The Gaia hypothesis, also known as Gaia theory or Gaia principle, proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a self-regulating, complex system that contributes to maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. Topics of interest include how the biosphere and the evolution of life forms affect the stability of global temperature, ocean salinity, oxygen in the atmosphere and other environmental variables that affect the habitability of Earth.
The hypothesis was formulated by the scientist James Lovelock and co-developed by the microbiologist Lynn Margulis in the 1970s. While early versions of the hypothesis were criticized for being teleological and contradicting principles of natural selection, later refinements have resulted in ideas highlighted by the Gaia Hypothesis being used in disciplines such as geophysiology, Earth system science, biogeochemistry, systems ecology, and climate science. In 2006, the Geological Society of London awarded Lovelock the Wollaston Medal largely for his work on the Gaia theory.
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012)|
Gaian hypotheses suggest that organisms co-evolve with their environment: that is, they "influence their abiotic environment, and that environment in turn influences the biota by Darwinian process". Lovelock (1995) gave evidence of this in his second book, showing the evolution from the world of the early thermo-acido-philic and methanogenic bacteria towards the oxygen-enriched atmosphere today that supports more complex life.
The scientifically accepted form of the hypothesis has been called "influential Gaia". It states the biota influence certain aspects of the abiotic world, e.g. temperature and atmosphere. They state the evolution of life and its environment may affect each other. An example is how the activity of photosynthetic bacteria during Precambrian times have completely modified the Earth atmosphere to turn it aerobic, and as such supporting evolution of life (in particular eukaryotic life).
Biologists and Earth scientists usually view the factors that stabilize the characteristics of a period as an undirected emergent property or entelechy of the system; as each individual species pursues its own self-interest, for example, their combined actions may have counterbalancing effects on environmental change. Opponents of this view sometimes reference examples of events that resulted in dramatic change rather than stable equilibrium, such as the conversion of the Earth's atmosphere from a reducing environment to an oxygen-rich one.
Fringe science versions of the hypothesis claim that changes in the biosphere are brought about through the coordination of living organisms and maintain those conditions through homeostasis. In Gaia philosophy, all lifeforms are considered part of one single living planetary being called Gaia. In this view, the atmosphere, the seas and the terrestrial crust would be results of interventions carried out by Gaia through the coevolving diversity of living organisms. However, the Earth as a unit does not match the generally accepted biological criteria for life itself, for example, there is no evidence to suggest that "Gaia" has reproduced. This argument is countered by the fact that mules do not reproduce, yet they are also classified as living.
The Gaia theory posits that the Earth is a self-regulating complex system involving the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrospheres and the pedosphere, tightly coupled as an evolving system. The theory sustains that this system as a whole, called Gaia, seeks a physical and chemical environment optimal for contemporary life.
Gaia evolves through a cybernetic feedback system operated unconsciously by the biota, leading to broad stabilization of the conditions of habitability in a full homeostasis. Many processes in the Earth's surface essential for the conditions of life depend on the interaction of living forms, especially microorganisms, with inorganic elements. These processes establish a global control system that regulates Earth's surface temperature, atmosphere composition and ocean salinity, powered by the global thermodynamic disequilibrium state of the Earth system.
The existence of a planetary homeostasis influenced by living forms had been observed previously in the field of biogeochemistry, and it is being investigated also in other fields like Earth system science. The originality of the Gaia theory relies on the assessment that such homeostatic balance is actively pursued with the goal of keeping the optimal conditions for life, even when terrestrial or external events menace them.
Regulation of the salinity in the oceans 
Ocean salinity has been constant at about 3.4% for a very long time. Salinity stability in oceanic environments is important as most cells require a rather constant salinity and do not generally tolerate values above 5%. The constant ocean salinity was a long-standing mystery, because no process counterbalancing the salt influx from rivers was known. Recently it was suggested that salinity may also be strongly influenced by seawater circulation through hot basaltic rocks, and emerging as hot water vents on mid-ocean ridges. However, the composition of seawater is far from equilibrium, and it is difficult to explain this fact without the influence of organic processes. One suggested explanation lies in the formation of salt plains throughout Earth's history. It is hypothesized that these are created by bacterial colonies that fix ions and heavy metals during life processes.
