Soju

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Soju
Soju jinro gfdl.jpg
Bottle of Chamisul soju with a branded glass.
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Soju
McCune–Reischauer Soju

Soju (Hangul: 소주; hanja: 燒酒) is a distilled beverage containing ethanol and water. It is usually consumed neat.

Considered as "Korea's most popular alcoholic beverage" in 2010,[1] most brands of soju are made in South Korea. While it is traditionally made from rice, wheat, or barley, modern producers often replace rice with other starches such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, or tapioca.

Soju is clear and colorless. Its alcohol content varies from about 16.7% to 45% alcohol by volume (ABV) for traditional Andong soju,[2] with 20% ABV being most common. However, by using freeze distillation, ABV can be increased to the desired percentage. There are two different ways to produce soju: the classic way of distilling soju that uses the single distillation method, and the modern way of diluted soju that uses the chain distillation method.[3] Distilled soju usually has a higher ABV of 30–35% than diluted soju with ABV of 21–30%. As distilled soju tends to have a higher ABV, it has a stronger smell than diluted soju. It is widely consumed in part because of its relatively low price in Korea. A typical 375 mL bottle of soju costs the consumer 1,000 to 3,000 South Korean won in South Korea. Now, soju is exported to 80 countries and is in the top market share of diluted alcohol market. Statistically, soju ranked number one in world sale records of the diluted alcohol market in 2002.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Soju (燒酒) literally means "burn liquor". In 2008, the word "soju" was included in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.[4][5] Merriam-Webster dated the word's appearance in the American English lexicon at 1978.[4]

Etiquette[edit]

Soju is Korea's most well-known alcoholic beverage.[6][7]

Korea has a very strict culture of respect and etiquette. When receiving a glass from an elder, one must hold the glass with two hands (left palm at the bottom and hold the glass with right hand) and bow the head slightly. When it is your turn to drink, turn away from the elder, and cover your mouth and glass with hands. If you are pouring a glass for others, hold the bottle with your right hand, and support your right arm with your left hand by touching its elbow. There are a few rules unique to soju. Never pour your own, and do not refill your glass until it is empty.

Soju by country[edit]

Korea[edit]

Cookeries (Soju gori, 소줏고리) in the center, and different shaped hangari, 항아리) for making traditional soju

Soju was first distilled around the 13th century, during the Mongol invasions of Korea. The Mongols had acquired the technique of distilling Arak from the[8] during their invasion of Central Asia and the Middle East around 1256. It was subsequently introduced to the Koreans, and distilleries were set up around the city of Kaesong. In the surrounding areas of Kaesong, soju is known as arak-ju (hangul: 아락주).[9]

South Korea[edit]

From 1965 until 1999, in order to alleviate rice shortages, the South Korean government prohibited the traditional distillation of soju from rice.[10] Instead, highly distilled ethanol from sweet potatoes and tapioca was mixed with water, flavoring, and sweetener to create soju.[8] Although the prohibition has been lifted, cheap soju continues to be made this way. The South Korean government regulates the alcohol content of diluted soju to less than 35%,[citation needed] but alcohol levels have continued to fall in order to reduce production costs.[11] The lower alcohol concentration also makes the drink milder to consume, which may broaden its appeal.

Several regions have resumed distilling soju from grain. Soju from Andong, South Korea is a traditional hand-crafted soju that has about 45% ABV. Hwayo (화요) is another brand with five different mixes constituting an ABV range from 17% to 53%.[10][12]

China[edit]

There are a number of soju brands directly outside the Korean Peninsula for the ethnic Korean population, and most use rice as the foundation since the price is significantly cheaper than in South Korea. Soju from North Korea and South Korea are also imported.

Canada[edit]

Liquors in Canada are controlled by the government. In Ontario, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) sells soju but not all stores have it. Only big stores have foreign liquor like soju. They sell three different kinds of soju: Chamisul Fresh Soju by Jinro, Charm Soju by Kum Bok Ju Co, and Chum Churum Cool Soju by Lotte.[13] Not all LCBO establishments have soju, but almost all Korean LLBO restaurants have them.[citation needed][tone]

United States[edit]

The liquor licensing laws in the states of California and New York specifically exempt the sale of soju from regulation relating to the sale of other distilled spirits, allowing businesses with a beer/wine license to sell it without requiring the more expensive license required for other distilled spirits.[14] The only stipulation is that the soju must be clearly labeled as such and contain less than 25% alcohol.[15] This has led to the appearance in the United States of many soju-based equivalents of traditional Western mixed drinks normally based on vodka or similar spirits, such as the soju martini and the soju cosmopolitan. Another consequence is that the manufacturers of similar distilled spirits from other parts of Asia, such as Japanese shōchū, have begun to re-label their products as soju for sale in those regions.[16]

Brands[edit]

A bottle of Chamisul soju.

