Kyle during a book signing at Camp Pendleton in January 2012
|Birth name||Christopher Scott Kyle|
|Nickname(s)||"Chris", "Shaitan Al-Ramadi", "The Devil of Ramadi", "Legend"|
April 8, 1974|
Odessa, Texas, U.S.
|Died||February 2, 2013
Erath County, Texas, U.S.
|Buried at||Texas State Cemetery, Texas, U.S.|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1999–2009|
|Rank||Chief Petty Officer|
|Awards|| Silver Star Medal (2)
Bronze Star Medal (Valor; 5)
Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal (1)
Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal (2)
|Relations||Wayne Kenneth Kyle (father)
Deby Lynn Mercer (mother)
|Other work||American Sniper (2012)
American Gun (2013)
Christopher Scott "Chris" Kyle (April 8, 1974 – February 2, 2013) was a United States Navy SEAL. The most lethal sniper in U.S. military history, he accumulated 160 confirmed kills out of 255 probable kills. These numbers are based on individual shooter logs, filled out at the end of a mission, and reported to higher command. Kyle stated that he did not know his official kill record, and only counted the lives he felt he could have saved. U.S. Special Operations Command treats sniper kill counts as "unofficial". Confirmed kills must have a witness.
Kyle served four tours in the Iraq War and was awarded several commendations for acts of heroism and meritorious service in combat. He received two Silver Star Medals, five Bronze Star Medals, one Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, and two Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medals. Iraqi insurgents dubbed him the "Devil of Ramadi" and placed a series of ever increasing bounties on his head, purported to have eventually reached the low six figures. He became known by the moniker "Legend" among the general infantry and Marines whom he was tasked to protect. This title initially originated in jest among fellow SEALs following his taking of a sabbatical to train other snipers in Fallujah. He was wounded twice and involved in six IED attacks.
Kyle was honorably discharged from the U.S. Navy in 2009 and wrote a bestselling autobiography, American Sniper, which was published in January 2012. On February 2, 2013, Kyle was shot and killed at a shooting range near Chalk Mountain, Texas, along with friend Chad Littlefield. The man accused of killing them is awaiting trial for murder. A film adaptation of Kyle's autobiography, directed by Clint Eastwood, was released in December 2014.
Early life and education
Kyle was born in Odessa, Texas, the son of Deby Lynn (née Mercer) and Wayne Kenneth Kyle, a Sunday school teacher and a deacon. Kyle's father bought his son his first rifle at eight years old, a bolt-action .30-06 Springfield rifle, and later a shotgun, with which they hunted pheasant, quail, and deer. Kyle attended high school in Midlothian, Texas, where he played football and baseball. After school, Kyle became a professional bronco rodeo rider and worked on a ranch, but his profession ended abruptly when he severely injured his arm. After his arm healed, he went to a military recruiting office, interested in joining the United States Marine Corps with a special interest in special operations. Kyle signed up, but was rejected because of the pins in his arm. Kyle met with a U.S. Army recruiter next, who told him about the Special Forces and the Rangers. A U.S. Navy recruiter told him about the U.S. Navy SEALs as he was leaving the recruiting office. After initially being declined, he received a call to BUD/S (Basic Underwater Demolition SEAL school). He joined the U.S. Navy in 1999.
Assigned to SEAL Team 3, Sniper Element Charlie, later Cadillac, platoon within the Naval Special Warfare Command, and with four tours of duty, Kyle served in many major battles of the Iraq War. His first long-range kill shot was taken during the initial invasion when he shot a woman approaching a group of Marines with a hand grenade in her hand. An article by CNN reported that the woman was cradling a toddler in her other hand. As ordered, he opened fire, killing the woman before she could attack. He later stated, "the woman was already dead. I was just making sure she didn't take any Marines with her."
Because of his track record as a marksman during his deployment to Ramadi, the insurgents named him Shaitan Ar-Ramadi (English: 'The Devil of Ramadi'), and put a $21,000 bounty on his head that was later increased to $80,000. They posted signs highlighting the cross on his arm as a means of identifying him.