Regulation of oxygen in the atmosphere 
The atmospheric composition remains fairly constant, providing the conditions that contemporary life has adapted to. All the atmospheric gases other than noble gases present in the atmosphere are either made by organisms or processed by them. The Gaia theory states that the Earth's atmospheric composition is kept at a dynamically steady state by the presence of life.
The stability of the atmosphere in Earth is not a consequence of chemical equilibrium as it is in planets without life. Oxygen is the second most reactive electro-negative element after fluorine, and should combine with gases and minerals of the Earth's atmosphere and crust. Traces of methane (at an amount of 100,000 tonnes produced per annum) should not exist, as methane is combustible in an oxygen atmosphere.
Dry air in the atmosphere of Earth contains roughly (by volume) 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases including methane. Lovelock originally speculated that concentrations of oxygen above about 25% would increase the frequency of wildfires and conflagration of forests. Recent work on the findings of fire caused charcoal in Carboniferous and Cretaceous coal measures, in Geologic Periods when O2 did exceed 25%, has supported Lovelock's contention.
Regulation of the global surface temperature 
Since life started on Earth, the energy provided by the Sun has increased by 25% to 30%; however, the surface temperature of the planet has remained within the levels of habitability, reaching quite regular low and high margins. Lovelock has also hypothesised that methanogens produced elevated levels of methane in the early atmosphere, giving a view similar to that found in petrochemical smog, similar in some respects to the atmosphere on Titan. This, he suggests tended to screen out ultraviolet until the formation of the ozone screen, maintaining a degree of homeostasis. However, the Snowball Earth research has suggested that "oxygen shocks" and reduced methane levels led, during the Huronian, Sturtian and Marinoan/Varanger Ice Ages, to a world that very nearly became a solid "snowball". These epochs are evidence against the ability of the biosphere to fully self-regulate.
Processing of the greenhouse gas CO2, explained below, plays a critical role in the maintenance of the Earth temperature within the limits of habitability.
The CLAW hypothesis, inspired by the Gaia theory, proposes a feedback loop that operates between ocean ecosystems and the Earth's climate. The hypothesis specifically proposes that particular phytoplankton that produce dimethyl sulfide are responsive to variations in climate forcing, and that these responses lead to a negative feedback loop that acts to stabilise the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere.
Currently the increase in human population and the environmental impact of their activities, such as the multiplication of greenhouse gases may cause negative feedbacks in the environment to become positive feedback. Lovelock has stated that this could bring an extremely accelerated global warming, but he has since stated the effects will likely occur more slowly.
Daisyworld simulations 
James Lovelock and Andrew Watson developed the mathematical model Daisyworld, that shows how temperature regulation can arise from organisms interacting with their environment. The purpose of the model is to demonstrate that feedback mechanisms can evolve from the actions or activities of self-interested organisms, rather than through classic group selection mechanisms.
Daisyworld examines the energy budget of a planet populated by two different types of plants, black daisies and white daisies. The colour of the daisies influences the albedo of the planet such that black daisies absorb light and warm the planet, while white daisies reflect light and cool the planet. Competition between the daisies (based on temperature-effects on growth rates) leads to a balance of populations that tends to favour a planetary temperature close to the optimum for daisy growth.
It has been suggested that the results were predictable because Lovelock and Watson selected examples that produced the responses they desired.
Processing of CO2 
Gaia scientists see the participation of living organisms in the carbon cycle as one of the complex processes that maintain conditions suitable for life. The only significant natural source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is volcanic activity, while the only significant removal is through the precipitation of carbonate rocks. Carbon precipitation, solution and fixation are influenced by the bacteria and plant roots in soils, where they improve gaseous circulation, or in coral reefs, where calcium carbonate is deposited as a solid on the sea floor. Calcium carbonate is used by living organisms to manufacture carbonaceous tests and shells. Once dead, the living organisms' shells fall to the bottom of the oceans where they generate deposits of chalk and limestone.
