Kütahya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cotyaeum)
Jump to: navigation, search
Kütahya
Municipality
Kütahya Clock Tower
Kütahya Clock Tower
Location of Kütahya within Turkey.
Location of Kütahya within Turkey.
Kütahya is located in Turkey
Kütahya
Kütahya
Location of Kütahya within Turkey.
Coordinates: 39°25′N 29°59′E / 39.417°N 29.983°E / 39.417; 29.983Coordinates: 39°25′N 29°59′E / 39.417°N 29.983°E / 39.417; 29.983
Country  Turkey
Region Aegean
Province Kütahya
Area[1]
 • District 2,484.16 km2 (959.14 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 224,898
 • District 248,054
 • District density 100/km2 (260/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website www.kutahya.bel.tr

Kütahya (Turkish pronunciation: [cyˈtahja]) is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 564 294 people (2011 estimate). The region of Kütahya has large areas of gentle slopes with agricultural land culminating in high mountain ridges to the north and west. The city's Greek name was Kotyaion[pronunciation?], Latinized in Roman times as Cotyaeum[pronunciation?].[3]

History[edit]

  • 3rd millennium BCE: Settled, and known as Kotiaion or Cotyaeum, "the city of the goddess Kotys". It was an important stopover on the road from the Marmara region to Mesopotamia.
  • 12th century BCE: Incorporated into the Phrygian kingdom, becoming one of the country's most important cities.
  • Its Greek name was Kotyaion according to its coins, commonly Latinized as Cotyaion or Cotyaeum, still meaning the city of Kotys.
  • The ancient city became part of the Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris.
  • It was a centre of heresy from the 2nd century onwards. Socrates of Constantinople (IV, xxviii) speaks of its Novatian bishop. At first a simple suffragan of Synnada, it became an autocephalous archbishopric, probably in the 8th century, and about the tenth appears as a metropolis with three suffragan sees, which were later increased to thirteen (?).

Lequien (I, 851) mentions ten bishops, the last in the 14th century. The first is Cyrus, sent thither by Theodosius II, after four bishops had been slain by the inhabitants.

  • Around 700 BCE: Phrygia collapses, but Kotiaion position as a strong city survives.
  • 1071 : Conquered by the Seljuks.
  • Around 1095: Conquered by the Crusaders.
  • 1182: Reconquered by the Seljuks.
  • 1302: Becomes capital of the Germiyanid Turkmen principality.
  • It was taken and plundered by Timur-Leng (Tamerlane) in 1402.
  • 1428: Becomes part of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1514: Sultan Selim I resettles tile-workers from Tabriz in Kütahya and İznik after defeating the Persians. With this Kütahya emerges as a centre for the Ottoman ceramic industry, producing tiles and faience for mosques, churches and official buildings in places all over the Middle East.
  • 19th century: With the fast growth of Eskişehir 70 km away, Kütahya has lost much of its regional and economic importance.

Economy[edit]

The industries of Kütahya have long traditions, going back to ancient times. Kütahya is famous for its kiln products, such as tiles and pottery, which are glazed and multicoloured.[4] Modern industries are sugar refining, tanning, nitrate processing and different products of meerschaum, which is extracted nearby. The local agricultural industry produces cereals, fruits and sugar beet. In addition stock raising is of much importance. Not far from Kütahya there are important mines extracting lignite.

Kütahya is linked by rail and road with Balıkesir 250 km (155 mi) to the west, Konya 450 km (280 mi) to the southeast, Eskişehir 70 km (43 mi) northeast and Ankara 300 km (186 mi) east.

Climate[edit]

Kütahya has a warm summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsb), with cold and snowy winters and warm and dry summers. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn, but can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Kütahya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
20.6
(69.1)
27.0
(80.6)
30.2
(86.4)
32.5
(90.5)
36.2
(97.2)
39.5
(103.1)
38.8
(101.8)
36.1
(97)
31.2
(88.2)
25.4
(77.7)
21.7
(71.1)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
6.5
(43.7)
11.0
(51.8)
16.2
(61.2)
21.3
(70.3)
25.2
(77.4)
28.2
(82.8)
28.5
(83.3)
24.8
(76.6)
19.0
(66.2)
12.7
(54.9)
6.6
(43.9)
17.06
(62.72)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
1.7
(35.1)
5.2
(41.4)
10.0
(50)
14.6
(58.3)
18.4
(65.1)
20.9
(69.6)
20.6
(69.1)
16.6
(61.9)
11.8
(53.2)
6.7
(44.1)
2.6
(36.7)
10.79
(51.43)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
0.0
(32)
4.2
(39.6)
7.9
(46.2)
11.1
(52)
13.4
(56.1)
13.2
(55.8)
9.4
(48.9)
5.8
(42.4)
1.8
(35.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
5.02
(41.03)
Record low °C (°F) −20.1
(−4.2)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−15.7
(3.7)
−7.8
(18)
−2.8
(27)
1.9
(35.4)
4.0
(39.2)
3.3
(37.9)
0.0
(32)
−6.5
(20.3)
−11.0
(12.2)
−17.8
(0)
−22.9
(−9.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 69.7
(2.744)
59.1
(2.327)
60.0
(2.362)
55.3
(2.177)
52.1
(2.051)
34.3
(1.35)
18.6
(0.732)
14.4
(0.567)
21.4
(0.843)
42.1
(1.657)
51.8
(2.039)
85.4
(3.362)
564.2
(22.211)
Avg. rainy days 14.3 12.8 12.9 13.0 11.8 7.1 4.4 3.9 4.8 8.8 10.7 14.2 118.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 86.8 142.6 174 229.4 279 310 291.4 225 151.9 102 58.9 2,113
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [5]

Culture[edit]

Kütahya ceramics, Pitcher, second half of the 18th century

Kütahya's old neighbourhoods are dominated by traditional Ottoman houses made of wood and stucco, some of the best examples being found along Germiyan Caddesi. It has many historical mosques such as Ulu Camii, Cinili Camii, Balikli Camii and Donenler Camii. The Şengül Hamamı is a famous Turkish bath located in the city

The town preserves some ancient ruins, a Byzantine castle and church. During late centuries Kütahya has been renowned for its Turkish earthenware, of which fine specimens may be seen at the national capital. The Kütahya Museum has a fine collection of arts and cultural artifacts from the area.

The house where Hungarian statesman Lajos Kossuth lived in exile between 1850-1851 is preserved as a museum.[1]

Education[edit]

The Main Campus and the Germiyan Campus of the Kütahya Dumlupınar University are located in the city.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Kütahya is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04422a.htm Catholic Encyclopaedia: Cotiaeum.
  4. ^ Henry Glassie, Turkish Traditional Art Today (Indiana University Press 1993), 435 ff.
  5. ^ http://www.dmi.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=KUTAHYA

Source and external links[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.