Barcelona

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This article is about the city in Spain. For other uses, see Barcelona (disambiguation).
Barcelona
City (Municipality)
Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
Flag of Barcelona
Flag
Coat of arms of Barcelona
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Ciutat Comtal (ca) / Ciudad Condal (es)
"City of Counts"

Abbreviation(s):
Barna, BCN
Barcelona is located in Spain
Barcelona
Barcelona
Location of Barcelona within Spain
Barcelona is located in Catalonia
Barcelona
Barcelona
Location of Barcelona within Catalonia
Coordinates: 41°23′N 2°11′E / 41.383°N 2.183°E / 41.383; 2.183Coordinates: 41°23′N 2°11′E / 41.383°N 2.183°E / 41.383; 2.183
Country Spain Spain
Autonomous community Catalonia Catalonia
Province Barcelona
Comarca Barcelonès
Districts
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Body Ajuntament de Barcelona
 • Mayor Xavier Trias (CiU)
Area
 • City 101.9 km2 (39.3 sq mi)
 • Urban 803 km2 (310 sq mi)
Elevation  (AMSL) 12 m (39 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 1,620,943
 • Rank 2nd
 • Density 15,991/km2 (41,420/sq mi)
 • Urban 4,604,000
 • Metro 5,375,774
Demonym Barcelonan, Barcelonian
barceloní-ina (ca)
barcelonés-esa (es)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 080xx
Area code +34 93
Official language(s) Catalan and Spanish
Patron Saint(s) Eulalia of Barcelona
Main festitivity La Mercè
Website www.bcn.cat/en/

Barcelona (English /bɑrsɨˈlnə/, Catalan: [bərsəˈɫonə], Spanish: [barθeˈlona]) is the capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain and the country's 2nd largest city, with a population of 1.6 million[1] within its administrative limits. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 4.5 million people, being the sixth-most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. About five million[2][3][4][5][6] people live in the Barcelona metropolitan area. It is the largest metropolis on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres (1,680 ft) high.

Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon. Besieged several times during its history, Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Particularly renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments.

Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, economic, trade fair/exhibitions and cultural-sports centres, and its influence in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities.[7][8] It is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world (before Zürich, after Frankfurt)[9] and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion.[10] In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion; it is lagging Spain on both employment and GDP per capita change.[11] In 2009 the city was ranked Europe's third and one of the world's most successful as a city brand.[12] In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year,[13] but it has since been in a full recession with declines in both employment and GDP per capita, with some recent signs of the beginning of an economic recovery.[14] Barcelona is a transport hub with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port,[15] an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles above 35 million passengers per year,[16] an extensive motorway network and a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe.[17]

Names[edit]

The name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Phoenician Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription in Iberian script as Barkeno in Levantine Iberian script,[18] in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn;[19][20] and in Latin as Barcino,[21] Barcilonum[22] and Barcenona.[23][24][25]

During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa, and Barchenona.

Some sources say that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, who was supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC.[26]

Barcelona's name is sometimes abbreviated as 'Barna'. Nowadays, foreign people sometimes mistakenly refer to Barcelona as 'Barça', the popular name of the F.C. Barcelona sports club. Some people (mainly in Catalan and Spanish) also use 'BCN', often written 'Bcn' or 'bcn', which actually corresponds to the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is also referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, and Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Barcelona
A marble plaque in the Museu d'Història de la Ciutat de Barcelona, dated from around 110-130 AD and dedicated to the Roman colony of Barcino

The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends. The first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC.[27]

In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum (Roman military camp) centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall (Plaça de Sant Jaume). Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia,[28] or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino[29] or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela[30] mentions it among the small towns of the district, probably as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco (modern Tarragona), but it may be gathered from later writers that it gradually grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour.[31] It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens.[32] The city minted its own coins; some from the era of Galba survive.

Basilica of La Mercè (Mare de Déu de la Mercè)

Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum MUHBA; the typically Roman grid plan is still visible today in the layout of the historical centre, the Barri Gòtic (Gothic Quarter). Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral.[33] The cathedral, also known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343. The city was conquered by the Visigoths in the early 5th century, becoming for a few years the capital of all Hispania. After being conquered by the Arabs in the early 8th century, it was conquered in 801 by Charlemagne's son Louis, who made Barcelona the seat of the Carolingian "Hispanic March" (Marca Hispanica), a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona.

The Counts of Barcelona became increasingly independent and expanded their territory to include all of Catalonia. In 1137, Aragon and the County of Barcelona merged in dynastic union[34][35] by the marriage of Ramon Berenguer IV and Petronilla of Aragon, their titles finally borne by only one person when their son Alfonso II of Aragon ascended to the throne in 1162. His territories were later to be known as the Crown of Aragon, which conquered many overseas possessions and ruled the western Mediterranean Sea with outlying territories in Naples and Sicily and as far as Athens in the 13th century. The forging of a dynastic link between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile marked the beginning of Barcelona's decline. The Bank of Barcelona, probably the oldest public bank in Europe, was established by the city magistrates in 1401. It originated from necessities of the state, as did the Bank of Venice (1402) and the Bank of Genoa (1407).[36]

Barcelona in 1563

The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 united the two royal lines. Madrid became the centre of political power whilst the colonisation of the Americas reduced the financial importance (at least in relative terms) of Mediterranean trade. Barcelona was a center of Catalan separatism, including the Catalan Revolt (1640–52) against Philip IV of Spain. The great plague of 1650–1654 halved the city's population.[37]

The fortress at Montjuïc, most southerly point from which measurements were made when calculating the meridional definition of the metre

In the 18th century, a fortress was built at Montjuïc that overlooked the harbour. In 1794, this fortress was used by the French astronomer Pierre François André Méchain for observations relating to a survey stretching to Dunkirk that provided the official basis of the measurement of a metre.[38] The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. Much of Barcelona was negatively effected by the Napoleonic wars, but the start of industrialization saw the fortunes of the province improve.

