Dance and health
Dance and health has been subject of a number of research studies that show dance to be a very healthy exercise. However there are a number of health risks of professional dance that require careful attention.
Benefits of dance
Many forms of dance may be considered an aerobic exercise, and, as such, these forms of dance can bring well known benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, weight control, stress reduction and bring about other benefits commonly associated with physical fitness. In addition, studies have demonstrated a considerable correlation between dancing and psychological well-being.
A large amount of governmental, health and educational information is available extolling the benefits of dance for health.
A report by Professor Tim Watson and Dr Andrew Garrett of the University of Hertfordshire compared members of the Royal Ballet with a squad of British national and international swimmers. The dancers scored higher than the swimmers in seven out of ten areas of fitness.
An Italian study in 2006 has shown that dance is a very good exercise for heart patients compared to other aerobic exercises like cycling. This may be partly because the patients enjoyed it much more.
A recent study done in Perth Western Australia by Debbie Duignan (WA Alzheimers Association) explored the use of Wu Tao Dance as a therapy for people with dementia. Wu Tao is a trademarked dance therapy method that claims to balance energy in the body. It was shown that Wu Tao dance helped to reduce symptoms of agitation in people with dementia.
A study at the Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine in 2007 showed Argentine tango was better at improving the mobility of Parkinson's disease sufferers than an exercise class (a later study showed similar benefits from T'ai chi). Because of the level of interest a permanent tango class was set up after the study ended.
A study by Dr Paul Dougall at Strathclyde University in 2010 concentrating on older women found that Scottish country dancers were more agile, have stronger legs and can walk more briskly than people of the same age who took part in exercises such as swimming, walking, golf and keep-fit classes.
Another gain of dancing is for those who have high cholesterol, plus drugs and adequate food, dancing can draw. As an aerobic exercise abridged levels of total blood cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, acknowledged as bad and helps boost levels of HDL or good cholesterol.
Dancing in general increases, muscle strength and flexibility, which in turn, improves overall range of motion. Dance also increases core strength which can improve balance, coordination, and posture (which reduces back pain). 
Many cultures agree that there is a mind and body connection, and many cultures use dance to heal this often damaged connection. During the African diaspora individuals used dance therapy to treat the trauma that resided from their situations. Dance therapy is suggested for patients today as treatment for emotional and therapeutic support, as dance allows individuals connect to their innermost emotions and minds. If dance was introduced to the regular school curriculum in some form, it could help deal with and/or prevent children from suffering mental issues and other due to different circumstances.
Risks of dance
There are various health risks of professional dance, as it can be very demanding. As well as sports injuries, repetitive strain injury, and chronic workplace stress. Dancers risk injury within the course of their career, many retiring from active performance in their mid to late 30s. Since dance is a performance art with emphasis on aesthetics, dancers are also at a higher risk of body image problems and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia.  Dancing, especially ballet, are very strenuous on the body. Research shows that dancers in elite pre-professional companies have 1.38 injuries per 1000 hours of dancing, with dancers averaging about 30.3 hours per week. The most common injury was to the lower extremities, with ankle being the most common. The injuries on average took about 7 days to heal with foot injuries taking the longest at 14 days and thigh injuries being the lowest at 2 days. 
|“||...compared to the 61 common sports, only professional [American] football is more physically demanding than ballet.||”|
Many dance movements, and particularly ballet techniques, such as the turnout of the hips and rising on the toes (en pointe), test the limits of the range of movement of the human body. Dance movements can place stress on the body when not performed correctly; even if perfect form is used, over-repetition can cause repetitive strain injury. Examined in the Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, dancers often put off consultation from doctors or physical therapists in the effort to stay employed by a dance company or to stay in rehearsals. When in fact those dancers that "work through" their pain more often than not end up worsening their symptoms and prolonging their recovery. Eighty percent of professional dancers will be injured in some way during their careers; 50 percent of dancers from large ballet companies and 40 percent from small companies will miss performances due to injury. The practice of "plieing" (bending one's knees deeply) after landing each jump may seem innocuous, but failing to do so may result in shin splints or knee injuries. Overwork and poor occupational health and safety conditions, a (non-sprung) hard floor, a cold studio or theater, or dancing without sufficient warm up also increase risk of injury.
To minimize injury, dance training emphasizes strength building and forming appropriate habits. Choreographers and dance instructors will often put certain demands on their students and dancers without taking into consideration, each dancer is face with different anatomical limitations. Dancers will strive to achieve the ideal aesthetic in their respective dance technique by over compensating for their limitations and thus presenting themselves with a higher risk for injury. Also damage may result from having a student perform movements for which they are not prepared, care must be taken that the student is not "pushed" inappropriately. A dancer put en pointe at an age where his or her bones have not completely ossified may develop permanent damage; even past the point of ossification, ankle injuries can result if a dancer goes en pointe without sufficient strength.
