Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul (Providence, Rhode Island)
|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (March 2008)|
Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul
|Location||Providence, Rhode Island|
|Architect||Patrick C. Keely|
|Architectural style||Romanesque/Gothic revival|
|NRHP Reference #||75000057|
|Added to NRHP||February 10, 1975|
The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul is a Roman Catholic cathedral at 30 Fenner Street in the Cathedral Square neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, United States. It is the mother church of the Diocese of Providence. The Romanesque church was designed in 1873 by Patrick Keely and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
On November 4, 1838, the first mass was celebrated at a small church dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul. Within the next five years, the population of Catholics continued to grow and flourish. In 1844, a new Diocese was formed with its See at Hartford, Connecticut. Its Bishop, William Tyler elected to reside in Providence, as the majority of Catholics lived there. As the number of Catholics in the region continued to grow, the Sts. Peter and Paul Church building could not accommodate the increasing numbers of Irish Catholic immigrants.
By 1872, the Catholic population in the diocese grew to 200,000 and Bishop McFarland expressed interest in creating a new and larger cathedral but was unable to gain support within the diocese. Upon Bishop Mcarland's request in 1871, for a reduced area to serve due to failing health, Pope Pius IX established the Diocese of Providence that encompassed Rhode Island, southeastern Massachusetts and Martha's Vineyard. In April 1872, Father Thomas Hendricken became the first Bishop of the new Diocese of Providence. The new diocese, at the time of its inception, recorded a Catholic population of 125,000; forty-three churches; fifty-three priests; six academies; nine parish schools with 4,225 students and one orphan asylum.
Just as his predecessor, Bishop Hendricken was also in favor of building a new cathedral church to replace the current decrepit and inadequate structure. However before any construction could begin, the parish had to erase a $16,000 debt. Bishop Hendricken worked tirelessly to get the cathedral built and in 1872, he was able to retire the debt and begin preliminary construction planning.
In 1873, Patrick Keely was selected to draw the plans for one of the finest churches in the country. The following year, work on the foundation of a temporary church began when Bishop Hendricken signed a contract for the construction at a cost of $18,950. The old rectory was demolished and a new one built at the corner of Fenner and Pond Streets where it still stands.
The cornerstone of the current cathedral was laid in 1878. Bishop Hendricken set aside $10,000 each year toward the building of the new structure. He also mounted a series of fundraising campaigns to keep construction going as he would only permit work to proceed if money was available. By 1882, the roof was completed and work began on the interior. However, that year Bishop Hendricken's health began to fail. He died before the cathedral was completed and his funeral mass was the first to be celebrated in the unfinished cathedral in 1886. At the time of his death, construction costs totaled $300,000. In June 1889, more than a decade after construction began, the completed cathedral was finally consecrated by Bishop Matthew Harkins. After nearly 80 years of use the cathedral underwent a major renovation beginning in 1968. Diocesan leaders intended to complete work in time for the 100th Anniversary of the founding of the diocese in 1972. The work was initiated by Bishop Russell J. McVinney, the 5th Bishop of Providence; however, like his predecessor, Bishop McVinney did not live to see the completion of the newly renovated cathedral as he died in August 1971.
In 2006, the basement of the cathedral which holds the church hall was renovated to accommodate parish gatherings and diocesan functions. The basement crypt was dismantled and a new stone tomb was laid in the upper church as a final resting place for Bishop Hendricken. Church leaders believed that Bishop Hendricken deserved a more prominent place in the building, as the cathedral is considered his legacy. The other bishops buried in the crypt were moved to a cemetery in nearby Cranston.
The cathedral's interior is decorated in a Gothic revival style and bears close resemblance to Holy Name Cathedral, the Seat of the Archdiocese of Chicago. It was also nearly identical to the Cathedral of St. Joseph in Hartford, CT, finished in 1889 (which burned in 1956). The firm of Patrick Keely and Schlacks designed both buildings.
The tabernacle was cast in bronze by X. Corberro and Sons of Barcelona, Spain. The small finial ornament atop the tabernacle took some 58 hours to complete. The main altar is built of Verde Issoire, a green marble quarried in the French Alps. Green marble serves as decorative wainscoting along the walls and comprises the interior columns along the nave. The nave and trancepts are capped by a ceiling of gothic vaulting and ribs of carved wood with the areas between the ribs painted in various scenes. Stained glass windows feature scenes from both the New and Old Testaments and are fashioned from antique Munich Glass as are the west rose window, east rose window and great circular window. A large granite sarcophagus rests in the west transept, containing the remains of Bishop Thomas Francis Hendricken, first Bishop of Providence.
The building is constructed of Connecticut Brownstone and is one of the more prominent pieces of architecture in the city of Providence. There are two 156 ft (48 m)towers which contain four church bells representative of the Four Evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. They were cast in a Dutch foundry and were dedicated in 1968 by the late Bishop McVinney.
The organ was built by the Casavant Frères company of Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, and completed in July 1971. It is Casavant Opus 3145 and was installed in the north transept at a cost of $217,500. It consists of four 56-key manuals, a 32-key pedalboard, 73 stops and 126 ranks. There are 6,616 pipes ranging from 6 inches to 32 feet in length. This is one of the largest mechanical action organs in North America and one of the largest ever built by Casavant Frères.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23.
- "RHODE ISLAND (RI), Providence County". nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
- "Brief History of the Cathedral". The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. Retrieved 2011-05-24.
- "History". Roman Catholic Diocese of Providence. 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-24.
- "Points of Interest in the Cathedral". The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. Retrieved 2011-05-24.
- Bodo, Sandor (10 November 2013). "RearView Mirror: Moving monuments". The Providence Journal. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- "The Cathedral Organ". The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- G. Wayne Miller (30 August 2008). "Cathedral organist: I try to make music and raise people up". The Providence Journal (projo.com). Retrieved 2011-05-24.
- Sterne, Evelyn Savidge (2003). Ballots and Bibles: Ethnic Politics and the Catholic Church in Providence. Cornell University Press. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-8014-4117-2.
- Jordy, William H.; Ronald J. Onorato; William McKenzie Woodward (2004). Buildings of Rhode Island. Oxford University Press. p. 704. ISBN 978-0-19-506147-5.
- Schantz, Mark Saunders (2000). Piety in Providence: Class Dimensions of Religious Experience in Antebellum Rhode Island. Cornell University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8014-2952-1.
- Conley, Patrick T.; Matthew J. Smith (1976). Catholicism in Rhode Island: The Formative Era. Diocese of Providence. p. 173.
- Cathedral Home Page
- Official site of the Holy See
- Panoramic view of the Cathedral's interior
- Photo of Cathedral Square ca. 1916 on Flickr