During the Spanish Civil War, the city, and Catalonia in general, were resolutely Republican. Many enterprises and public services were "collectivised" by the CNT and UGT unions. As the power of the Republican government and the Generalitat diminished, much of the city was under the effective control of anarchist groups. The anarchists lost control of the city to their own allies, the Communists and official government troops, after the street fighting of the Barcelona May Days. The fall of the city on 26 January 1939 caused a mass exodus of civilians who fled to the French border. The resistance of Barcelona to Franco's coup d'état was to have lasting effects after the defeat of the Republican government. The autonomous institutions of Catalonia were abolished,[39] and the use of the Catalan language in public life was suppressed. Barcelona remained the second largest city in Spain, at the heart of a region which was relatively industrialised and prosperous, despite the devastation of the civil war. The result was a large-scale immigration from poorer regions of Spain (particularly Andalusia, Murcia and Galicia), which in turn led to rapid urbanisation. The city gained vitality in 1992 when it hosted the Olympic games.[40]

Geography[edit]

A panoramic view of Barcelona

Location[edit]

Barcelona from high altitude

Barcelona is located on the northeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula, facing the Mediterranean Sea, on a plain approximately 5 km (3 mi) wide limited by the mountain range of Collserola, the Llobregat river to the southwest and the Besòs river to the north.[41] This plain covers an area of 170 km2 (66 sq mi),[41] of which 101 km2 (39.0 sq mi)[42] are occupied by the city itself. It is 120 kilometres (75 miles) south of the Pyrenees and the Catalan border with France.

Tibidabo, 512 m (1,680 ft) high, offers striking views over the city[43] and is topped by the 288.4 m (946.2 ft) Torre de Collserola, a telecommunications tower that is visible from most of the city. Barcelona is peppered with small hills, most of them urbanised, that gave their name to the neighbourhoods built upon them, such as Carmel (267 m), Putxet (181 m) and Rovira (261 m). The escarpment of Montjuïc (173 m), situated to the southeast, overlooks the harbour and is topped by Montjuïc castle, a fortress built in the 17–18th centuries to control the city as a replacement for the Ciutadella. Today, the fortress is a museum and Montjuïc is home to several sporting and cultural venues, as well as Barcelona's biggest park and gardens.

The city borders on the municipalities of Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besòs to the north; the Mediterranean Sea to the east; El Prat de Llobregat and L'Hospitalet de Llobregat to the south; and Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Sant Just Desvern, Esplugues de Llobregat, Sant Cugat del Vallès, and Montcada i Reixac to the west.

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of Barcelona

Barcelona has a Mediterranean climate[44] (Köppen climate classification: Csa),[45] with mild, humid winters and warm, dry summers.

Its average annual temperature is 20 °C (68 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. The average annual temperature of the sea is about 18 °C (64 °F). In the coldest month – January, the temperature typically ranges from 7 to 17 °C (45 to 63 °F) during the day, 2 to 10 °C (36 to 50 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 13 °C (55 °F).[46] In the warmest month – August, the typical temperature ranges from 25 to 31 °C (77 to 88 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 25 °C (77 °F).[46] Generally – the summer / "holiday" season lasts about six months, from May to October. Two months – April and November – are transitional; sometimes the temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of 17–18 °C (63–64 °F) during the day and 8–9 °C (46–48 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 14 °C (57 °F) during the day and 5 °C (41 °F) at night. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare, particularly in the summer months.

Barcelona averages several rainy days per month (≥ 1 mm), and annual average relative humidity is 72%, ranging from 69% in July to 75% in October. Sunshine duration is 2,524 hours per year, from 138 (average 4.5 hours of sunshine a day) in December to 310 (average 10 hours of sunshine a day) in July.[47]

Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
14.2
(57.6)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.9
(78.6)
28.2
(82.8)
29.0
(84.2)
26.1
(79)
22.7
(72.9)
17.6
(63.7)
14.0
(57.2)
20.6
(69.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
10.0
(50)
12.0
(53.6)
14.1
(57.4)
17.8
(64)
22.1
(71.8)
24.6
(76.3)
25.1
(77.2)
22.1
(71.8)
18.4
(65.1)
12.9
(55.2)
9.8
(49.6)
16.7
(62.1)
Average low °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
10.8
(51.4)
14.1
(57.4)
18.3
(64.9)
21.0
(69.8)
21.2
(70.2)
18.3
(64.9)
14.8
(58.6)
9.3
(48.7)
5.8
(42.4)
12.7
(54.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
39
(1.54)
42
(1.65)
49
(1.93)
59
(2.32)
42
(1.65)
20
(0.79)
61
(2.4)
85
(3.35)
91
(3.58)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
640
(25.2)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5 6 5 6 7 3 3 4 5 7 5 7 62
Mean monthly sunshine hours 149 163 200 220 244 262 310 282 219 180 146 138 2,524
Source: World Meteorological Organization[48] Agencia Estatal de Meteorología,[47] Climatebase.ru[49]

Main sights[edit]

Sagrada Família church, Gaudi's masterpiece

The Barri Gòtic (Catalan for "Gothic Quarter") is the centre of the old city of Barcelona. Many of the buildings date from medieval times, some from as far back as the Roman settlement of Barcelona. Catalan modernista architecture (related to the movement known as Art Nouveau in the rest of Europe), developed between 1885 and 1950 and left an important legacy in Barcelona. Several of these buildings are World Heritage Sites. Especially remarkable is the work of architect Antoni Gaudí, which can be seen throughout the city. His best-known work is the immense but still unfinished church of the Sagrada Família, which has been under construction since 1882, and is still financed by private donations. As of 2007, completion is planned for 2026.