According to a study conducted by Rachele Quested and Anna Brodrick, the lower extremities are the vulnerable to injury. The most common injury is to the ankle, then leg, foot, knee, hip and finally the thigh. Dancers are trained from a very young age to avoid injury by using plie, turn out, and other means to protect their bodies. 
Professional dancers may experience chronic workplace stress with an uncertain work situation. The average income for a ballet dancer is low, and competition for jobs is very high. In addition to the stress that may be caused by this, dancers also may experience the psychological distress from technical and physical "perfectionism".
As with other activities (such as horse jockeying) where weight is a factor, dancers are at a higher risk for developing eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. Many young dancers, believing that the ideal dancer must be thin, may begin controlling their diets, sometimes obsessively. Such dancers may be unaware of or may choose to ignore the fact that an emaciated dancer will not have the strength required for ballet. It is also highly relevant that inadequate nutrition in adolescent females has been linked to development of scoliosis, due to decreased oestrogen production and subsequent reduced bone density. A dancer with poor nutrition is at a higher risk for injuries and long-term health problems. A malnourished dancer’s performance will be altered and weaken as his or her body starts to break down muscle and bone in order to fuel itself. This puts the dancer at risk for injury and slows the healing of chronic injuries.
In ballet good plieing (bending the knees) on landing helps protect against knee injuries and shin splints. Many types of dance, especially folk dances, have hops in the steps where the impact of landing can be reduced by slightly bending the knee.
Conditioning is a good way to prevent dance injuries.
Treatment after injury
RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) is generally regarded as a good first aid therapy for most dance injuries before the ambulance comes, or even for what may be thought of as minor injuries. For minor injuries light exercises should be started after two days, if it is not definitely on the mend by this time then see a doctor. Pain and inflammation can be reduced using a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in a gel applied to the affected area (not on broken skin), note however that masking a pain to continue dancing is dangerous as it can easily make an injury very much worse.
Dance and courtship
Dance has long been recognised as a way for prospective partners to select each other. Isadora Duncan said of dance that it needed 'the highest intelligence in the freest body'. Recent studies show how much can be conveyed by dance:
An article in Nature 'Dance reveals symmetry especially in young men' shows that dance in Jamaica seems to show evidence of sexual selection and to reveal important information about the dancer. Professor Lee Cronk at Rutgers says: "More symmetrical men put on a better show, and women notice." Symmetry is a strong indicator of fitness as it shows developmental stability.
Scientific study of dance
Dance science is the scientific study of dance and dancers, as well as the practical application of scientific principles to dance. Its aims are the enhancement of performance, the reduction of injury, and the improvement of well-being and health.
Dance requires a high degree of interpersonal and motor skills, and yet seems built into humans. It has therefore increasingly become the subject of neurological studies. The July 2008 edition of Scientific American contains a summary of recent studies and further questions.
Dance therapy or dance movement therapy is a form of expressive therapy, the psychotherapeutic use of movement (and dance) for treating emotional, cognitive, social, behavioural and physical conditions.
Many professionals specialize in dancer's health such as in providing complementary or remedial training or improving mental discipline. Mental discipline is achieved from dancing when you are learning a dance or choreographing a dance. And also when you need to recall a dance.
Tangolates (a portmanteau word of Tango and Pilates), also known as Tango-Pilates and Pilates-Tango, is a method of conscious, mind-body exercises that combines the core stability of Pilates with the concentration, coordination and fluid movement of Tango, designed in 2004 by Tamara Di Tella. Utilizing a partner-method and incorporating the aerobic or cardio element of music, it started as a rehabilitation technique for patients with severe dysfunctions of the nervous system, and is now a fashionable workout for healthy people.
-  Dance and health: The benefits for people of all ages. Jointly from the British National Health Service and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
- Games on Deck Games For Health 2006: Dance Dance… Revolution in Fitness!
- http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081022073916.htm Ballet Dancers Are Fitter Than International Swimmers, Study Finds
- America Heart Association Heart failure patients can waltz their way to healthier hearts
- Heart Care -February 2007 Waltzing Your Way to a Stronger Heart
- Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly Joe Verghese, M.D., Richard B. Lipton, M.D., Mindy J. Katz, M.P.H., Charles B. Hall, Ph.D., Carol A. Derby, Ph.D., Gail Kuslansky, Ph.D., Anne F. Ambrose, M.D., Martin Sliwinski, Ph.D., and Herman Buschke, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003, Volume 348, No. 25, 2508-2516
- BUPA investigative news How to reduce dementia risk
- "Exploring dance as a therapy for symptoms and social interaction in a dementia care unit". nursingtimes.net. 30 July 2009.
