Chicano studies (also written as Chicano/a studies, Chicana/Chicano studies, "Chican@" studies, or Xicana/o Studies) originated in the Chicano Movement of the late 1960s and 1970s. Chicano Studies concerns itself with the study of Chicana/os, Latina/os, and Mexican Americans, drawing upon a variety of fields, including, but not limited to, history, sociology, the arts, and critical theory.
Chicana/o studies were borne of the efforts of the Third World Liberation Front (TWLF) Student Strike at Berkeley in January-March, 1969, which resulted in the establishment of the first Ethnic Studies departments in the United States on March 7, 1969, The Berkeley TWLF was composed of the Mexican American Student Confederation, Asian American Student Organization, Native Americans, and the African American Students Union. There was an earlier TWLF strike at San Francisco State University in 1968 as part of the joint effort of the Black Student Union, Latin American Students Organization, Asian American Political Alliance, Filipino American Collegiate Endeavor, and Native American Students Union at that university. This 1968 San Francisco State University Student Strike ended on March 20, 1969, and established the second College of Ethnic Studies in the country.
The Plan de Santa Barbara is generally considered to be the manifesto of Chicano Studies. Drafted in 1969 at the University of California, Santa Barbara, the Plan emphasizes the need for education, and especially higher education, in Chicano community empowerment. For this reason, many Chicano Studies programs place great value on community involvement in addition to traditional forms of education and research.
In many universities across the United States, Chicano Studies is linked with comparative ethnic studies and other Ethnic Studies fields: Black Studies, Asian American Studies, Native American Studies, etc. The emphasis of the aforementioned academic disciplines on community involvement and social justice generally distinguish them from area studies.
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It is simplistic to say that Mexican Americans and other Latinos have always studied themselves. Fray Angélico Chávez took a Hispano view of the history of New Mexico, George I. Sánchez analyzed sociological statistics pertaining to Mexican Americans, Américo Paredes compiled and rendered Mexican American folklore, Carey McWilliams documented the lives and struggles of Mexican Americans, Ernesto Galarza organized agricultural workers and migration; they were all pioneers in the field. But the study and teaching was not institutionalized until the late 1960s, although Julián Samora established the Mexican-American Studies Center at Notre Dame in the early 1960s.
The major thrust for Chicano Studies came within the context of the African-American civil rights struggle. During this period, Mexican American educators demanded that colleges and universities address the pedagogical needs of Mexican American students who the schools were failing. Major themes were bilingual education and the building of positive self-images. In 1967, a student collective at the University of California, Berkeley (Cal) began publishing El Grito: A Journal of Contemporary Mexican American Thought. About three years later, students and faculty at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) began publishing Aztlán: A Chicano Journal of the Social Sciences and the Arts. These publications define the interdisciplinary nature of Chicano Studies.
Chicano Studies programs and departments were born out of the struggle[who?]. The formation of the United Mexican American Students (UMAS) in California and the Mexican American Youth Organization (MAYO) were major catalysts. Exploratory programs were developed at California State College, Los Angeles (CSCLA) now California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA) in 1968 and at California State University, Fresno (Fresno State). At the height of the Chicano student movement that spawned the Chicano Blowouts, (a massive student boycott to protest unfair conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District schools). CSULA established the nation’s first Chicano Studies department in 1968. These formations were in response to the social circumstances of Mexican Americans throughout the country. Other programs followed, usually after intense battles between students and administration, at San Fernando Valley State College in 1969, today known as California State University, Northridge (CSUN), San Diego State University (SDSU) in 1970, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) in 1971, and the University of Texas, El Paso (UTEP) in 1970 with Felipe de Ortego y Gasca as Founding Director.
By the mid-1970s, Chicana feminists challenged the masculine domination of the field, making gender issues central to the concerns of the academic community. After intense struggle at the National Association for Chicano Studies the name of the association was changed to Chicana/o Studies, underscoring that Chicanas were equal partners in the area of Chicana/o Studies. Through the persistence of scholars such as Dr. Yolanda Broyles González, Chicana Studies is said to not be a variable or a discipline within Chicano Studies but it claims ownership of an entire new area of study. California State University, Northridge had 28 tenure track professors, two-thirds are Chicanas; the department offers 166 sections a semester. Dr. Mary Pardo has played a major role in this development. Chicanas have a controlling interest in the National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies (NACCS). Traditionalist of both the common usage of Spanish and Calo (Spanish/English slang of Chicanos from which the term itself originated) have responded to the criticism of feminists by noting that the term Chicano already implies an inclusion of women. Thereby, any insistence on the need for a separation in the word, or a separate discipline altogether is divisive for "la comunidad" and also perpetuating of the stereotype that Mexican-American men are solely chauvinist and purely non-honoring of women. Many Chicanos are not in appreciation of the perpetuation of such gender specific stereotypes. While there may be some slight controversy over the splitting of the term in academia, the majority of people within the Chicano community itself are most accustomed to honoring the traditional and unified term of Chicano Studies.
