By-elections to the 1st Canadian Parliament

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By-elections to the 1st Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons between the 1867 federal election and the 1872 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 1st Canadian Parliament.

The list includes Ministerial by-elections which occurred due to the requirement that Members of Parliament recontest their seats upon being appointed to Cabinet. These by-elections were almost always uncontested. This requirement was abolished in 1931.

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause Retained
Yale District December 19, 1871 New seat Charles Frederick Houghton      Liberal New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
Cariboo December 19, 1871 New seat Joshua Spencer Thompson      Liberal-Conservative New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
Vancouver Island December 15, 1871 New seat Robert Wallace      Conservative New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
New Westminster December 13, 1871 New seat Hugh Nelson      Liberal-Conservative New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. NA
Victoria November 24, 1871 New seat Henry Nathan, Jr. and Amor De Cosmos      Liberal New riding as a result of British Columbia joining Confederation. Two MPs elected NA
Brome November 17, 1871 Christopher Dunkin      Conservative Edward Carter      Conservative Appointed to the Superior Court of Quebec Yes
Compton November 11, 1871 John Henry Pope      Conservative John Henry Pope      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Agriculture Yes
Montcalm September 15, 1871 Joseph Dufresne      Conservative Firmin Dugas      Conservative Appointed Sheriff of the County of St. John Yes
Algoma June 30, 1871 Wemyss Mackenzie Simpson      Conservative Frederick William Cumberland      Conservative Appointed Indian Commissioner for the North Yes
Hastings East March 20, 1871 Robert Read      Conservative John White      Conservative Called to the Senate Yes
Provencher March 3, 1871 New seat Pierre Delorme      Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. NA
Selkirk March 2, 1871 New seat Donald Alexander Smith      Independent Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. NA
Lisgar March 2, 1871 New seat John Christian Schultz      Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. NA
Marquette March 2, 1871 New seat James S. Lynch and Angus McKay Liberal and Conservative New riding as a result of Manitoba joining Confederation. Two MPs elected due to a tie. NA
Restigouche November 29, 1870 William Murray Caldwell      Liberal George Moffat, Sr.      Conservative Appointed Inspector of Post Offices in New Brunswick No
Richelieu November 18, 1870 Thomas McCarthy      Conservative Georges Isidore Barthe      Independent Conservative Death No
Colchester November 8, 1870 Adams George Archibald      Liberal-Conservative Frederick M. Pearson      Liberal Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba and the North-West Territories No
St. Hyacinthe September 1, 1870 Alexandre-Édouard Kierzkowski      Liberal Louis Delorme      Liberal Death Yes
Bellechasse August 15, 1870 Louis-Napoléon Casault      Conservative Télesphore Fournier      Liberal Appointed to Superior Court of Quebec No
Quebec East July 18, 1870 Pierre-Gabriel Huot      Liberal Adolphe Guillet dit Tourangeau      Conservative Appointed Postmaster at Quebec No
Missisquoi July 5, 1870 Brown Chamberlin      Conservative George Barnard Baker      Liberal-Conservative Appointed Queen's Printer Yes
Kings June 23, 1870 William Henry Chipman      Anti-Confederate Leverett de Veber Chipman      Liberal Death No
Cumberland June 15, 1870 Charles Tupper      Conservative Charles Tupper      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as President of the Privy Council Yes
Frontenac April 27, 1870 Thomas Kirkpatrick      Conservative George Airey Kirkpatrick      Conservative Death Yes
Brome November 29, 1869 Christopher Dunkin      Conservative Christopher Dunkin      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Agriculture Yes
Lanark South November 29, 1869 Alexander Morris      Conservative Alexander Morris      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue Yes
Renfrew South November 29, 1869 Daniel McLachlin      Liberal John Lorn McDougall      Liberal Resignation Yes
Renfrew North November 13, 1869 John Rankin      Liberal-Conservative Francis Hincks      Conservative Resignation to provide a seat for Hincks Yes
Huntingdon October 30, 1869 John Rose      Liberal-Conservative Julius Scriver      Liberal Resignation to move to London where he acted as the Prime Minister's unofficial representative to the UK. No
Colchester September 9, 1869 Archibald McLelan      Anti-Confederate Adams George Archibald      Liberal-Conservative Called to the Senate No
L'Islet July 14, 1869 Barthélemy Pouliot      Conservative Barthélemy Pouliot      Conservative Election annulled Yes
Wellington Centre July 12, 1869 Thomas Sutherland Parker      Liberal James Ross      Liberal Death Yes
Hants April 24, 1869 Joseph Howe      Anti-Confederate Joseph Howe      Liberal-Conservative Recontested upon appointment as President of the Privy Council No
Yarmouth April 20, 1869 Thomas Killam      Anti-Confederate Frank Killam      Liberal Death No
Richmond April 20, 1869 William Joseph Croke      Anti-Confederate Isaac LeVesconte      Conservative Death No
Kamouraska February 17, 1869 Vacant Charles Alphonse Pantaléon Pelletier      Liberal No election held in 1867 due to riots NA
Northumberland December 24, 1868 John Mercer Johnson      Liberal Richard Hutchison      Liberal Death Yes
Saint Maurice October 30, 1868 Louis-Léon Lesieur Desaulniers      Conservative Élie Lacerte      Conservative Appointed inspector of prisons and asylums in Quebec Yes
York October 28, 1868 Charles Fisher      Liberal John Pickard      Independent Liberal Appointed to New Brunswick Supreme Court No
Three Rivers October 17, 1868 Louis-Charles Boucher de Niverville      Conservative William McDougall      Conservative Appointed sheriff for the district of Trois-Rivières Yes
York West August 14, 1868 William Pearce Howland      Liberal-Conservative Amos Wright      Liberal Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario No
Montreal West April 20, 1868 Thomas D'Arcy McGee      Liberal-Conservative Michael Patrick Ryan      Liberal-Conservative Death (assassinated) Yes
Lincoln April 13, 1868 James Rea Benson      Liberal-Conservative Thomas Rodman Merritt      Liberal Called to the Senate No
Restigouche March 13, 1868 John McMillan      Liberal William Murray Caldwell      Liberal Appointed Inspector of Post Offices in New Brunswick Yes
Montmorency December 11, 1867 Joseph Cauchon      Conservative Jean Langlois      Conservative Called to the Senate Yes
Huntingdon November 28, 1867 John Rose      Liberal-Conservative John Rose      Liberal-Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Finance Yes

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