Barcelona was also home to Mies van der Rohe's Barcelona Pavilion. Designed in 1929 for the International Exposition for Germany, it is an iconic building that came to symbolize modern architecture as the embodiment of van der Rohe's aphorisms "less is more" and "God is in the details." The Barcelona pavilion was intended as a temporary structure, and was torn down in 1930 less than a year after it was constructed. A modern re-creation by Spanish architects now stands in Barcelona, however, constructed in 1986.

Barcelona won the 1999 RIBA Royal Gold Medal for its architecture,[50] the first (and as of 2012, only) time that the winner has been a city, and not an individual architect.

World Heritage Sites[edit]

Barcelona is the home of many points of interest declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO:[51]

Colonnadeparkguell.jpg Palau Güell (2).jpg Casa Milà - Barcelona, Spain - Jan 2007.jpg Casa Vicens (Barcelona) - 3.jpg
Name Park Güell Palau Güell Casa Milà Casa Vicens
Code, year 320-001, 1984 320-002, 1984 320-003, 1984 320-004, 2005
Coordinates 41°24′59.6″N 2°09′07.9″E / 41.416556°N 2.152194°E / 41.416556; 2.152194 41°22′45″N 2°10′28″E / 41.379183°N 2.174445°E / 41.379183; 2.174445 41°23′51.3″N 2°09′46.9″E / 41.397583°N 2.163028°E / 41.397583; 2.163028 (Casa Milà) 41°22′50.5″N 2°10′30.6″E / 41.380694°N 2.175167°E / 41.380694; 2.175167
Sagradafamilia-overview.jpg CasaBatllo 0170.JPG Palau de la Música - Interior general.JPG StPau-Administracio-façana-7179sh.jpg
Name Façade of the Nativity and
crypt of the Sagrada Familia
Casa Batlló Palau de la Música Catalana Hospital de Sant Pau
Code, year 320-005, 2005 320-006, 2005 804-001, 1997 804-002, 1997
Coordinates 41°24′19.8″N 2°10′30.2″E / 41.405500°N 2.175056°E / 41.405500; 2.175056 (Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Familia) 41°22′00.3″N 2°09′59.0″E / 41.366750°N 2.166389°E / 41.366750; 2.166389 41°23′16″N 2°10′30″E / 41.38778°N 2.17500°E / 41.38778; 2.17500 41°24′50″N 2°10′30″E / 41.41389°N 2.17500°E / 41.41389; 2.17500

Historic buildings and monuments[edit]

Museums[edit]

Barcelona has a great number of museums, which cover different areas and eras. The National Museum of Art of Catalonia possesses a well-known collection of Romanesque art while the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art focuses on post-1945 Catalan and Spanish art. The Fundació Joan Miró, Picasso Museum and Fundació Antoni Tàpies hold important collections of these world-renowned artists, as well as Can Framis Museum, focused on post 1960 Catalan Art owned by Fundació Vila Casas. Several museums cover the fields of history and archeology, like the Barcelona City History Museum (MUHBA), the Museum of the History of Catalonia, the Archeology Museum of Catalonia, the Barcelona Maritime Museum and the private-owned Egyptian Museum. The Erotic museum of Barcelona is among the most peculiar ones, while Cosmocaixa is a science museum that received the European Museum of the Year Award in 2006.

Parks[edit]

Park Güell (Parc Güell)

Barcelona contains sixty-eight municipal parks, of which twelve are historic parks, five are thematic (botanical) parks, forty-five are urban parks and six are forest parks.[52] They range from vest-pocket parks to large recreation areas. The urban parks alone cover 10% of the city (549.7 ha or 1,358.3 acres).[42] The total park surface grows about 10 ha (25 acres) per year,[53] with a proportion of 18.1 square metres (195 sq ft) of park area per inhabitant.[54]

Of Barcelona's parks, Montjuïc is the largest, with 203 ha located on the mountain of the same name.[42] It is followed by Parc de la Ciutadella (which occupies the site of the old military citadel and which houses the Parliament building, the Barcelona Zoo and several museums); 31 ha or 76.6 acres including the zoo), the Guinardó Park (19 ha or 47.0 acres), Park Güell (designed by Antoni Gaudí; 17.2 ha or 42.5 acres), Oreneta Castle Park (also 17.2 ha or 42.5 acres), Diagonal Mar Park (13.3 ha or 32.9 acres, inaugurated in 2002), Nou Barris Central Park (13.2 ha or 32.6 acres), Can Dragó Sports Park and Poblenou Park (both 11.9 ha or 29.4 acres), the Labyrinth Park (9.10 ha or 22.5 acres), named after the garden maze it contains.[42] There are also several smaller parks, for example, the Parc de les Aigües (2 ha or 4.9 acres). A part of the Collserolla Park is also within the city limits. PortAventura, one of the largest amusement parks in Europe with 3,000,000 visitors per year, is located one hour's drive from Barcelona.[55] Also, within the city lies Tibidabo Amusement Park, a smaller amusement park, with the Muntanya Russa amusement ride.

Beaches[edit]

Barcelona beach was listed as number one in a list of the top ten city beaches in the world according to National Geographic[56] and Discovery Channel.[57] Barcelona contains seven beaches, totalling 4.5 kilometres (3 miles) (2.8 mi) of coastline. Sant Sebastià, Barceloneta and Somorrostro beaches, both 1,100 m (3,610 ft) in length,[42] are the largest, oldest and the most-frequented beaches in Barcelona. The Olympic Harbour separates them from the other city beaches: Nova Icària, Bogatell, Mar Bella, Nova Mar Bella and Llevant. These beaches (ranging from 400 to 640 m/1,300 to 2,100 ft) were opened as a result of the city restructuring to host the 1992 Summer Olympics, when a great number of industrial buildings were demolished. At present, the beach sand is artificially replenished given that storms regularly remove large quantities of material. The 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures left the city a large concrete bathing zone on the eastmost part of the city's coastline.

