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The cosmos (UK //, US //) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos. The philosopher Pythagoras used the term cosmos (Ancient Greek: κόσμος) for the order of the universe, but the term was not part of modern language until the 19th century geographer and polymath, Alexander von Humboldt, resurrected the use of the word' from the ancient Greek, assigned it to his multi-volume treatise, Kosmos, and, along the way, influenced our present and somewhat holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity.
Cosmology is the study of the cosmos in several of the above meanings, depending on context. All cosmologies have in common an attempt to understand the implicit order within the whole of being. In this way, most religions and philosophical systems have a cosmology.
Cosmology is a branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of the universe, a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe. The basic definition of Cosmology is the science of the origin and development of the universe. In modern astronomy the Big Bang theory is the dominant postulation.
In physical cosmology, the term cosmos is often used in a technical way, referring to a particular spacetime continuum within the (postulated) multiverse. Our particular cosmos, the observable universe, is generally capitalized as the Cosmos.
In theology, the cosmos is the created heavenly bodies (sun, moon, planets, and "fixed stars"), not including the Creator. In Christian theology, the word is also used synonymously with aion to refer to "worldly life" or "this world" or "this age" as opposed to the afterlife or World to Come. The cosmos as originated by Pythagoras is parallel to the Zoroastrian term aša, the concept of a divine order, or divinely ordered creation.
- Cosmic Logos
- Cosmic View
- Cosmic Zoom
- Russian cosmism
- Carl Sagan and his published works "Cosmos"
- Cosmos: A Personal Voyage (Carl Sagan's television documentary series)
- Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey
- Kosmos (Humboldt)
- Macrocosm and microcosm
- Megaverse (disambiguation)
- Omega point (de Chardin)
- Omega point (Tipler)
- Omniverse (disambiguation)
- Cosmos escorted touring under Group Voyagers
- Definition in Merriam-Webster dictionary
- von Humboldt, Alexander; translated from German by E. O. Otté (1860). Cosmos: a sketch of a physical description of the universe 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 69.
- Walls, L. D. (2009). "Introducing Humboldt’s Cosmos". Minding Nature. August: 3–15.
- cosmology - Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Concerning Aion and Aionios". Saviour of All Fellowship. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Cosmos – an Illustrated Dimensional Journey from microcosmos to macrocosmos – from Digital Nature Agency
- JPL Spitzer telescope photos of macrocosmos
- Macrocosm and Microcosm, in Dictionary of the History of Ideas
- Encyclopedia of Cosmos This is in Japanese.
- Cosmos – Illustrated Encyclopedia of Cosmos and Cosmic Law (Russian)
- Greene, B. (1999). The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. W.W. Norton, New York
- Hawking, S. W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Book.
- Yulsman, T. (2003). Origins: The Quest for our Cosmic Roots. Institute of Physics Publishing, London.