The need for Chicano and Chicana Studies have increased since 1969. In 1970 there were about 9 million Latinos of which 5.5 million were of Mexican extraction. Today[when?] that number is around 45 million about 32 million of who are of Mexican origin. The resurgence of Chicano student activism in the early 1990s begot a major Chicano Studies Department. During the 1990s, UCLA's MEChA Chapter took a leadership role in keeping the issue of the Chicana/o Studies Departmentalization alive, and protested attempts by the UCLA Administration to eliminate funding for the Chicano Studies Program. In 1993, the issue was heightened further when the UCLA administration issued a statement refusing to departmentalize the Chicana/o Studies Department on the eve of Cesar Chavez's funeral. This proposal, combined with a plan to de-fund the Chicana/o Studies library to the point that it would be inoperational, galvanized the UCLA community, and a multi-racial group of UCLA students called the Conscious Students of Color planned and staged an occupation of the UCLA faculty center that ended in 99 arrests, with 16 people charged with misdemeanors, and 83 students (42 men and 41 women) being charged with felony counts of vandalism, before being sent to Los Angeles County Jail and the Sybil Brand Jail for their involvement in the protests. The day following the faculty center occupation, a series of rallies was held by MEChA, The United Community and Labor Alliance (a coalition of Mexican American activists and community leaders, labor union representatives, and immigration advocates in Los Angeles), and other students, culminating in a hunger strike on campus. Among the participants of the hunger strike were student activists, community supporters, and a UCLA faculty member. Due to the widespread community mobilization and support, and the intervention of Latina/o California congressmembers in holding up funds to UCLA unless departmentalization was approved, this struggle eventually resulted in the establishment of the Cesar Chavez Center for Interdisciplinary Instruction in Chicana/o Studies at UCLA, which represented a significant victory for the protesters in essentially gaining all the rights of departmentalization though without the name. The Center was named after United Farmworkers leader Cesar Chavez, and transitioned into a full fledged campus department in 2004. UCLA is also home to a separate UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center and Library.
Michigan State University and the University of California, Santa Barbara have doctoral programs in Chicano Studies. The University of California, Riverside has a doctorate program in Ethnic Studies. There are also centers and institutes of Mexican American Studies. These units are distinguished for promoting research on Mexican origin peoples. The Mexican American Studies Center at the University of Houston distinguishes itself by heavy involvement with students and the community.
- Promote the overthrow of the United States Government
- Promote resentment toward any race or class
- Advocate ethnic solidarity instead of being individuals
- Are designed for a certain ethnicity
while still allowing:
- Native American classes to comply with federal law
- Grouping of classes based on academic performance
- Classes about the history of an ethnic group open to all students
- Classes discussing controversial history
Another provision of the law stated that any school district or charter school breaching its stated provisions would be liable to lose state funding as a public institution.
As a result, the Mexican-American studies program as taught by Tucson Unified School District (TUSD) came under scrutiny and was found to be in violation of the law by Tom Horne. However, an independent audit (paid for by the state of Arizona) was conducted, and found the program was not in breach of HB 2281. With pressure from former Arizona Superintendent Tom Horne, who felt the courses were breaching HB 2281, and after TUSD issued an appeal stating otherwise, Superintendent John Huppenthal deemed that the course must be disbanded or TUSD would lose funding. Thus, in January 2012, the TUSD school board came to a 4-1 decision that the program was to be disbanded in lieu of the district losing state funding.
Programs and departments
This is an abbreviated list of programs throughout the United States which can be associated with Chicana/o Studies.
- Chicano/Latino Studies Program, University of California, Berkeley
- Department of Chicano Studies, California State University, Los Angeles CSULA
- Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies, California State University, Northridge CSUN
- Department of Chicana & Chicano studies and César E. Chávez Center for Interdisciplinary Education and Chicano Studies Research Center, UCLA
- Department of Chicano/Latino Studies, University of California, Irvine
- Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies and Center for Chicano Studies, UCSB
- Chicano Studies, California State University, Bakersfield
- Transborder Chicano/a Latino/a Studies, Arizona State University
- Department of Chicano/Chicana Studies, California State University, Dominguez Hills
- Chicana and Chicano Studies Program, California State University, Fullerton
- Chicano Studies, Claremont McKenna College
- Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies, Loyola Marymount University
- Department of Chicana/o Studies, Metropolitan State College of Denver
- Department of Chicana & Chicano Studies[dead link], San Diego State University
- Chicano Studies[dead link], Scripps College
- Chicana and Chicano Studies major, Stanford University
- Chicana/o Studies Program, University of California, Davis
- Department of Chicano Studies, University of Minnesota
- Chicano Hispano Mexicano Studies, University of New Mexico
- Center for Mexican-American Studies, University of Texas at Austin
- Mexican-American Studies Program, University of Texas at San Antonio
- Chicana/o Studies, University of Texas at El Paso
- Chicano Studies, University of Washington
- Chican@ and Latin@ Studies, University of Wisconsin–Madison
- Chicano Studies Program, University of Wyoming
- Chicano/Latino Studies, PhD Program, Michigan State University
- of Chicana/Chicano and Hemispheric Studies[dead link], Western New Mexico University
- Asian American studies
- Black studies
- Gender studies
- Latino studies
- Mexican Studies (journal)
- Native American studies
- National Association for Chicana/Chicano Studies, http://www.naccs.org/naccs/About_NACCS_EN.asp?SnID=1529216044
- "Arizona House Bill 2281 (2010)" (PDF). Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "Racial Lens Used to Cull Curriculum in Arizona" (article). http://www.nytimes.com. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- Rodriguez, Tito (May 13, 2010). "Arizona Bans Chicano Studies in Public Schools". Mexican-American.org.
- Castellanos, Dalina (April 4, 2012). "Mexican American studies: 'Daily Show' Segment Strikes a Nerve". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 10, 2012.