company, a foray into the domestic consumer electronic market. EE tried to take over one of the other major British electrical companies, the General Electric Company (GEC), in 1960 and, in 1963, EE and J. Lyons and Co. formed a jointly-owned company – English Electric LEO Company – to manufacture the LEO Computer developed by Lyons. EE took over Lyons' half-stake in 1964 and merged it with Marconi's computer interests to form English Electric Leo Marconi (EELM). The latter was merged with Elliott Automation and International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) to form International Computers Limited (ICL) in 1967. In 1968, GEC, recently merged with Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) merged with EE; the former being the dominant parter, the English Electric name was then lost.
- English Electric P.5 Phoenix "Cork" (1918)
- Wren (1923)
- Ayr (1923)
- Kingston (1924)
- Canberra (1949)
- English Electric P1A (Lightning prototype)
- Lightning (1954)
- English Electric P.10 (unbuilt supersonic bomber to OR.330/R.156).
- English Electric DEUCE (1955)
- English Electric KDN2
- English Electric KDF6
- English Electric KDF8
- English Electric KDF9 (1963)
- English Electric KDP10
- English Electric System 4 (1965) – the System 4–50 and System 4–70 were copies of the RCA Spectra 70 series, built under licence. The latter were almost the same as IBM System /360 range, differing only in their real-time facilities, with four processor states and multiple sets of general-purpose registers.
- Thunderbird (1959) – surface-to-air missile
- Blue Water (cancelled 1962) – short-range ballistic missile
Railways & traction
- English Electric 6CSRKT diesel
- English Electric 6SRKT diesel
- English Electric 8SVT 1000 hp (fitted to Class 20)
- English Electric 12SVT 1470 hp (retro-fitted to Class 31)
- English Electric 12CSVT 1750 hp (fitted to Class 37)
- English Electric 12CSV
- English Electric 16SVT 2000 hp (Mk II version fitted to Class 40)
- English Electric 16CSVT 2700 hp (fitted to Class 50)
- The 3250 hp Ruston Paxman 16RK3CT fitted to the Class 56's was effectively an improved version of the Class 50 16CSVT power unit.
- Napier Deltic (Makers D. Napier and Son were an EE subsidiary company from 1942)
Locomotives and multiple units
- Ceylon Government Railway Class S1
- Ceylon Government Railway Class T1
- British Rail Class 08
- British Rail Class 09
- British Rail Class 11
- British Rail Class 12
- British Rail Class 13 (modified Class 08 shunters semi-permanently coupled in pairs)
- English Electric Type 1 (British Rail Class 20)
- British Rail Class 23
- English Electric Type 3 (British Rail Class 37)
- British Rail Class 40
- English Electric Type 4 (British Rail Class 50)
- English Electric Type 5 (British Rail Class 55)
- British Rail Class 73, components assembled by BR.
- British Rail Class 83
- British Rail Class 86
- British Rail Class 487
- British Rail D0226
- Diesel Prototype 1 or Deltic led to the Class 55
- British Rail DP2 Class 55 body, re-engined with a E.E. 16csvt, led to the British Rail Class 50
- British Rail GT3 (gas turbine)
- CP Class 1400 (Portugal)
- CP Class 1800 (Portugal)
- JNR ED17 electric locomotive
- JNR EF50 electric locomotive
- Keretapi Tanah Melayu Class 15 shunter
- Keretapi Tanah Melayu Class 20
- Keretapi Tanah Melayu Class 22
- Nigerian Class 1001
- NIR 1 Class
- NS 500 Class
- NS 600 Class
- New Zealand DE class locomotive
- NZR DF class (not to be confused with the DF class of 1979)
- NZR DG class
- NZR DI class
- DM/D class electric multiple units
- NZR EC class
- NZR ED class (one, with components for a further nine supplied to NZR)
- New Zealand E class locomotive (1922)
- NZR EO class
- NZR EW class
- PKP class EU06
- PKP class EN80 (Electric Multiple Unit)
- Queensland Railways 1200 Class
- Queensland Railways 1250 Class
- Queensland Railways 1270 Class
- Queensland Railways 1300 Class
- Queensland Railways 2350 Class
- TGR X class
- TGR Y class (supplied parts local construction)
- TGR Z Class
- TGR ZA Class
- Victorian Railways L class
Several industrial diesel and electric locomotive types were also built for UK and export use.
- Gunston, Bill (2005). World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers, 2nd Edition. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. p. 164. ISBN 0-7509-3981-8.
- "Background to a Bomber" (PDF). Flight Magazine (Reed Business Information Ltd.) LXI (2243): 71–74. 18 January 1952. Retrieved 18 Sep 2013.
- Instruction manuals and advertising brochures for the Type UED and Type ZWA versions
- Oral history interview with Arthur L. C. Humphreys, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.
- Flight 13/3/1924
- Chris Gibson Vulcan's Hammer p35
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to English Electric.|
- "English Electric Traction Ads", www.flikr.com, English Electric Traction advertisements and corporate brochures
- "English Electric Archive", englishelectric.zenfolio.com, English Electric locomotive images
|Timeline of British aerospace companies since 1955|
|Short Brothers and Harland Ltd.||Short Brothers Ltd.||Short Brothers plc|
|F. G. Miles||Beagle Aircraft|
|Scottish Aviation||British Aerospace (BAe)||BAE Systems|
|Blackburn||Hawker Siddeley Aviation
Hawker Siddeley Dynamics
|Vickers-Armstrongs||British Aircraft Corporation (BAC)|
|The General Electric Company (GEC)||The Marconi Company||GEC-Marconi/Marconi Electronic Systems|
|The English Electric Company||Marconi plc|