Beaches of Barcelona

Demographics[edit]

Demographic evolution, 1900–2007, according to the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Estadística

According to Barcelona's City Council, Barcelona's population as of 1 June 2006 was 1,673,075 people,[58] on a land area of 101.4 km2 (39 sq mi). It is the main component of an administrative area of Greater Barcelona, with a population of 3,218,071 in an area of 636 square kilometres (246 square miles) (density 5,060 hab/km²). The population of the urban area was 4,223,000. It is the central nucleus of the Barcelona metropolitan area, which relies on a population of 5,083,000.[59]

The population density of Barcelona was 15,779 inhabitants per square kilometre (40,870 /sq mi),[60] with Eixample being the most populated district. 62% of the inhabitants were born in Catalonia, with a 23.5% coming from the rest of Spain. Of the 17.4% from other countries, a proportion which has more than quadrupled since 2001 when it was 3.9%,[42] the majority come from (in order) Pakistan, Italy, China, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Morocco.[61] The city also has the largest Jewish community in Spain, with an estimated 3,500 Jews living in the city.[62]

As an official language, Spanish is understood almost universally in Barcelona. In addition, 95% of the population understand Catalonia's own native Catalan language, while 74.6% can speak it, 75% can read it, and 47.1% can write it,[63] thanks to the language immersion educational system. While most of the population state they are Roman Catholic (208 churches), there are also a number of other groups, including Evangelical (71 locations, mostly professed by Roma), Jehovah's Witnesses (21 Kingdom Halls) and Buddhists (13 locations),[64] a number of Muslims due to immigration, and Eastern Orthodox.[65]

Forum Park in Barcelona

In 1900, Barcelona had a population of 533,000 people,[41] which grew steadily but slowly until 1950, when it started absorbing a high number of people from other less-industrialized parts of Spain. Barcelona's population peaked in 1979 with 1,906,998 people, and fell throughout the 1980s and 1990s as more people sought a higher quality of life in outlying cities in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. After bottoming out in 2000 with 1,496,266 people, the city's population began to rise again as younger people started to return, causing a great increase in housing prices.[66]

Population density[edit]

Note: This text is entirely based on the municipal statistical database provided by the city council.

Barcelona is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. For the year 2008 the city council calculated the population to 1,628,090 living in the 102.2 km2 sized municipality, giving the city an average population density of 15,926 inhabitants per square kilometre.

In the case of Barcelona though, the land distribution is extremely uneven. Half of the municipality or 50.2 km2, all of it located on the municipal edge is made up of the ten least densely populated neighbourhoods containing less than 10% of the city's population, the uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area and Montjuïc forest park. Leaving the remaining 90% or slightly below 1.5 million inhabitants living on the remaining 52 km2 at an average density close to 28,500 inhabitants per square kilometre.

Of the 73 neighbourhoods in the city, 45 had a population density above 20,000 inhabitants per square kilometre with a combined population of 1,313,424 inhabitants living on 38.6 km2 at an average density of 33,987 inhabitants per square km. The 30 most densely populated neighbourhoods accounted for 57.5% of the city population occupying only 22,7% of the municipality, or in other words, 936,406 people living at an average density of 40,322 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city's highest density is found at and around the neighbourhood of la Sagrada Família where four of the city's most densely populated neighbourhoods are located side by side, all with a population density above 50,000 inhabitants per square kilometre.

Economy[edit]

General information[edit]

Forum Convention Center and Barcelona Stock Exchange

The Barcelona metropolitan area comprises over 66% of the people in one of the richest regions in Europe – Catalonia, with a GDP per capita amounting to €28,400 (16% more than the EU average). The Barcelona metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $177 billion, equivalent to $34,821 in per capita terms (44% more than the EU average) making it the 4th economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world in 2009.[10] Barcelona city had a very high GDP of €80,894 per head in 2004, according to Eurostat.[67] Furthermore, Barcelona was Europe's fourth best business city and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year as of 2009.[13]

Barcelona is the 14th most "livable city" in the world according to lifestyle magazine Monocle.[68] Similarly, according to Innovation Analysts 2thinknow, Barcelona occupies 13th place in the world on Innovation Cities™ Global Index.[69]

Barcelona has a long-standing mercantile tradition. Less well known is that the region was one of the earliest to begin industrialization in continental Europe, beginning with textile-related works from the mid-1780s but really gathering momentum in the mid-19th century, when it became a major centre for the production of textiles and machinery. Since then, manufacturing has played a large role in its history.

Borsa de Barcelona (Barcelona Stock Exchange) is the main stock exchange in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.

Barcelona was recognised as the Southern European City of the Future for 2014/15, based on its economic potential,[70] by FDi Magazine in their bi-annual rankings.[71]

Trade fair and exhibitions[edit]

Drawing upon its tradition of creative art and craftsmanship, Barcelona is known for its award-winning industrial design. It also has several congress halls, notably Fira de Barcelona – the second largest trade fair and exhibition centre in Europe,[72] that host a quickly growing number of national and international events each year (at present above 50). The total exhibition floor space of Fira de Barcelona venues is 405,000 m2 (41 ha), not counting Gran Via center on the Plaza de Europa. However, the Eurozone crisis and deep cuts in business travel affected the Council's positioning of the city as a convention centre.

An important business centre, the World Trade Center Barcelona, is located in Barcelona's Port Vell harbour.

The city is known for hosting well as world-class conferences and expositions, including the 1888 Exposición Universal de Barcelona, the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition (Expo 1929), the 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures and the 2004 World Urban Forum.

