Eskişehir

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Eskişehir
Metropolitan Municipality
Top left:Eskişehir Central railway station, Top right: Tepebaşı Municipality, Bottop left: Museum of Glassware Arts, Bottom right: Porsuk River.
Top left:Eskişehir Central railway station, Top right: Tepebaşı Municipality, Bottop left: Museum of Glassware Arts, Bottom right: Porsuk River.
Eskişehir is located in Turkey
Eskişehir
Eskişehir
Location of Eskişehir
Coordinates: 39°47′N 30°31′E / 39.783°N 30.517°E / 39.783; 30.517
Country Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Eskişehir
Government
 • Mayor Yılmaz Büyükerşen (CHP)
 • Governor Kadir Koçdemir
Area
 • Metropolitan Municipality 2,678.00 km2 (1,033.98 sq mi)
Elevation 788 m (2,585 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Density 236/km2 (610/sq mi)
 • Metro 648.396
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 26 xxx
Area code(s) (+90) 222
Licence plate 26
Website http://www.eskisehir-bld.gov.tr/
Estram, the city's tram service.

Eskişehir (pronounced [esˈkiʃehiɾ]; Turkish: eski "old", şehir "city"[2]) (Latin: Dorylaeum; Ancient Greek: Δορύλαιον, Dorýlaion) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. According to the 2011 census, the population of the city is 648,396.[3] The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is 233 km (145 mi) to the west of Ankara, 330 km (205 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul and 78 km (48 mi) to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of 2,678 km2 (1,034 sq mi).[4]

According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, as of 2011 the Eskişehir Metropolitan Municipality had a population of 648,396.[1]

History[edit]

The name Eskişehir literally means Old City in Turkish; indeed, the city was founded by the Phrygians in around 1000 BC. Many Phrygian artifacts and sculptures can still be found in the city's archeological museum. There is also a museum of meerschaum stone, whose production remains still notable, used to make high quality meerschaum pipes. In the fourth century AD the city moved about ten km northeast, from Karacahisar to Şehirhöyük.

Whenever it was mentioned by ancient geographers, the city was described as one of the most beautiful in Anatolia.

As with many towns in Anatolia, Christianity arrived after Constantine the Great made it the official religion of the Roman Empire. Beginning in the 4th century, records exist of bishops holding office in Eskişehir. The city was known as Dorylaeum in that period. One of these bishops, Eusebius, was heavily involved in shaping the evolving dogma of the church.

Economy[edit]

Traditionally dependent on flour milling and brickyards, the city expanded with the building of railway workshops in 1894 for work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railway.

As of 1920, Eskişehir was one of the major locations for meerschaum mining. At that time, most of the mining sites were owned by the state.[5]

Devrim, the first Turkish automobile, was produced in 1961 at the TÜLOMSAŞ factory in Eskişehir. Devrim never put into mass production and stayed a concept study and can be viewed in TÜLOMSAŞ factory Eskişehir. In addition to production, first Turkish steam powered locomotive called Karakurt was produced at the TÜLOMSAŞ in 1961. Eskişehir was also the site of Turkey's first aviation industry (Aeronautical Supply Maintenance Centre) and its air base was the command center of Turkey's first Tactical Air Force headquarters on NATO's southern flank during the Cold War.

Eskişehir produces trucks, home appliances, railway locomotives, fighter aircraft engines, agricultural equipment, textiles, brick, cement, chemicals, processed meerschaum and refined sugar. Eti, one of Turkey's largest food brands (mostly producing biscuit, chocolate and candy varieties) is based in Eskişehir. Arçelik, a major Turkish home appliances and consumer electronics manufacturer, has one of its production plants in Eskişehir. Eskişehir was the first stage of High-speed rail in Turkey from Ankara. This service improved the travel and commerce between Eskişehir and Ankara, thanks to reduced journey time.

Education[edit]

Library of the Anadolu University

There are two universities in Eskişehir. These are the Anadolu University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University. The current Metropolitan Mayor of Eskişehir, Prof. Dr. Yılmaz Büyükerşen, was formerly the rector of the Anadolu University.