One of these organisms is Emiliania huxleyi, an abundant coccolithophore algae which also has a role in the formation of clouds. CO2 excess is compensated by an increase of coccolithophoride life, increasing the amount of CO2 locked in the ocean floor. Coccolithophorides increase the cloud cover, hence control the surface temperature, help cool the whole planet and favor precipitations necessary for terrestrial plants. Lately the atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased and there is some evidence that concentrations of ocean algal blooms are also increasing.
Lichen and other organisms accelerate the weathering of rocks in the surface, while the decomposition of rocks also happens faster in the soil, thanks to the activity of roots, fungi, bacteria and subterranean animals. The flow of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the soil is therefore regulated with the help of living beings. When CO2 levels rise in the atmosphere the temperature increases and plants grow. This growth brings higher consumption of CO2 by the plants, who process it into the soil, removing it from the atmosphere.
After initially being largely ignored by most scientists, (from 1969 until 1977), thereafter for a period, the initial Gaia hypothesis was criticized by a number of scientists, such as Ford Doolittle, Richard Dawkins and Stephen Jay Gould. Lovelock has said that by naming his theory after a Greek goddess, championed by many non-scientists, the Gaia hypothesis was interpreted as a neo-Pagan New Age religion. Many scientists in particular also criticised the approach taken in his popular book "Gaia, a New look at Life on Earth" for being teleological; a belief that all things have a predetermined purpose. Responding to this statement in 1990, Lovelock stated "Nowhere in our writings do we express the idea that planetary self-regulation is purposeful, or involves foresight or planning by the biota".
Stephen Jay Gould criticised Gaia as merely a metaphorical description of Earth processes. He wanted to know the actual mechanisms by which self-regulating homeostasis was regulated. David Abram argued that Gould was unaware that mechanism was itself only metaphorical. Lovelock argues that no one mechanism is responsible, that the connections between the various known mechanisms may never be known, that this is accepted in other fields of biology and ecology as a matter of course, and that specific hostility is reserved for his own theory for other reasons.
Aside from clarifying his language and understanding of what is meant by a life form, Lovelock himself ascribes most of the criticism to a lack of understanding of non-linear mathematics by his critics, and a linearizing form of greedy reductionism in which all events have to be immediately ascribed to specific causes before the fact. He also states that most of his critics are biologists but that his theory includes experiments in fields outside biology, and that some self-regulating phenomena may not be mathematically explainable.
A recent (2013) critical discussion about Gaia was part of Latour's Gifford-Lecture. Neither being a supernatural goddess or a unified organism or actor; for Latour Gaia is a secular multiplicity or assemblage and distributed agency as an open whole or on-going system that evolves out of differences and interactions between matter and energy. For understanding how to face Gaia and its historical geo-physiology, according to Latour, we need a “geo-story” as a non-human narrative fabric. Facing the Anthropocene by which the Anthropos is no longer in nature, nor outside of nature, Latour foresees the coming of an entirely new kind of political animal, a novel form of political body and political theology (composed of demos, theos, logos) in which science, politics and art play specific roles for the people of Gaia as agents of an impatient planet.
Natural selection and evolution 
Lovelock has suggested that global biological feedback mechanisms could evolve by natural selection, stating that organisms that improve their environment for their survival do better than those that damage their environment. However, in 1981, W. Ford Doolittle, in the CoEvolution Quarterly article "Is Nature Motherly" argued that nothing in the genome of individual organisms could provide the feedback mechanisms proposed by Lovelock, and therefore the Gaia hypothesis proposed no plausible mechanism and was unscientific. In Richard Dawkins' 1982 book, The Extended Phenotype, he stated that for organisms to act in concert would require foresight and planning, which is contrary to the current scientific understanding of evolution. Like Doolittle, he also rejected the possibility that feedback loops could stabilize the system.