Jinro is the largest manufacturer of soju, selling 76 million cases in 2008.[17] The most popular variety of soju is currently Chamisul (참 이슬 - literally meaning "real dew"),[citation needed] a quadruple-filtered soju produced by Jinro, but recently Chum-Churum (처음처럼 - "like the first time") of Lotte BG (롯데) and JoeunDay (좋은데이 - means "GoodDay") of Muhak (무학) are raising their market shares. However, the most popular brands vary by region. In Busan, C1 Soju (시원 소주) is the local and most popular brand. Ipsaeju (잎새주 - "leaf alcohol") is popular in the Jeollanam-do region. The Daegu Metropolitan Area has its own soju manufacturer, Kumbokju, with the popular brand Cham (참).[18][19] Further north in the same province, Andong Soju is one of Korea's few remaining traditionally distilled brands of soju.[2] On the Special Self-Governing Province of Jeju-do, Hallasan Soju is the most common brand, being named after the island's main mountain Mt. Halla. In Gyeongsangnam-do and Ulsan, the most popular is Joeunday Soju (Hangul: 좋은데이), produced by Muhak in Changwon.[citation needed] However, as soon as one crosses the border from Ulsan north to Gyeongju in Gyeongsangbuk-do, it is almost impossible to buy White Soju, and the most popular brands are Chamisul and Cham.[citation needed]

Consumption[edit]

Although beer, whiskey and wine have been gaining popularity in recent years, soju remains one of the most popular alcoholic beverages in Korea because of its ready availability and relatively low price. More than 3 billion bottles were consumed in South Korea in 2004.[20] In 2006, it was estimated that the average adult Korean (older than 20) had consumed 90 bottles of soju during that year.[21]

Cocktails[edit]

While soju is traditionally consumed straight, a few cocktails and mixed drinks use soju as a base spirit. Beer and soju can be mixed to create somaek (소맥), a portmanteau of the words soju and maekju (맥주 beer). Flavored soju is also available. It is also popular to blend fruits with soju and to drink it in "slushy" form. Another very popular flavored soju is yogurt soju (요구르트 소주), which is a combination of soju, yogurt, and lemon lime soda.[22]

A poktanju (폭탄주) ("bomb drink") consists of a shot glass of soju dropped into a pint of beer (similar to a boilermaker); it is drunk quickly. This is similar to the Japanese sake bomb.

See also[edit]

Soju is sometimes mistakenly referred to as cheongju (청주), a Korean rice wine. Mass-produced soju is also mistaken for Chinese baijiu, a grain liquor, and shōchū, a Japanese beverage.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alcohol consumption and mortality from all-cause and cancers among 1.34 million Koreans: the results from the Korea national health insurance corporation's health examinee cohort in 2000 Mi Kyung Kim, Min Jung Ko and Jun Tae Han Cancer Causes & Control, Vol. 21, No. 12, Comprehensive Cancer Control in US (December 2010), pp. 2295-2302
  2. ^ a b http://www.hansik.org/zh/restaurant/recommendRestaurantView.do?currentPage=2&fboardId=1064
  3. ^ a b "TED Case Study--soju". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "merriam-webster.com". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  5. ^ "Merriam-Webster new words for 2008". Valleywag. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  6. ^ "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea - Korean Adults Drink 1.5 Bottles of Soju Every Week". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  7. ^ "Alcoholic Science: What is Soju ?". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "Moving beyond the green blur: a history of soju". JoongAng Daily. 
  9. ^ "History of Soju" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopeida. [dead link]
  10. ^ a b Hall, Joshua (17 October 2014). "Soju Makers Aim to Turn Fire Water Into Liquid Gold". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  11. ^ "90 Years of Soju". Asian Correspondent. 
  12. ^ "Hwayo" (ENGLISH AND KOREAN). Hwayo brand website. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  13. ^ http://www.lcbo.com/lcbo-ear/lcbo/product/searchResults.do?ITEM_NAME=soju&ITEM_NUMBER=
  14. ^ Soju Goes Where Vodka Cannot Tread, Los Angeles Times, 27 June 2002. (Accessed February 2011)
  15. ^ http://www.kusoju.com/faq.html
  16. ^ "What is Sochu?". Sake World Homepage. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  17. ^ "Asian Booze Brands Outsell Western Alcohol". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  18. ^ "Charm Soju". EtradeDaegu. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  19. ^ "ð -"ִ "". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  20. ^ 3.05 billion bottles were reported sold in 2004, up from previous years. "Cigarette Sales Surge to Historic High". Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 2005-06-29. [dead link]
  21. ^ "Let's Have a Soju Tonight". KBS World. Retrieved 2008-01-01. 
  22. ^ "koreataste.org". 

External links[edit]