Jesasang, ceremonial table setting on Chuseok.
|Official name||Chuseok (추석, 秋夕)|
|Also called||Hangawi (한가위)|
|Type||Cultural, religious (Buddhist, Confucian)|
|Significance||Celebrates the harvest|
|Observances||Visit to their friends town, ancestor worship, harvest feasts with songpyeon and rice wines|
|Date||15th day of the 8th lunar month|
|2014 date||8 September|
|2015 date||27 September|
|Related to||Mid-Autumn Festival|
Chuseok (Korean: 추석), originally known as hangawi (한가위, from archaic Korean for "the great middle (of autumn)"), is a major harvest festival and a three-day holiday in Korea celebrated on the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar. Like many other harvest festivals around the world, it is held around the Autumn Equinox.
Historically and according to popular belief, Chuseok originates from gabae (hangul:가배). Gabae started during the reign of the third king of the kingdom of Silla (57 BC – AD 935), when it was a month-long weaving contest between two teams. Come the day of Gabae, the team that had woven more cloth had won and was treated to a feast by the losing team. However, it is also said that Chuseok marks the day Silla won a great victory over the rival kingdom of Baekje. It is believed that weaving competitions, archery competitions, and martial arts demonstrations were held as part of the festivities.
Many scholars also believe Chuseok may originate from ancient shamanistic celebrations of the harvest moon. New harvests are offered to local deities and ancestors, which means Chuseok may have originated as a worship ritual. In some areas, if there is no harvest, worship rituals are postponed, or in areas with no annual harvest, Chuseok is not celebrated.
In contemporary South Korea, on Chuseok, there is a mass exodus of South Koreans from large cities as they return to their hometowns to pay respects to the spirits of their ancestors. People perform ancestral worship rituals early in the morning. Then, they visit the tombs of their immediate ancestors to trim plants and clean the area around the tomb, and offer food, drink, and crops to their ancestors. Harvest crops are attributed to the blessing of ancestors.
It is one of the ancestral memorial rites that have been done for thousand years in Korea. It is done in the morning of Chuseok, and family hold a memorial service for their ancestors, usually honoring four generations back. The meaning of Charye is to return their favors and honor them. It is due to a belief that Koreans do not believe that a person is really dead when they physically die. They believe their spirits are still alive and protect the descendants, so they honor their ancestors by preparing special foods for them. Also, it is important to know how to arrange the foods of Charye on the table: on the north, rice and soup are placed; and, fruits and vegetables are on the south. On the west and in the middle, meat dishes are served; and, on the east, rice cake and some drinks such as makgeolli or soju are placed. The details may vary from each region.
Seongmyo and Beolcho
Seongmyo and Beolcho are also done around Chuseok week. Seongmyo is a visiting to ancestral grave sites and Beolcho is the activity to remove weeds around the grave. It is to clean their ancestor's site.
One of the major foods prepared and eaten during the Chuseok holiday is songpyeon (송편),a Korean traditional rice cake which contains stuffing made with healthy ingredients such as sesame seeds, black beans, mung beans, cinnamon, pine nut, walnut, chestnut, jujube, and honey. When making songpyeon, steaming them over a layer of pine-needles is critical. The word “song”(송) in songpyeon means a pine tree in Korean. The pine needles not only contribute to songpyeon’s aromatic fragrance, but also its beauty and taste
Songpyeon is also significant because of the meaning contained in its shape. Songpyeon’s rice skin itself resembles the shape of a full moon, but once it wraps the stuffing, its shape resembles the half-moon. Since the Three Kingdoms era in Korean history, there was a Korean legend saying that these two shapes ruled the destinies of the two greatest rival kingdoms, Baekje and Silla. During the era of King Uija of Baekje, an encrypted phrase, “Baekje is full-moon and Silla is half moon”, was found on a turtle’s back and it predicted the fall of the Baekje and the rise of the Silla. The prophecy came true when Silla defeated Baekje in their war. Ever since, Koreans started to refer to a half-moon shape as the indicator of the bright future or victory. Therefore, during Chuseok, families gather together and eat half-moon shaped Songpyeon under the full-moon, wishing themselves a brighter future.