Basic criteria of the definition of a life-form include an ability to replicate and pass on genetic information to a succeeding generation, and to be affected by natural selection. Dawkins stressed that the planet is not the offspring of any parents and is unable to reproduce.
Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist who collaborated with Lovelock in supporting the Gaia hypothesis, argued in 1999, that "Darwin's grand vision was not wrong, only incomplete. In accentuating the direct competition between individuals for resources as the primary selection mechanism, Darwin (and especially his followers) created the impression that the environment was simply a static arena". She wrote that the composition of the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere are regulated around "set points" as in homeostasis, but those set points change with time.
Evolutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton called the concept of Gaia Copernican, adding that it would take another Newton to explain how Gaian self-regulation takes place through Darwinian natural selection.[better source needed]
The idea of the Earth as an integrated whole, a living being, has a long tradition. The mythical Gaia was the primal Greek goddess personifying the Earth, the Greek version of "Mother Nature", or the Earth Mother. James Lovelock gave this name to his hypothesis after a suggestion from the novelist William Golding, who was living in the same village as Lovelock at the time (Bowerchalke, Wiltshire, UK). Golding's advice was based on Gea, an alternative spelling for the name of the Greek goddess, which is used as prefix in geology, geophysics and geochemistry. Golding later made reference to Gaia in his Nobel prize acceptance speech.
In the eighteenth century, as Geology consolidated as a modern science, James Hutton maintained that geological and biological processes are interlinked. Later, the naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt recognized the coevolution of living organisms, climate, and Earth crust. Already in the twentieth century, Vladimir Vernadsky developed theory of the Earth's development that is now one of the foundations of Ecology. The Ukrainian geochemist was one of the first scientists to recognize that the oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere result from biological processes. During the 1920s he published works arguing that living organisms could reshape the planets as surely as any physical force. Vernadsky was an important pioneer of the scientific bases for the environmental sciences. His visionary pronouncements were not widely accepted in the West, and some decades after the Gaia hypothesis received the same type of initial resistance from the scientific community.
Also in the turn to the 20th century Aldo Leopold, pioneer in the development of modern environmental ethics and in the movement for wilderness conservation, suggested a living Earth in his biocentric or holistic ethics regarding land.
It is at least not impossible to regard the earth's parts—soil, mountains, rivers, atmosphere etc,—as organs or parts of organs of a coordinated whole, each part with its definite function. And if we could see this whole, as a whole, through a great period of time, we might perceive not only organs with coordinated functions, but possibly also that process of consumption as replacement which in biology we call metabolism, or growth. In such case we would have all the visible attributes of a living thing, which we do not realize to be such because it is too big, and its life processes too slow.
— Stephan Harding , Animate Earth.
Another influence for the Gaia theory and the environmental movement in general came as a side effect of the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States of America. During the 1960s, the first humans in space could see how the Earth looked alike as a whole. The photograph Earthrise taken by astronaut William Anders in 1968 during the Apollo 8 mission became an early symbol for the global ecology movement.
Formulation of the hypothesis 
James Lovelock started defining the idea of a self-regulating Earth controlled by the community of living organisms in September 1965, while working at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California on methods of detecting life on Mars. The first paper to mention it was Planetary Atmospheres: Compositional and other Changes Associated with the Presence of Life, co-authored with C.E. Giffin. A main concept was that life could be detected in a planetary scale by the chemical composition of the atmosphere. According to the data gathered by the Pic du Midi observatory, planets like Mars or Venus had atmospheres in chemical equilibrium. This difference with the Earth atmosphere was considered to be a proof that there was no life in these planets.
Lovelock formulated the Gaia Hypothesis in journal articles in 1972 and 1974, followed by a popularizing 1979 book Gaia: A new look at life on Earth. An article in the New Scientist of February 15, 1975, and a popular book length version of the hypothesis, published in 1979 as The Quest for Gaia, began to attract scientific and critical attention.