Tourism[edit]

Barcelona is the 10th-most-visited city in the world and the third most visited in Europe after London and Paris, with several million tourists every year.[73] With its Rambles, Barcelona is ranked the most popular city to visit in Spain.[74]

Barcelona as internationally renowned a tourist destination, with numerous recreational areas, one of the best beaches in the world,[56][75] mild and warm climate, historical monuments, including eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites, many good-quality hotels, and developed tourist infrastructure.

Manufacturing sector[edit]

The SEAT and Nissan factories and headquarters are in the city and suburbs

Industry generates 21% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of the region,[76] with the energy, chemical and metallurgy industries accounting for 47% of industrial production.[77] The Barcelona metropolitan area had 67% of the total number of industrial establishments in Catalonia as of 1997.[78]

Barcelona has long been an important European automobile manufacturing centre. Formerly there were automobile factories of AFA, Abadal, Actividades Industriales, Alvarez, America, Artés de Arcos, Balandrás, Baradat-Esteve, Biscúter, J. Castro, Clúa, David, Delfín, Díaz y Grilló, Ebro trucks, Edis, Elizalde, Automóviles España, Eucort, Fenix, Fábrica Hispano, Auto Academia Garriga, Fábrica Española de Automóviles Hebe, Hispano-Suiza, Huracán Motors, Talleres Hereter, Junior SL, Kapi, La Cuadra, M.A., Automóviles Matas, Motores y Motos, Nacional Custals, National Pescara, Nacional RG, Nacional Rubi, Nacional Sitjes, Automóviles Nike, Orix, Otro Ford, Partia, Pegaso, PTV, Ricart, Ricart-España, Industrias Salvador, Siata Española, Stevenson, Romagosa y Compañía, Garaje Storm, Talleres Hereter, Trimak, Automóviles Victoria, Manufacturas Mecánicas Aleu.[79][80]

Today, the headquarters and a large factory of SEAT (the largest Spanish automobile manufacturer) are in one of its suburbs. There is also a Nissan factory in the logistics and industrial area of the city.[81] The factory of Derbi, a large manufacturer of motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, also lies near the city.[82]

As in other modern cities, the manufacturing sector has long since been overtaken by the services sector, though it remains very important. The region's leading industries are textiles, chemical, pharmaceutical, motor, electronic, printing, logistics, publishing, telecommunications and information technology services.

Fashion[edit]

The Brandery fashion show

The traditional importance of textiles is reflected in Barcelona's drive to become a major fashion centre. There have been many attempts to launch Barcelona as a fashion capital, notably Gaudi Home.[citation needed]

Beginning in the summer of 2000, the city hosted the prestigious Bread & Butter urban fashion fair until 2009, when its organisers announced that it would be returning to Berlin. This was a hard blow for the city as the fair brought €100 m to the city in just three days.[83][84]

Since 2009, The Brandery, an urban fashion show, has been held in Barcelona twice a year. In 2012, Barcelona was named as the third most important fashion capital according to the Global Language Monitor’s annual ranking of the world's top fifty fashion capitals.[85]

Government and administrative divisions[edit]

As the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia, Barcelona is the seat of the Catalan government, known as the Generalitat de Catalunya; of particular note are the executive branch, the parliament, and the Supreme Court of Catalonia. The city is also the capital of the Province of Barcelona and the Barcelonès comarca (district).

Barcelona is governed by a city council formed by 41 city councillors, elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage. As one of the two biggest cities in Spain, Barcelona is subject to a special law articulated through the Carta Municipal (Municipal Law). A first version of this law was passed in 1960 and amended later, but the current version was approved in March 2006.[86] According to this law, Barcelona's city council is organized in two levels: a political one, with elected city councillors, and one executive, which administrates the programs and executes the decisions taken on the political level.[87] This law also gives the local government a special relationship with the central government and it also gives the mayor wider prerogatives by the means of municipal executive commissions.[88] It expands the powers of the city council in areas like telecommunications, city traffic, road safety and public safety. It also gives a special economic regime to the city's treasury and it gives the council a veto in matters that will be decided by the central government, but that will need a favourable report from the council.[86]

The City Hall of Barcelona

The Comissió de Govern (Government Commission) is the executive branch, formed by 24 councillors, led by the Mayor, with 5 lieutenant-mayors and 17 city councillors, each in charge of an area of government, and 5 non-elected councillors.[89] The plenary, formed by the 41 city councillors, has advisory, planning, regulatory, and fiscal executive functions.[90] The six Commissions del Consell Municipal (City council commissions) have executive and controlling functions in the field of their jurisdiction. They are composed by a number of councillors proportional to the number of councillors each political party has in the plenary.[91] The city council has jurisdiction in the fields of city planning, transportation, municipal taxes, public highways security through the Guàrdia Urbana (the municipal police), city maintenance, gardens, parks and environment, facilities (like schools, nurseries, sports centres, libraries, and so on), culture, sports, youth and social welfare. Some of these competencies are not exclusive, but shared with the Generalitat de Catalunya or the central Spanish government.

Gothic Gallery in the Palau de la Generalitat

The executive branch is led by a Chief Municipal Executive Officer which answers to the Mayor. It is made up of departments which are legally part of the city council and by separate legal entities of two tipes: autonomous public departments and public enterprises.[92]

The seat of the city council is on the Plaça de Sant Jaume, opposite the seat of Generalitat de Catalunya. Since the coming of the Spanish democracy, Barcelona had been governed by the PSC, first with an absolute majority and later in coalition with ERC and ICV. After the May 2007 election, the ERC did not renew the coalition agreement and the PSC governed in a minority coalition with ICV as the junior partner.

After 32 years, on 22 May 2011, CiU gained a plurality of seats at the municipal election, gaining 15 seats to the PSC's 11. The PP hold 8 seats, ICV 5 and ERC 2.

The Saló de Cent, in the city hall of Barcelona.