Another popular Korean traditional food that people eat during Chuseok is Hangwa. It is an artistic food decorated with natural colors and textured with patterns. Hangwa is made with highly nutritious ingredients, such as rice flour, honey, fruit, and roots. People use edible natural ingredients to express various colors, flavors, and tastes. Because of its decoration and nutrition, Koreans eat Hangwa not only during Chuseok, but also for special events, for instance, weddings, birthday parties, and marriages.
The most famous types of Hangwa are Yakgwa, Yugwa, and Dasik. Yakgwa is a medicinal cookie which is made of fried rice flour dough ball and Yugwa is a fried cookie that also refers as a “flower of Hangwa”. Dasik is a tea cake that people enjoy with tea.
A variety of folk games are played on Chuseok to celebrate the coming of Autumn and rich harvest. Village folk dress themselves to look like a cow or a turtle, and go from house to house along with a Nongak band playing music. Other common folk games played on Chuseok are archery and Ssireum (Korean Wrestling). Folk games also vary from region to region.
Ssireum is the most popular Korean sport played during Chuseok, and contests are usually held during this holiday. Scholars have found evidence for Ssireum’s existence back during the Goguryeo Dynasty era, Ssireum is assumed to have five-thousand years of history. Two men wrestle with each other while holding tight to their opponent's satba, red and blue band. A player loses when their upper body touches the ground. The ultimate winner becomes 'Cheonha Jangsa', 'Baekdu Jangsa', or 'Halla Jangsa'; these all mean “the most powerful”. The winner gets a bull and a 1 kg of rice as the prize. Due to its popularity among both the young and the old, Ssireum contests are being held more frequently, not limited on the important holidays.
The Ganggangsullae dance is a traditional folk dance performed under the full moon in the night of Chuseok. Women wear Korean traditional dress, hanbok, make a big circle by holding hands of each other, and sing a song while they are going around a circle. Its name, Ganggangsullae came from the refrain repeated after each verse, so there is no actual meaning to it.
Chuseok in North Korea
Since Chuseok has been a traditional holiday long before the division of Korea, people in North Korea also celebrate Chuseok. However, the ideology that divided Korea also caused some differences between Chuseok of North Korea and that of South Korea. Since the division, South Korea has adopted a westernized culture, so the way South Koreans enjoy Chuseok is a typical way of enjoying holidays with family members. However, North Korea moved away from the traditional way of Chuseok. In fact, North Korea did not celebrate Chuseok and other traditional holidays until the mid-1980s.
Even though most North Koreans do not have any family gatherings during Chuseok, some North Koreans, especially those in working classes, try to visit their ancestors’ grave sites during Chuseok. However, social and economic issues in North Korea have been preventing visits. In addition, their extremely poor infrastructure, especially public transportation, make it almost impossible for people to visit grave sites and their families. In contrast to the poorly situated lower class North Koreans, middle and elite classes enjoy the holiday as they want: easily traveling wherever they want to go.
Dates for Chuseok on the Gregorian calendar
Chuseok is on the following days:
- 2000: September 12
- 2001: October 1
- 2002: September 21
- 2003: September 11
- 2004: September 28
- 2005: September 18
- 2006: October 6
- 2007: September 25
- 2008: September 14
- 2009: October 3
- 2010: September 22
- 2011: September 12
- 2012: September 30
- 2013: September 19
- 2014: September 8
- 2015: September 27
- 2016: September 15
- 2017: October 4
- 2018: September 24
- 2019: September 13
- 2020: October 1
- 2021: September 21
- 2022: September 10
Chuseok, as well as the day before it and afterwards, are statutory holidays in South Korea. Within East Asia, the timing coincides with that of the Chinese and Vietnamese Mid-Autumn Festival, as well as the Japanese Tsukimi.
- Korea.net. (2012, February 5)
- The Academy of Korean Studies, ed. (1991.) "Chuseok", Encyclopedia of Korean People and Culture, Woongjin (in Korean).
- Farhadian, Charles E. (2007.) Christian Worship Worrdwide. Wm. Bm. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2853-8.
- Yun, Sŏ-sŏk Yun. (2008.) Festive occasions: the customs in Korea, Ewha Womans University Press, Seoul. ISBN 978-8-9730-0781-3.