In 2008, outside Sadr City, Kyle made his longest successful shot after spotting an insurgent near a U.S. Army convoy who was about to launch a rocket-propelled grenade at the convoy. In his book American Sniper, Kyle said he fired one shot from his .338 Lapua Magnum-chambered McMillan TAC-338 sniper rifle from about 2,100 yards (1,920 m) away, killing the insurgent.
During four tours of duty in Iraq, Kyle was shot twice and caught up in six separate IED explosions. His other weapons included the Mk 11 7.62×51mm NATO semi-automatic sniper rifle, the Mk 12 5.56×45mm NATO Designated Marksman Rifle, Sig Sauer P220 Pistol, M4 carbine and a .300 Winchester Magnum-chambered sniper rifle.
Kyle left the U.S. Navy in 2009 and moved to Midlothian, Texas, with his wife, Taya, and two children. He was president of Craft International, a tactical training company for the US military and law enforcement communities.
In 2012, HarperCollins released Kyle's autobiographical book American Sniper. Kyle had initially hesitated to write the book but was persuaded to move forward because other books about SEALs were underway. In his book, Kyle wrote bluntly of his experiences. Of the battle for control of Ramadi he says "Force moved that battle. We killed the bad guys and brought the leaders to the peace table. That is how the world works." In the book and in interviews following, Kyle stated he had no regrets about his work as a sharpshooter, saying, "I had to do it to protect the Marines." American Sniper had a 37-week run on The New York Times bestseller list and brought Kyle national attention. Following its release, media articles challenged some of Kyle's anecdotes, but the core of his narrative was widely accepted. "Tales of his heroism on the battlefield were already lore in every branch of the armed forces."
Kyle paired with FITCO Cares Foundation, a nonprofit organization which created the Heroes Project to provide free in-home fitness equipment, individualized programs, personal training, and life-coaching to in-need veterans with disabilities, Gold Star families, or those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. On August 13, 2012, Kyle appeared on the reality television show Stars Earn Stripes, which features celebrities pairing up with a special operations or law enforcement professional who train them in weapons and combat tactics. Kyle was teamed with actor Dean Cain.
In interviews with the Opie and Anthony Show and Bill O'Reilly in January 2012, Kyle claimed to have punched former Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura at a bar in Coronado, California, in 2006 during a wake for Mike Monsoor, a U.S. Navy SEAL and Medal of Honor recipient killed in Iraq. The story parallels an incident in his book which does not mention Ventura by name, and claims a character named "Scruff Face" said that the SEALs "deserved to lose a few guys." Ventura, who was in the bar that night, filed a lawsuit against Kyle for defamation in January of 2012. After Kyle was killed the following month Ventura continued his lawsuit against his widow and their minor children. A jury awarded Ventura $1.8 million in July 2014. Kyle's widow is appealing the judgement on behalf of Kyle's surviving heirs. 
On Saturday, February 2, 2013, Kyle and a companion, Chad Littlefield, were shot and killed at the Rough Creek Ranch-Lodge-Resort shooting range in Erath County, Texas, by 25-year-old U.S. Marine Corps veteran Eddie Ray Routh, whom Kyle and Littlefield had reportedly taken to the gun range in an effort to help him with what they were told by his mother was post traumatic stress disorder.
Local police captured Routh after a short freeway chase, which ended when Routh, who had left the scene of the shootings in Kyle's Ford F-350 truck, crashed into a police cruiser. Routh was arrested just before 9:00 p.m. the same day in Lancaster, Texas. Erath County sheriffs said the motive for the killing was unclear. Routh, from Lancaster, was arraigned February 2, 2013, on two counts of capital murder, according to Sergeant Lonny Haschel of the Texas Department of Public Safety. He was taken to the Erath County Jail for holding under a $3 million bond. Routh's trial was set to begin May 5, 2014, but was delayed to allow more time to comply with DNA test requirements. Routh's trial is now set to begin February, 2015.