Districts[edit]

Districts of Barcelona

Since 1987, the city has been divided into 10 administrative districts (districtes in Catalan, distritos in Spanish):

The districts are based mostly on historical divisions, and several are former towns annexed by the city of Barcelona in the 18th and 19th centuries that still maintain their own distinct character. Each district has its own council led by a city councillor. The composition of each district council depends on the number of votes each political party had in that district, so a district can be led by a councillor from a different party than the executive council.

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Spain
Main hall of the University of Barcelona

Barcelona has a well-developed higher education system of public universities. Most prominent among these is the University of Barcelona (established in 1450), a world-renowned research and teaching institution with campuses around the city. Barcelona is also home to the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, and the newer Pompeu Fabra University, and, in the private sector the EADA Business School founded in 1957, became the first Barcelona institution to run manager training programmes for the business community. IESE Business School, as well as the largest private educational institution, the Ramon Llull University, which encompasses internationally prestigious schools and institutes such as the ESADE Business School. The Autonomous University of Barcelona, another public university, is located in Bellaterra, a town in the Metropolitan Area. The Open University of Catalonia, a private Internet-centered open university, is also based in Barcelona.

Historic building of the University of Barcelona, entrance vestibule

The city has a network of public schools, from nurseries to high schools, under the responsibility of a consortium led by city council (though the curriculum is the responsibility of the Generalitat de Catalunya). There are also many private schools, some of them Roman Catholic. Most such schools receive a public subsidy on a per-student basis, are subject to inspection by the public authorities, and are required to follow the same curricular guidelines as public schools, though they charge tuition. Known as escoles concertades, they are distinct from schools whose funding is entirely private (escoles privades).

The language of instruction at public schools and escoles concertades is Catalan, as stipulated by the 2009 Catalan Education Act (in court for discrimination). Spanish may be used as a language of instruction by teachers of Spanish literature or language, and foreign languages by teachers of those languages. An experimental partial immersion programme adopted by some schools allows for the teaching of a foreign language (English, generally) across the curriculum, though this is limited to a maximum of 30% of the school day. No public school or escola concertada in Barcelona may offer 50% or full immersion programmes in a foreign language, nor does any public school or escola concertada offer International Baccalaureate programmes.

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Barcelona

Barcelona's cultural roots go back 2000 years. Since the arrival of democracy, the Catalan language (very much repressed during the dictatorship of Franco) has been promoted, both by recovering works from the past and by stimulating the creation of new works. Barcelona is designated as a world-class city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network.[93]

Entertainment and performing arts[edit]

The Liceu opera house

Barcelona has many venues for live music and theatre, including the world-renowned Gran Teatre del Liceu opera house, the Teatre Nacional de Catalunya, the Teatre Lliure and the Palau de la Música Catalana concert hall. Barcelona also is home to the Barcelona and Catalonia National Symphonic Orchestra (Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona i Nacional de Catalunya, usually known as OBC), the largest symphonic orchestra in Catalonia. In 1999, the OBC inaugurated its new venue in the brand-new Auditorium (l'Auditori). It performs around 75 concerts per season and its current director is Eiji Oue.[94] The major thoroughfare of Las Ramblas is home to mime artists and street performers. Yearly two major pop music festivals take place in the city, the Sónar Festival and the Primavera Sound Festival. The city also has a thriving alternative music scene, with groups such as The Pinker Tones receiving international attention.[95]

Media[edit]

El Periódico de Catalunya, La Vanguardia and Ara are Barcelona's three major daily newspapers (the first two with Catalan and Spanish editions, Ara only in Catalan) while Sport and El Mundo Deportivo (both in Spanish) are the city's two major sports daily newspapers, published by the same companies. The city is also served by a number of smaller publications such as Ara and El Punt Avui (in Catalan), by nation-wide newspapers with special Barcelona editions like El Pais and El Mundo (both in Spanish), and by several free newspapers like 20 minutos and Què (all bilingual).

Barcelona oldest and main online newspaper VilaWeb is the oldest one also in Europe (with Catalan and English editions)

Several major FM stations include Catalunya Ràdio, RAC 1, RAC 105 and Cadena SER. Barcelona also has a local TV stations, BTV, owned by city council. The headquarters of Televisió de Catalunya, Catalonia's public network, are located in Sant Joan Despí, in Barcelona's metropolitan area.

Sports[edit]

Main article: Sport in Barcelona
Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc (Barcelona Olympic Stadium) built for the 1936 Summer Olympics named People's Olympiad, main stadium of 1992 Summer Olympics.
The Camp Nou, the largest stadium in Europe.

Barcelona has a long sporting tradition and hosted the highly successful 1992 Summer Olympics as well as several matches during the 1982 FIFA World Cup (at the two stadiums). It has also hosted, among others, about 30 sports events of international significance.

FC Barcelona is a sports club best known worldwide for its football team, one of the largest in the world and second richest football club in the world.[96] It has 62 of national (likewise 41 runners-up) and 15 continental (likewise 10 runners-up) trophies, including four of the UEFA Champions League (likewise 3 runners-up and actually champion) and two of the FIFA Club World Cup (likewise 1 runners-up and actually champion). Also, it is the only men's club in the world to accomplish a sextuple. FC Barcelona also has teams in FC Barcelona Regal (basketball), FC Barcelona Handbol (the handball), FC Barcelona Hoquei (roller hockey), FC Barcelona Ice Hockey (ice hockey), FC Barcelona Futsal (futsal) and FC Barcelona Rugby (rugby union), all of them winners of the highest country or/and European competitions. The club's museum is the second most visited in Catalonia. Twice a season, FC Barcelona and cross-town rivals RCD Espanyol contest in the local derby in La Liga, while its basketball section has its own local derby in Liga ACB with nearby Joventut Badalona. Barcelona also has other clubs in lower categories, like CE Europa and UE Sant Andreu.

