Euphorbia hirta is a pantropical weed, possibly native to India. It is a hairy herb that grows in open grasslands, roadsides and pathways. It is widely used as a medicinal herb in most places it grows.
This erect or prostrate annual herb can get up to 60 cm long with a solid, hairy stem that produced an abundant white latex. There are stipules present. The leaves are simple, elliptical, hairy (on both upper and lower surfaces but particularly on the veins on the lower leaf surface), with a finely dentate margin. Leaves occur in opposite pairs on the stem. The flowers are unisexual and found in axillary cymes at each leaf node. They lack petals and are generally on a stalk. The fruit is a capsules with three valves and produces tiny, oblong, four-sided red seeds. It has a white or brown taproot.
Euphorbia hirta has been claimed to have a curative effects on dengue patients, based on personal testimonies, particularly in the Philippines. Despite its widespread use, there is no evidence to support this claim. The Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (PCHRD), the health research arm of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) spearheads studies to assess the curative component of Euphorbia hirta for dengue. Mixed messages have been presented by representatives of the Philippine government. The Department of Health (DOH) says Euphorbia hirta is not enough for critical dengue patients, and urges oral rehydration therapy. Others, like former Health Secretary Jaime Galvez Tan, is actively promoting the herbal medication. Given the diversity of how dengue can present (with or without hemorrhage, various serotypes of the virus, etc.), efficacy of this herb may vary.
- English: pill-bearing spurge, asthma plant, hairy spurge, garden spurge, pillpod sandman 
- Bengali: boro-keruie, barokhervi 
- Gujarati: dudeli
- Hawaiian: Koko kahiki
- Hindi: baridhudi, dudh ghas, dudhi 
- Luganda: kasandanda
- Sanskrit: chara, amampatchairasi, barokheruie 
- Tagalog: tawa-tawa, gatas-gatas
- Tamil: amampatchaiarisi 
- Telugu: reddivari nanabalu, reddinananbrolu, bidarie 
- Urdu: lal dodhak 
- "Open Source for Weed Assessment in Lowland Paddy Fields (OSWALD)". Asia IT&C Programme of the European Union. 2007-07-21. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Sudhakar M, Rao ChV, Rao PM, et al. (2006). "Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum". Fitoterapia 77 (5): 378–380.
- Wang YC, Huang TL (2005). "Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants". FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 43 (2): 295–300.
- Tona L, Cimanga RK, Mesia K, et al. (2004). "In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo". J Ethnopharmacol 93 (1): 27–31.
- Kumar S, Malhotra R, Kumar D (2010). "Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities". Pharmacognosy Rev 4 (7): 58–61.