- Korea University Institute of Korean Culture, ed. (1982.) "Social Life", Korean Heritage Overview, 1, Korea University (in Korean).
- Korea for expats.com. (n.d.)
- Comeau, K. (2011, September 12)
- The National Folklore Museum of Korea. (n.d.)
- Official Korea Tourism. (2008, August 26)
- Chosun Ilbo,2010, September 22
- Kim, G. (2011, September 20)
- What’s on Korea. (2001, July 28)
- Seoul City. (2004, September 2)
- Aviles, K. (2011, September 10)
- Moon, S. H. (2008, September 16)
- Im, J. J. (2010, September 23)
- Im, J. J. (2010, September 23)
- The Academy of Korean Studies, ed. (1991), "Chuseok", Encyclopedia of Korean People and Culture, Woongjin (in Korean)
- Farhadian, Charles E. (2007). Christian Worship Worldwide. Wm. Bm. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2853-8.
- Korea University Institute of Korean Culture, ed. (1982). "Social Life". Korean Heritage Overview 1. Korea University.(in Korean)
- The Official Site of Korean Tourism: Chuseok. http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_6.jsp?cid=811650
- Aviles, K. (2011, September 10). Chuseok— A Festival With Two Faces. International Business Times. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.ibtimes.com/chuseok%E2%80%94-festival-two-faces-311692
- Chosun Ilbo. (2010, September 22). The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea - No Chuseok Without Songpyeon. Chosun Ilbo. Newspaper Article. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2010/09/22/2010092200094.html
- Comeau, K. (2011, September 12). A time for families, food and festivities - Jeju Weekly. The Jeju Weekly. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.jejuweekly.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=1917
- Im, J. J. (2010, September 23). Daily NK - Welcome to Chuseok, North Korean Style. DailyNK. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk00100&num=6826
- Kim, G. (2011, September 20). Hangwa –Korean Traditional Confectionaries Good for the Body and the Soul. http://www.koreabrand.net. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.koreabrand.net/kr/know/know_view.do?null
- Kim, K.-C. (2008). Ganggangsullae. UNESCO Multimedia Archives. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.unesco.org/archives/multimedia/index.php?s=films_details&id_page=33&id=359
- Korea for expats.com. (n.d.). Korean Ancestral Memorial Rites, Jerye. - South-Korea - korea4expats. Korea for expats. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.korea4expats.com/article-ancestral-memorial-rites-g.html
- Korea JJang. (n.d.). festival « Korea Jjang! Korea JJang. Magazine Article. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://koreajjang.com/tag/festival/page/2/
- Korea.net. (2012, February 5). Chuseok, Korean Thanksgiving Day (English) - YouTube. YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4e9N9IAGKYU&feature=plcp
- Moon, S. H. (2008, September 16). Daily NK - New Chuseok Trends in North Korea. DailyNK. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=4075
- Official Korea Tourism. (2008, August 26). Official Site of Korea Tourism Org.: Chuseok – Full Moon Harvest Holiday, Korean Version of Thanksgiving Day. VisitKorea. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_6.jsp?cid=613421
- Seoul City. (2004, September 2). Chuseok origin and rituals. Seoul. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://english.seoul.go.kr/gtk/news/reports_view.php?idx=1073
- The National Folklore Museum of Korea. (n.d.). Ancestral Memorial Rites - Charye | The National Folklore Museum of Korea. The National Folklore Museum of Korea. Retrieved December 5, 2012, from http://www.nfm.go.kr/Data/cuThar.jsp
- TurtlePress (Martial Arts Video). (2009, May 1). SSireum Korean Wrestling History - YouTube. YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xCLYBiwpPw
- What’s on Korea. (2001, July 28). Welcome to WHAT’S ON’s Homepage. What’s on Korea. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://english.whatsonkorea.com/view_reports.ph?rid=559&code=M&scode=M-08&ss_code=&pst=L
- Yoo, K. H. (2009, October 5). Chuseok, North Korean Style. DailyNK. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01300&num=5478
- Hansik, another Korean holiday for ancestral rituals
- Mid-Autumn Festival
- List of harvest festivals
- Public holidays in South Korea
- List of Korea-related topics
- Chuseok on YouTube
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chuseok.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chuseok.|