A memorial service was held for Kyle at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas, on February 11, 2013. Kyle was buried on February 12, 2013, at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin, Texas, after a funeral procession from Midlothian, Texas, to Austin, stretching over 200 miles. Hundreds of local and out-of-state residents lined Interstate 35 to view the procession and pay their final respects to Kyle.
In August 2013, Texas governor Rick Perry signed Senate Bill 162, also known as the "Chris Kyle Bill", to recognize military training in the issuance of occupational licenses. The bill had been co-sponsored by Republican Representative Dan Flynn of Van and Democratic Senator Leticia Van de Putte of San Antonio. The ceremony was attended by Taya Kyle.
Awards and decorations
In popular culture
The 2014 film American Sniper is based on Kyle's autobiography. Kyle is portrayed by Bradley Cooper, his wife Taya Kyle is portrayed by Sienna Miller, and the film is directed by Clint Eastwood. For his portrayal of Kyle, Cooper was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor, and the film was nominated for Best Picture.
- Kyle, Chris; McEwen, Scott; DeFelice, Jim (2013). American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History. New York: W. Morrow, 2012. ISBN 0-062-08235-3 OCLC 733224029
- Kyle, Chris; Doyle, William (2013). American Gun: A History of the U.S. in Ten Firearms. New York: William Morrow, 2013. ISBN 0-0622-4271-7 OCLC 813286737
- List of snipers
- Longest recorded sniper kills
- Simo Häyhä, the record-holder for any major war with 505 confirmed kills.
- Bernstein, Adam (February 4, 2013). "Chris Kyle, Navy Seal and author of 'American Sniper', dies". The Washington Post.
Christopher Scott Kyle was born in 1974
- Jamie Stengle; Paul J. Weber; Angela K. Brown (February 12, 2013). "Procession escorts ex-Navy SEAL Kyle to burial". Army Times. Associated Press. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- Buiso, Gray (January 1, 2012). "Meet the big shot - SEAL is America's deadliest sniper". New York Post. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- Chris Kyle (March 24, 2010). "Chris Kyle from HarperCollins Publishers". Harpercollins.com. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- "Taya Renae Kyle profile". Cemetery.state.tx.us. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
- Briggs, Bill (July 30, 2014). "Confirmed kills: A solemn secret for military snipers is becoming a pop-culture hit". NBC News. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- "About The Book". American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History. HarperCollins. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
...though his remarkable career total has not been made public by the Pentagon.
- "American Sniper". Harper Collins.
- "Chris Kyle1". YouTube.
- Sanchez, Raf (January 2, 2012). "'The Devil of Ramadi' named America's deadliest sniper". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- "Christopher Scott Kyle, Texas, Birth Index, 1903-1997". FamilySearch. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- The Life and Legend of Chris Kyle by Michael J Mooney; Google Books
- Kyle, Chris (2012). American Sniper. HarperCollins.
- "'Chris Kyle, America's deadliest sniper, offered no regrets'". February 5, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- "McMillan TAC-338 Sniper Rifle". Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "Chris Kyle: al-Shaitan of Iraq". March 14, 2012. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- Kyle, Chris; McEwen, Scott; DeFelice, Chris (January 2, 2012). "American Sniper". Harper Collins. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- "Craft International". Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- Kyle, Chris; McEwen, Scott; DeFelice, Chris (February 5, 2012). American Sniper. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-208235-3.
