Francis G. Newlands
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (January 2015)|
|Francis G. Newlands|
|United States Senator
March 4, 1903 – December 24, 1917
|Preceded by||John P. Jones|
|Succeeded by||Charles B. Henderson|
|Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Nevada's At-Large district
March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1903
|Preceded by||Horace F. Bartine|
|Succeeded by||Clarence D. Van Duzer|
|Born||Francis Griffith Newlands
August 28, 1846
|Died||December 24, 1917
|Spouse(s)||Clara Adelaide Sharon, died birthing 4th child in 1882 <http://www.geni.com/people/Clara-Newlands/6000000001998324704>. Second wife Edith McCallister married 1888.<Daily Alta California, Volume 42, Number 14249, 9 September 1888>|
Francis Griffith Newlands (August 28, 1846 – December 24, 1917) was a United States Representative and Senator from Nevada. He was an avowed white supremacist, arguing for adoption of his "white plank" by amending the Constitution to disenfranchise African-Americans and prohibit immigration to non-whites. He founded the neighborhood of Chevy Chase D.C. and Maryland with the intent for it to be and remain an all-white neighborhood prohibiting residence to African-Americans or Jews.
Newlands was born in Natchez, Mississippi, on August 28, 1846. He studied at Yale University and the Columbian College Law School (now the George Washington University Law School), and was admitted to the bar in 1869.
Career in the West
In 1870, Newlands moved to San Francisco, California, where he worked for William Sharon, the Bank of California executive who financed the early years of the Comstock Lode digs in Virginia City, Nevada. Newlands later married Sharon's daughter Clara Adelaide Sharon. She died in 1882, eight years after they married. In 1888, he moved to Nevada to serve Sharon's interests, and continued to practice law.
In the late 1880s, Newlands and his partners began to acquire farmland in northwestern Washington, D.C. and southern Montgomery County, Maryland, in order to develop a residential streetcar suburb for the nation's capital. (See Washington streetcars.) They founded the Chevy Chase Land Company in 1890; its eventual holdings are now known as Chevy Chase, Washington, D.C., and Chevy Chase, Maryland. Newlands used the powers of his federal offices to aid the development of the Northwest DC corridor, benefitting his Company.
He served as a Democratic Representative for Nevada between 1893 and 1903. During his service, he wrote the Newlands Resolution, an act to annex the Republic of Hawai'i and create the Territory of Hawai'i. It was approved on July 4, 1898, and signed by President William McKinley. Newlands became known for his support of irrigation, land reclamation, and free silver. He temporarily sat in the House as a member of the Silver Party. Newlands is most famous for the 1902 Newlands Reclamation Act, which funded irrigation projects throughout much of the American West.
He became a U.S. senator representing Nevada in 1903. He was a member of the Senate subcommittee that investigated the 1912 sinking of RMS Titanic. In 1916, he was the only Democratic senator to vote against the nomination of Louis Brandeis to the U.S. Supreme Court. He served until his death in Washington, D.C., on December 24, 1917.
Newlands was an "avowed racist" who in 1912 mounted his presidential campaign on a "white plank" platform that called for a constitutional amendment to disenfranchise black men and limit immigration to whites only. He published and spoke about his white supremicist beliefs, labelling African-Americans as a "race of children." Chevy Chase — the suburb that he co-founded — excluded people based on race and religion.
The Francis Griffith Newlands Memorial Fountain is named for him. Proposals have been made to remove his name from the fountain because of his white supremacist history. Others believe that Chevy Chase should continue to honor Newlands with a monument.
Newlands's former mansion in Reno is one of six properties in Nevada designated as a National Historic Landmark. Many notable people, including Barbara Hutton in 1935, stayed at the house while waiting for their divorce paperwork to be finalized by George Thatcher, a local divorce lawyer who purchased the home in 1920.
- NPS: Newlands
- Frank G. Newlands' Birth
- Titanic Inquiry Project
- Confirm Brandeis by Vote of 47 to 22, The New York Times, June 2, 1916
- ^ a b Fisher, Marc. "Chevy Chase, 1916: For Everyman, a New Lot in Life," Washington Post, February 15, 1999
- "Senator Francis G. Newlands House". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Francis G. Newlands.|
|United States House of Representatives|
Horace F. Bartine
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Nevada's at-large congressional district
Clarence D. Van Duzer
|United States Senate|
John P. Jones
|U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Nevada
Served alongside: William M. Stewart, George S. Nixon, William A. Massey, Key Pittman
Charles B. Henderson
Moses E. Clapp
|Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce
Ellison D. Smith