Lovelock called it first the Earth feedback hypothesis, and it was a way to explain the fact that combinations of chemicals including oxygen and methane persist in stable concentrations in the atmosphere of the Earth. Lovelock suggested detecting such combinations in other planets' atmospheres as a relatively reliable and cheap way to detect life.
Later, other relationships such as sea creatures producing sulfur and iodine in approximately the same quantities as required by land creatures emerged and helped bolster the theory.
In 1971 microbiologist Dr. Lynn Margulis joined Lovelock in the effort of fleshing out the initial hypothesis into scientifically proven concepts, contributing her knowledge about how microbes affect the atmosphere and the different layers in the surface of the planet. The American biologist had also awakened criticism from the scientific community with her theory on the origin of eukaryotic organelles and her contributions to the endosymbiotic theory, nowadays accepted. Margulis dedicated the last of eight chapters in her book, The Symbiotic Planet, to Gaia. However, she objected to the widespread personification of Gaia and stressed that Gaia is "not an organism", but "an emergent property of interaction among organisms". She defined Gaia as "the series of interacting ecosystems that compose a single huge ecosystem at the Earth's surface. Period". The book's most memorable "slogan" was actually quipped by a student of Margulis': "Gaia is just symbiosis as seen from space".
James Lovelock called his first proposal the Gaia hypothesis but has also used the term Gaia theory. Lovelock states that the initial formulation was based on observation, but still lacked a scientific explanation. The Gaia Hypothesis has since been supported by a number of scientific experiments and provided a number of useful predictions. In fact, wider research proved the original hypothesis wrong, in the sense that it is not life alone but the whole Earth system that does the regulating.
First Gaia conference 
In 1985, the first public symposium on the Gaia Hypothesis—Is The Earth A Living Organism? -- was held at the University of Massachusetts August 1–6. The principal sponsor was the National Audubon Society Expedition Institute. Speakers included James Lovelock, George Wald, Mary Catherine Bateson, Lewis Thomas, John Todd, Donald Michael, Christopher Bird, Thomas Berry, Michael Cohen, and William Fields. Some 500 people attended.
Second Gaia conference 
At the conference, James Kirchner criticised the Gaia hypothesis for its imprecision. He claimed that Lovelock and Margulis had not presented one Gaia hypothesis, but four -
- CoEvolutionary Gaia: that life and the environment had evolved in a coupled way. Kirchner claimed that this was already accepted scientifically and was not new.
- Homeostatic Gaia: that life maintained the stability of the natural environment, and that this stability enabled life to continue to exist.
- Geophysical Gaia: that the Gaia theory generated interest in geophysical cycles and therefore led to interesting new research in terrestrial geophysical dynamics.
- Optimising Gaia: that Gaia shaped the planet in a way that made it an optimal environment for life as a whole. Kirchner claimed that this was not testable and therefore was not scientific.
Of Homeostatic Gaia, Kirchner recognised two alternatives. "Weak Gaia" asserted that life tends to make the environment stable for the flourishing of all life. "Strong Gaia" according to Kirchner, asserted that life tends to make the environment stable, to enable the flourishing of all life. Strong Gaia, Kirchner claimed, was untestable and therefore not scientific.
Lovelock and other Gaia-supporting scientists, however, did attempt to disprove the claim that the theory is not scientific because it is impossible to test it by controlled experiment. For example, against the charge that Gaia was teleological, Lovelock and Andrew Watson offered the Daisyworld model (and its modifications, above) as evidence against most of these criticisms. Lovelock said that the Daisyworld model "demonstrates that self-regulation of the global environment can emerge from competition amongst types of life altering their local environment in different ways".
Lovelock was careful to present a version of the Gaia Hypothesis that had no claim that Gaia intentionally or consciously maintained the complex balance in her environment that life needed to survive. It would appear that the claim that Gaia acts "intentionally" was a metaphoric statement in his popular initial book and was not meant to be taken literally. This new statement of the Gaia hypothesis was more acceptable to the scientific community. Most accusations of teleologism ceased, following this conference.