Palau Sant Jordi (St. George's sporting arena) and Montjuïc Communications Tower

Barcelona has two UEFA elite stadiums: FC Barcelona's Camp Nou, the largest stadium in Europe with a capacity of 100,000 and the publicly owned Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys, with a capacity of 55,000; used for the 1992 Olympics. Also, the city has several smaller stadiums such as Mini Estadi, with a capacity of 15,000 and Camp Municipal Narcís Sala, Nou Sardenya with a capacity of 7,000. In the suburbs of Barcelona there is a third UEFA elite stadium – Estadi Cornellà-El Prat, with a capacity of 40,000. Also, except Palau Sant Jordi (St. George's sporting arena), with a capacity of 12,000–24,000 (depending on use), city has two other larger sporting and concert arena: Palau Blaugrana, with a capacity of 7,500 and Palau dels Esports de Barcelona.

Circuit de Catalunya/Circuit de Barcelona, race track of Formula 1 and MotoGP on the suburb of Barcelona.

Barcelona was also the host city for the 2013 World Aquatics Championships, which were held at the Palau San Jordi.[97]

Several road running competitions are organized year-round in Barcelona: the Barcelona Marathon every March with over 10,000 participants in 2010, the Cursa de Bombers in April, the Cursa de El Corte Inglés in May (with about 60,000 participants each year), the Cursa de la Mercè, the Cursa Jean Bouin, the Milla Sagrada Família and the San Silvestre. The Open Seat Godó, a 50-year-old ATP World Tour 500 Series tennis tournament, is held annually in the facilities of the Real Club de Tenis Barcelona (Barcelona Royal Tennis Club). Also, each Christmas, a swimming race across the port is organized. Near Barcelona, in Montmeló, the 107,000 capacity Circuit de Catalunya / Circuit de Barcelona racetrack hosts the Formula One World Championship, Formula One Spanish Grand Prix, Catalan motorcycle Grand Prix, Spanish GT Championship and GP2 Series. Skateboarding and bicycling are also very popular in Barcelona. In the city and the metropolitan area, there are tens of km of bicycle paths.

Top sport clubs in Barcelona:
Club League Sport Venue Established Capacity
FC Barcelona Primera División Football Camp Nou 1899 100,000
RCD Espanyol[98] Primera División Football Estadi Cornellà-El Prat 1900 40,500
CE Europa Tercera División Football Nou Sardenya 1907 7,000
FC Barcelona Bàsquet Primera División Basketball Palau Blaugrana 1926 7,585
FC Barcelona Handbol Primera División Handball Palau Blaugrana 1942 7,585
FC Barcelona Ice Hockey Primera División Ice hockey Palau de Gel 1972 1,256
FC Barcelona Hoquei Primera División Roller hockey Palau Blaugrana 1942 7,585
FC Barcelona Futsal Primera División Futsal Palau Blaugrana 1986 7,585
FC Barcelona Rugby Primera División Rugby union CDMVdHT 1924 no data
Barcelona Dragons World League American football Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys 1991 (withheld) 56,000
Barcelona Búfals Primera División American football Camp Municipal Narcís Sala 1987 6,550

Transport[edit]

Airports[edit]

Aerial view of the Barcelona Airport.

Barcelona is served by Barcelona-El Prat Airport, about 17 km (11 mi) from the centre of Barcelona. It is the second-largest airport in Spain, and the largest on the Mediterranean coast, which handles above 35 million passengers per year and annual upward trend.[99] It is a main hub for Vueling Airlines and Ryanair, and also a focus for Iberia and Air Europa. The airport mainly serves domestic and European destinations, but some airlines offer destinations in Latin America, Asia and the United States. The airport is connected to the city by highway, commuter train (Barcelona Airport railway station) and scheduled bus service. A new terminal (T1) has been built, and entered service on 17 June 2009.

Some low-cost airlines, such as Transavia.com and Ryanair, also use Girona-Costa Brava Airport, about 90 km (56 mi) to the north, Reus Airport, 77 km (48 mi) to the south, or Lleida-Alguaire Airport, about 150 km (93 mi) to the west, of the city. Sabadell Airport is a smaller airport in the nearby town of Sabadell, devoted to pilot training, aerotaxi and private flights.

Seaport[edit]

The Port of Barcelona has a 2000-year old history and a great contemporary commercial importance. It is Europe's ninth largest container port, with a trade volume of 1.72 million TEU's in 2013.[100] The port is managed by the Port Authority of Barcelona. Its 10 km2 (4 sq mi) are divided into three zones: Port Vell (the old port), the commercial port and the logistics port (Barcelona Free Port). The port is undergoing an enlargement that will double its size thanks to diverting the mouth of the Llobregat river 2 kilometres (1 mile) (1¼ mi) to the south.[101]

The Barcelona harbour is the leading European cruiser port and a most important Mediterranean tournaround base.[102] In 2013, 3,6 million of pleasure cruises passengers used services of the Port of Barcelona.[100]

The Port Vell area also houses the Maremagnum (a commercial mall), a multiplex cinema, the IMAX Port Vell and one of Europe's largest aquariumsAquarium Barcelona, containing 8,000 fish and 11 sharks contained in 22 basins filled with 4 million litres of sea water. The Maremagnum, being situated within the confines of the port, is the only commercial mall in the city that can open on Sundays and public holidays.

The Port Vell in winter

Railway[edit]

Siemens Velaro designed for speeds of 310 km/h (193 mph) at Barcelona-Sants AVE station.

Barcelona is a major hub for RENFE, the Spanish state railway network. The city's main Inter-city rail station is Barcelona-Sants station, whilst Estació de França terminus serves a secondary role handling suburban, regional and medium distance services. Freight services operate to local industries and to the Port of Barcelona.