- Fernandez and Michael Schwirtz, Manny (February 3, 2013). "Untouchable in Iraq, Ex-Sniper Dies in a Shooting Back Home". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Perry, Scott (March 5, 2012). "Book review: 'American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History' by Chris Kyle, Scott McEwen and Jim DeFelice". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Botelho, Greg, Joe Johns and Ted Metzger (February 5, 2013). "Police: Man accused of killing ex-SEAL said he had PTSD, was hurting". CNN (CNN.com). Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Pulliam Bailey, Sarah (January 14, 2014). "Here’s the faith in the ‘American Sniper’ you won’t see in the film". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- LaMothe, Dan (July 30, 2014). "Jesse Ventura vs. Chris Kyle: A case where no one won". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Hoinski, Michael (December 22, 2014). "The Controversial True Story Behind 'American Sniper'". Mens Journal Magazine. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Fitco Cares". Fitcocares.org. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "Stars Earn Stripes Bio for Chris Kyle". Nbc.com. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Lamothe, Dan (July 30, 2014). "Jesse Ventura vs. Chris Kyle: A case where no one won". The Washington Post (Katharine Weymouth). Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- Browning, Dan (February 24, 2012). "Jesse Ventura aims to get even with Navy SEAL in court". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Chasmar, Jessica (June 2, 2013). "Ex-Minn. Gov. Jesse Ventura sues Navy SEAL Chris Kyle's widow". The Washington Times. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- "Jury awards Jesse Ventura $1.8 million in 'American Sniper' lawsuit". The Dallas Morning News. July 29, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- "Chris Kyle trial: Jesse Ventura wins $1.8 million in defamation case". The Oregonian (Oregon Live). Associated Press. July 29, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "'American Sniper' widow to appeal Ventura defamation verdict". Mprnews.org. December 23, 2014. Retrieved December 25, 2014.
- "Noted sniper slain at Erath County gun range". WFAA TV. Retrieved February 3, 2013.[dead link]
- "Father of Chris Kyle killer Eddie Ray Routh is already mourning the loss of his son - Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- Schwirtz, Michael (February 3, 2013). "'American Sniper' Author Shot to Death in Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Man charged in fatal shooting of ex-SEAL/author". Yahoo News. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Author of 'American Sniper' among the dead at Rough Creek". yourstephenvilletx.com. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "American Sniper author Chris Kyle shot dead in Texas". BBC. February 3, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Copeland, Larry (February 3, 2013). "Ex-SEAL Chris Kyle remembered after shooting death". USA Today.
- "Chris Kyle Murder Trial Delayed". Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- "Crime and lawsuits cloud new American Sniper movie". Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- "Chris Kyle Funeral Procession Arrives in Austin | NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth". Nbcdfw.com. February 12, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
- "Details announced for Navy SEAL Chris Kyle's memorial service at Cowboys Stadium". The Scoop Blog. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- "Residents Line I-35 To Pay Respects To Slain Navy SEAL". Kwtx.com. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- Fountain, Phil (2013-08-28). "Perry signs 'Chris Kyle Bill,' allows military experience for Texas state licenses". Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System. United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- Lilley, Kevin (2013-03-17). "Chris Kyle statue created for SEAL's widow". USA Today. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- Harper, Jennifer (2013-11-10). "Tea party to honor fallen SEALs Chris Kyle, those at Benghazi with sculptures". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- VERRIER, RICHARD (April 23, 2014). "Eastwood starts shooting 'American Sniper' at Santa Clarita ranch". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- Oscar Nominations: 'Grand Budapest Hotel' & 'Birdman' Lead Way With 9 Noms; 'Imitation Game' Scores 8
- Mooney, Michael J., The Life and Legend of Chris Kyle: American Sniper, Navy SEAL (e-book, 70 pp.), Little, Brown and Company (an imprint of Hachette), April 23, 2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chris Kyle.|
- American Sniper at Harper Collins
- Craft International, the company for which Kyle worked as president (a tactical training company for the U.S. military and law enforcement communities)
- Kyle on The George Jarkesy Show
- Chris Kyle Story in The New Yorker
- French, David, "We Need More 'Extremists Like Chris Kyle", May 31, 2013, National Review
- Mooney, Michael J., "The Legend of Chris Kyle" D Magazine, April 2013
- Beil, Laura, The Enemy Within: The Inside Story of Eddie Routh, the Man Accused of Killing Legendary American Sniper Chris Kyle (e-book, 36 pp.), Rodale, ISBN 978-1-62336-415-1, November 5, 2013
- Audio interview of Chris Kyle, with Matthew Bannister, for the BBC World Service's Outlook programme, broadcast on 5 Jan. 2012 (16 mins.).