- A study on the effects of Argentine tango as a form of partnered dance for those with Parkinson disease and healthy elderly.Hackney, M., Kantorovich S., Earhart, G.M. 2007, J Neurol Phys Ther, 31(4): 173-179
- "Dancers reel their way to fitness". University of Strathclyde Glasgow. 6 August 2010.
- "Ten biggest benefits of dancing". What is USA News. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
- Ward, Sheila A. "Health and the Power of Dance." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 79.4 (2008): 33-6.ProQuest. Web. 27 Apr. 2015. http://search.proquest.com.une.idm.oclc.org/pqcentral/docview/215755988/BC12154D2BC4D11PQ/9?accountid=12756
- Wan Nar Wong, Margaret; William Wing Kee To; Kai Ming Chan (2001). "Chapter 16: Dance Medicine". In Nicola Maffulli, K. M. Chan, Robert M. Malina, Tony Parker. Sports Medicine for Specific Ages and Abilities (2nd ed.). Elsevier. pp. 161–168. ISBN 978-0-443-06128-8.
- Ekegren, Christina L., Rachele Quested, and Anna Brodrick. "Injuries in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers: Incidence, Characteristics and Consequences." Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17.3 (2014): 271-5. ProQuest. Web. 28 Apr. 2015. http://search.proquest.com.une.idm.oclc.org/healthcomplete/docview/1540433858/E52E1CBE496245A1PQ/2?accountid=12756
- The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2004-01-12). "Ballet: Ideal Body Type". Archived from the original on 2006-08-26. Retrieved 2006-10-05.
- Machleder, Elaine (2000). "Avoiding Injury: It’s A Science". Dance Spirit Magazine. Archived from the original on 2006-03-19. Retrieved 2006-05-23.
- Ekegren, Christina L., Rachele Quested, and Anna Brodrick. "Injuries in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers: Incidence, Characteristics and Consequences." Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17.3 (2014): 271-5. ProQuest. Web. 3 May 2015 http://search.proquest.com.une.idm.oclc.org/healthcomplete/docview/1540433858/TextPlusGraphics/2B56A187E904215PQ/1?accountid=12756
- "Occupational Overview for Dancers and Choreographers". College Compass.
- Maloney MJ (November 1983). "Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in dancers. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning". Clin Sports Med 2 (3): 549–55. PMID 6580964.
- Bettle N, Bettle O, Neumärker U, Neumärker KJ (1998). "Adolescent ballet school students: their quest for body weight change". Psychopathology 31 (3): 153–9. doi:10.1159/000066238. PMID 9636944.
- "Dance". Children's Hospital of Colorado: Orthopedics Institute. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- Lalith Munasinghe, Nachum Sicherman (February 2005). "Why Do Dancers Smoke?" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-10-05.
- Harkness Centre for Dance Injuries Common Dance Injuries
- Adapted Physical Education and Sport By Joseph P. Winnick 2005 ISBN 0-7360-5216-X Chapter 15 Science behind Accurate Exercise Programs
- Daniel D. Arnheim (1991). Dance injuries: their prevention and care. Princeton Book Co. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-87127-146-4.
- Dance Magazine April, 2005 by Linda Hamilton Ouch! Five common dance injuries & how to treat them
- NHS Direct Sports Injuries
- http://grail.cs.washington.edu/projects/dance-symmetry/ Dance Symmetry Project
- Dance reveals symmetry especially in young men. Brown, William M., Lee Cronk, Amy Jacobson, Keith Grochow, C. Karen Liu, Zoran Popovic, and Robert Trivers. 2005. Nature 438: 1148-1150
- Intelligence and rhythmic accuracy go hand in hand
- Fredrik Ullén, Lea Forsman, Örjan Blom, Anke Karabanov och Guy Madison. Intelligence and variability in a simple timing task share neural substrates in the prefrontal white matter. The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 April 2008
-  So You Think You Can Dance?: PET Scans Reveal Your Brain's Inner Choreography. Stephen Brown and Lawrence M. Parsons Scientific American July 2008 vol 299 No. 1 58-63
-  Londondance.com: Dancers Health
- Harkness Centre for Dance Injuries Common Dance Injuries
- Overview of Ballet Injuries
- Ouch! Five common dance injuries & how to treat them