Culture[edit]

The city has a significant population of Turkic Crimean Tatars. It also attracted ethnic Turks emigrating from Balkan countries such as Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia, and the Sandžak region of Serbia, who contributed to the development of the city's metalworking industries. Eskişehir also hosted the inaugural Türkvizyon Song Contest in 2013, which aims to highlight music and artists from various Turkish countries and regions.

Attractions[edit]

Most of modern-day Eskişehir was rebuilt after the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1922), but a number of historic buildings remain, such as the Kurşunlu Cami Mosque. The archaeological site of the ancient Phrygian city of Dorylaeum is close to Eskişehir. The city is noted for its natural hot sulphur springs.

Climate[edit]

Eskişehir has a continental climate with a warm summer subtype (Dsb) under Köppen climate classification, with cold, snowy winters with an average of −0.1 °C (31.8 °F) and warm, dry summers with highs reaching 29 °C (84.2 °F). Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Due to Eskişehir's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Eskişehir (1960-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
21.5
(70.7)
28.1
(82.6)
31.2
(88.2)
33.9
(93)
36.8
(98.2)
40.6
(105.1)
39.0
(102.2)
36.4
(97.5)
33.0
(91.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.4
(70.5)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
6.2
(43.2)
11.4
(52.5)
16.8
(62.2)
21.8
(71.2)
25.9
(78.6)
28.9
(84)
29.1
(84.4)
25.2
(77.4)
19.5
(67.1)
12.4
(54.3)
6.0
(42.8)
17.25
(63.04)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
1.3
(34.3)
5.1
(41.2)
10.2
(50.4)
15.1
(59.2)
19.1
(66.4)
21.7
(71.1)
21.4
(70.5)
17.2
(63)
12.0
(53.6)
6.2
(43.2)
2.1
(35.8)
10.94
(51.71)
Average low °C (°F) −3.7
(25.3)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.7
(38.7)
7.8
(46)
11.2
(52.2)
13.8
(56.8)
13.6
(56.5)
9.4
(48.9)
5.3
(41.5)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
4.77
(40.59)
Record low °C (°F) −27.8
(−18)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−16.5
(2.3)
−10.4
(13.3)
−2.2
(28)
0.5
(32.9)
5.0
(41)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
−7.1
(19.2)
−12.2
(10)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−27.8
(−18)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40.2
(1.583)
31.6
(1.244)
36.8
(1.449)
43.4
(1.709)
44.4
(1.748)
31.0
(1.22)
13.2
(0.52)
8.7
(0.343)
14.5
(0.571)
30.6
(1.205)
31.7
(1.248)
48.4
(1.906)
374.5
(14.746)
Avg. rainy days 12.9 11.4 11.3 11.5 10.3 7.2 3.7 3.2 4.7 8.3 9.9 12.8 107.2
Avg. snowy days 10 9 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 34
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.5 140.6 158.1 183 260.4 309 353.4 331.7 267 186 123 65.1 2,454.8
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [6]
Source #2: Weather2 [7]

Sports[edit]

Club Sport Established League Venue
Eskişehirspor Football 1965 Turkcell Super League (Turkish Premier Division) Eskişehir Atatürk Stadium
Anadolu University Basketball ? Turkish Basketball League 2 Anadolu University Sports Hall

Notable natives[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Eskişehir is twinned with:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Büyükşehir belediyeleri ve bağlı belediyelerin nüfusları - 2011
  2. ^ Lewis Thomas (Apr 1, 1986). Elementary Turkish. Courier Dover Publications. p. 12. ISBN 978-0486250649. 
  3. ^ "Türkiye Ýstatistik Kurumu Web sayfalarýna Hoţ Geldiniz". Tuik.gov.tr. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  4. ^ Statoids. "Statistical information on districts and town centers in Turkey". Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  5. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 105. 
  6. ^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. 2006-09-21. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  7. ^ "July Climate History for Eskisehir | Local | Turkey". Myweather2.com. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  8. ^ bullettmedia.com
  9. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  10. ^ Vesti.az (Azerbaijani)

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°46′36″N 30°31′14″E / 39.77667°N 30.52056°E / 39.77667; 30.52056