Third Gaia conference 
By the time of the 2nd Chapman Conference on the Gaia Hypothesis, held at Valencia, Spain, on 23 June 2000, the situation had changed significantly in accord with the developing science of Bio-geophysiology. Rather than a discussion of the Gaian teleological views, or "types" of Gaia Theory, the focus was upon the specific mechanisms by which basic short term homeostasis was maintained within a framework of significant evolutionary long term structural change.
The major questions were:
- "How has the global biogeochemical/climate system called Gaia changed in time? What is its history? Can Gaia maintain stability of the system at one time scale but still undergo vectorial change at longer time scales? How can the geologic record be used to examine these questions?"
- "What is the structure of Gaia? Are the feedbacks sufficiently strong to influence the evolution of climate? Are there parts of the system determined pragmatically by whatever disciplinary study is being undertaken at any given time or are there a set of parts that should be taken as most true for understanding Gaia as containing evolving organisms over time? What are the feedbacks among these different parts of the Gaian system, and what does the near closure of matter mean for the structure of Gaia as a global ecosystem and for the productivity of life?"
- "How do models of Gaian processes and phenomena relate to reality and how do they help address and understand Gaia? How do results from Daisyworld transfer to the real world? What are the main candidates for "daisies"? Does it matter for Gaia theory whether we find daisies or not? How should we be searching for daisies, and should we intensify the search? How can Gaian mechanisms be investigated using process models or global models of the climate system that include the biota and allow for chemical cycling?"
In 1997, Tyler Volk argued that a Gaian system is almost inevitably produced as a result of an evolution towards far-from-equilibrium homeostatic states that maximise entropy production, and Kleidon (2004) agreed stating: "...homeostatic behavior can emerge from a state of MEP associated with the planetary albedo"; "...the resulting behavior of a biotic Earth at a state of MEP may well lead to near-homeostatic behavior of the Earth system on long time scales, as stated by the Gaia hypothesis". Staley (2002) has similarly proposed "...an alternative form of Gaia theory based on more traditional Darwinian principles... In [this] new approach, environmental regulation is a consequence of population dynamics, not Darwinian selection. The role of selection is to favor organisms that are best adapted to prevailing environmental conditions. However, the environment is not a static backdrop for evolution, but is heavily influenced by the presence of living organisms. The resulting co-evolving dynamical process eventually leads to the convergence of equilibrium and optimal conditions".
Fourth Gaia conference 
A fourth international conference on the Gaia Theory, sponsored by the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority and others, was held in October 2006 at the Arlington, VA campus of George Mason University. Martin Ogle, Chief Naturalist, for NVRPA, and long-time Gaia Theory proponent, organized the event. Lynn Margulis, Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, and long-time advocate of the Gaia Theory, was a keynote speaker. Among many other speakers: Tyler Volk, Co-director of the Program in Earth and Environmental Science at New York University; Dr. Donald Aitken, Principal of Donald Aitken Associates; Dr. Thomas Lovejoy, President of the Heinz Center for Science, Economics and the Environment; Robert Correll, Senior Fellow, Atmospheric Policy Program, American Meteorological Society and noted environmental ethicist, J. Baird Callicott. James Lovelock, the theory’s progenitor, prepared a video for the event.
This conference approached Gaia Theory as both science and metaphor as a means of understanding how we might begin addressing 21st century issues such as climate change and ongoing environmental destruction.
See also 
- Earth Science
- Gaia spore
- Gaia philosophy
- Medea Hypothesis
- Lovelock, J.E. (1 August 1972). "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere". Atmospheric Environment (1967) (Elsevier) 6 (8): 579–580. doi:10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5. ISSN 1352-2310.
- Lovelock, James E.; Margulis, Lynn (1 February 1974). "Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis". Tellus. Series A (Stockholm: International Meteorological Institute) 26 (1–2): 2–10. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1974.tb01946.x. ISSN 1600-0870. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Turney, Jon (2003). Lovelock and Gaia: Signs of Life. UK: Icon Books. ISBN 1-84046-458-5.