RENFE's AVE high-speed rail system, which is designed for speeds of 310 km/h (193 mph), was extended from Madrid to Barcelona in 2008 in the form of the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed rail line. A shared RENFE-SNCF high-speed rail connecting Barcelona and France (Paris, Marseilles and Toulouse, through LGV Perpignan–Figueres) was launched in 2013. Both these lines serve Barcelona Sants terminal station.[103][104]

Besides RENFE's services, other rail services in the Barcelona area are operated by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC), owned by the Catalonian government. The FGC operates largely commuter rail services, but also carries freight to the Port of Barcelona, as well as a number of rack railways and funiculars, and three of the lines of the Barcelona Metro (see local public transport below). Other suburban services are operated by Rodalies de Catalunya over RENFE tracks.

Roads and highways[edit]

B-20 motorway in Barcelona.

Barcelona lies on three international routes, including European route E15 that follows the Mediterranean coast, European route E90 to Madrid and Lisbon, and European route E09 to Paris. It is also served by a comprehensive network of motorways and highways throughout the metropolitan area, including A-2, A-7/AP-7, C-16, C-17, C-31, C-32, C-33, C-60.

The city is circled by three half ring roads or bypasses, Ronda de Dalt (B-20) (on the mountain side), Ronda del Litoral (B-10) (along the coast) and Ronda del Mig (separated into two parts: Travessera de Dalt in the north and the Gran Via de Carles III), two partially covered[105] fast highways with several exits that bypass the city.

The city's main arteries include Diagonal Avenue, which crosses it diagonally, Meridiana Avenue which leads to Glòries and connects with Diagonal Avenue and Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, which crosses the city from east to west, passing through its centre. The famous boulevard of La Rambla, whilst no longer an important vehicular route, remains an important pedestrian route.

The Estació del Nord (Northern Station), a former railway station which was renovated for the 1992 Olympic Games, now serves as the terminus for long-distance and regional bus services.

Local public transport[edit]

Barcelona Metro

Barcelona is served by a comprehensive local public transport network that includes a metro, a bus network, two separate modern tram networks, a separate historic tram line, and several funiculars and aerial cable cars. Most of these networks and lines form a coordinated fare system, administered by the Autoritat del Transport Metropolità (ATM), although they are operated by a number of different bodies.

The, largely underground, Barcelona Metro network comprises eleven lines, identified by an "L" followed by the line number as well as by individual colours. Eight of these lines are operated on dedicated track by the Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (TMB), whilst three lines are operated by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) and share tracks with that company's commuter lines.

Barcelona Tram

Another company, TRAMMET, operates the city's two modern tram networks, known as Trambaix and Trambesòs.[106] The historic tram line, the Tramvia Blau,[107] connects the metro (L7, operated by FGC) to the Funicular del Tibidabo (operated by TMB). The Funicular de Tibidabo climbs the Tibidabo hill, as does the Funicular de Vallvidrera (FGC). The Funicular de Montjuïc (TMB) climbs the Montjuïc hill. The city has two aerial cable cars: the Montjuïc Cable Car (to the Montjuïc castle) and the Port Vell Aerial Tramway that runs via Torre Jaume I and Torre Sant Sebastià over the port.

Buses in Barcelona are a major form of public transport, with extensive local, interurban and night bus networks. Most local services are operated by the TMB, although some other services are operated by a number of private companies, albeit still within the ATM fare structure. A separate private bus line, known as Aerobús, links the airport with the city centre, with its own fare structure.

Barcelona taxi

Barcelona has a metered taxi fleet governed by the Institut Metropolità del Taxi (Metropolitan Taxi Institute), composed of more than 10,000 cars. Most of the licences are in the hands of self-employed drivers. With their black and yellow livery, Barcelona's taxis are easily spotted, and can be caught from one of many taxi ranks, hailed on street, or called by telephone.[108][109]

On 22 March 2007,[110] Barcelona's City Council started the Bicing service, a bicycle service understood as a public transport. Once the user has their user card, they can take a bicycle from any of the more than 400 stations spread around the city and use it anywhere the urban area of the city, and then leave it at another station.[111] The service has been a success, with 50,000 subscribed users in three months.[112]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Barcelona is twinned with the following cities:(in chronological order)[113]

Partnerships and Cooperations[edit]

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes exist to many cities worldwide.[132]

Other sights[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ United Nations – Department of Economic and Social Affairs: World Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision), Table A.12
  3. ^ Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Competitive Cities in the Global Economy, OECD Territorial Reviews, (OECD Publishing, 2006), Table 1.1
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  27. ^ Oros. vii. 143; Miñano, Diccion. vol. i. p. 391; Auson. Epist. xxiv. 68, 69, Punica Barcino.
  28. ^ Plin. iii. 3. s. 4
  29. ^ Inscr. ap. Gruter, p. 426, nos. 5, 6.
  30. ^ ii. 6
  31. ^ Avien. Ora Maritima. 520: "Et Barcilonum amoena sedes ditium."
  32. ^ Paul. Dig. 1. tit. 15, de Cens.
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  37. ^ Chapter 15: A History of Spain and Portugal, Stanley G. Payne Archived September 21, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
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Bibliography[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 
  • "Barcelona". Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana. Barcelona: Ed. Enciclopèdia Catalana S.A. 
  • Busquets, Joan. Barcelona: The Urban Evolution of a Compact City (Harvard UP, 2006) 468 pp.
  • McDonogh, G. W. (January 2011). "Review Essay: Barcelona: Forms, Images, and Conflicts: Joan Busquets (2005)". Journal of Urban History 37 (1): 117–123. doi:10.1177/0096144210384250. 
  • Marshall, Tim, ed. Transforming Barcelona (Routledge, 2004), 267 pp.
  • Ramon Resina, Joan. Barcelona's Vocation of Modernity: Rise and Decline of an Urban Image (Stanford UP, 2008). 272 pp.

External links[edit]