- Schwartzman, David (2002). Life, Temperature, and the Earth: The Self-Organizing Biosphere. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10213-5.
- Gribbin, John (1990), "Hothouse earth: The greenhouse effect and Gaia" (Wiedenfield and Nicholson)
- John R. Gribbin; John Gribbin; Mary Gribbin (31 March 2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13750-6. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Lovelock, James. The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Basic Books, 2009, p. 255. ISBN 978-0-465-01549-8
- Kleidon, Axel. How does the earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?. Article submitted to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society on Thu, 10 Mar 2011
- Lovelock, James. The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Basic Books, 2009, p. 179. ISBN 978-0-465-01549-8
- Volk, Tyler (1 March 2002). "Toward a Future for Gaia Theory". Climatic Change (Kluwer Academic) 52 (4): 423–430. doi:10.1023/A:1014218227825. ISSN 1573-1480. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Gorham, Eville (1 January 1991). "Biogeochemistry: its origins and development". Biogeochemistry (Kluwer Academic) 13 (3): 199–239. doi:10.1007/BF00002942. ISSN 1573-515X. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Lovelock, James. The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Basic Books, 2009, p. 163. ISBN 978-0-465-01549-8
- Cicerone, R.J.; Oremland, R.S. (1988). id=6704984 "Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane". Global Biogeochemical Cycles 2 (4): 299–327. Bibcode:1988GBioC...2..299C. doi:10.1029/GB002i004p00299.
- Owen, T.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V. (1979). "Earth: An enhanced carbon dioxide greenhouse to compensate for reduced solar luminosity". Nature 277 (5698): 640–2. Bibcode:1979Natur.277..640O. doi:10.1038/277640a0.
- Lovelock, James, (1995) "The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth" (W.W.Norton & Co)
- Hoffman, P.F. 2001. Snowball Earth theory
- Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E, Andreae, M. O. and Warren, S. G. (1987). "Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate". Nature 326 (6114): 655–661. Bibcode:1987Natur.326..655C. doi:10.1038/326655a0.
- Lovelock, James. The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Basic Books, 2009, ISBN 978-0-465-01549-8
- Lovelock J., NBC News. Link Published 23 April 2012, accessed 22 August 2012.
- Watson, A.J.; Lovelock, J.E (1983). "Biological homeostasis of the global environment: the parable of Daisyworld". Tellus 35B (4): 286–9. Bibcode:1983TellB..35..284W. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00031.x.
- Kirchner, James W. (2003). "The Gaia Hypothesis: Conjectures and Refutations". Climatic Change 58 (1–2): 21–45. doi:10.1023/A:1023494111532.
- Karhu, J.A.; Holland, H.D. (1 October 1996). "Carbon isotopes and the rise of atmospheric oxygen". Geology 24 (10): 867–870. Bibcode:1996Geo....24..867K. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024<0867:CIATRO>2.3.CO;2.
- Harding, Stephan (2006). Animate Earth. Chelsea Green Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 1-933392-29-0.
- "Interagency Report Says Harmful Algal Blooms Increasing". 12 September 2007.
- Turney, Jon. "Lovelock and Gaia: Signs of Life" (Revolutions in Science)
- Lovelock, James 2001
- Gould S.J. (June 1997). "Kropotkin was no crackpot". Natural History 106: 12–21.
- Abram, D. (1988) "The mechanical and the organic: Epistemological consequences of the Gaia hypothesis" (Gaia and evolution: proceedings of the second annual Camelford Conference on the implications of the Gaia thesis)
- Lovelock, James (2001), "Homage to Gaia: The Life of an Independent Scientist" (Oxford University Press)
- Margulis, Lynne and Sagan, Dorion (2000), "What is Life" (University of California Press
- Margulis, Lynn. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look At Evolution. Houston: Basic Book 1999
- Lovelock, James. The Vanishing Face of Gaia. Basic Books, 2009, pp. 195-197. ISBN 978-0-465-01549-8
- Capra, Fritjof (1996). The web of life: a new scientific understanding of living systems. Garden City, N.Y: Anchor Books. p. 23. ISBN 0-385-47675-2.
- S.R. Weart, 2003, The Discovery of Global Warming, Cambridge, Harvard Press
- Harding, Stephan. Animate Earth Science, Intuition and Gaia. Chelsea Green Publishing, 2006, p. 44. ISBN 1-933392-29-0
- 100 Photographs that Changed the World by Life - The Digital Journalist
- Lovelock, J.E. (1965). "A physical basis for life detection experiments". Nature 207 (7): 568–570. Bibcode:1965Natur.207..568L. doi:10.1038/207568a0. PMID 5883628.
- Lovelock, J.E.; Giffin, C.E. (1969). "Planetary Atmospheres: Compositional and other changes associated with the presence of Life". Advances in the Astronautical Sciences 25: 179–193. ISBN 0-87703-028-6.
- Hamilton, W.D.; Lenton, T.M. (1998). "Spora and Gaia: how microbes fly with their clouds" (PDF). Ethology Ecology & Evolution 10 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1080/08927014.1998.9522867.
- J. E. Lovelock (1990). "Hands up for the Gaia hypothesis". Nature 344 (6262): 100–2. Bibcode:1990Natur.344..100L. doi:10.1038/344100a0.
- Volk, Tyler (2003). Gaia's Body: Toward a Physiology of Earth. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-72042-6.
- Kirchner, James W. (1989). "The Gaia hypothesis: Can it be tested?". Reviews of Geophysics 27 (2): 223. Bibcode:1989RvGeo..27..223K. doi:10.1029/RG027i002p00223.
- Lenton, TM; Lovelock, JE (2000). "Daisyworld is Darwinian: Constraints on adaptation are important for planetary self-regulation". Journal of Theoretical Biology 206 (1): 109–14. doi:10.1006/jtbi.2000.2105. PMID 10968941.
- Bondì, Roberto (2006). Blu come un'arancia. Gaia tra mito e scienza. Torino, Utet: Prefazione di Enrico Bellone. ISBN 88-02-07259-0.
- Bondì, Roberto (2007). Solo l'atomo ci può salvare. L'ambientalismo nuclearista di James Lovelock. Torino, Utet: Prefazione di Enrico Bellone. ISBN 88-02-07704-5.
- Jaworski, Helan (1928). Le Géon ou la Terre vivante. Paris: Librairie Gallimard.
- Lovelock, James. The Independent. The Earth is about to catch a morbid fever, 16 January 2006.
- Kleidon, Axel (2004). "Beyond Gaia: Thermodynamics of Life and Earth system functioning". Climatic Change 66 (3): 271–319. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000044616.34867.ec.
- Lovelock, James (1995). The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-31239-9.
- Lovelock, James (2000). Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286218-9.
- Lovelock, James (2001). Homage to Gaia: The Life of an Independent Scientist. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860429-7.
- Lovelock, James (2006), interviewed in How to think about science, CBC Ideas (radio program), broadcast January 3, 2008. Link
- Lovelock, James (2007). The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth Is Fighting Back — and How We Can Still Save Humanity. Santa Barbara CA: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9914-4.
- Lovelock, James (2009). The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01549-2.
- Margulis, Lynn (1998). Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81740-X.
- Marshall, Alan (2002). The Unity of Nature: Wholeness and Disintegration in Ecology and Science. River Edge, N.J: Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-330-6.
- Staley M (September 2002). "Darwinian selection leads to Gaia". J. Theor. Biol. 218 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1006/jtbi.2002.3059. PMID 12297068.
- Schneider, Stephen Henry (2004). Scientists debate Gaia: the next century. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19498-8.
- Thomas, Lewis G. (1974). The Lives of a Cell; Notes of a Biology Watcher. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-43442-6.
- Lovelock: 'We can't save the planet' BBC Sci Tech News
- Interview: Jasper Gerard meets James Lovelock