1982 mugshot of Gary Ridgway
February 18, 1949 |
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
|Other names||Green River Gary
The Green River Killer
|Criminal penalty||Life imprisonment without parole|
|Number of victims||Convicted of 49, confessed to at least 71, presumed to be 90+|
|Span of killings||1982–1998 confirmed, but could be as recent as 2001|
|Date apprehended||November 30, 2001|
Gary Leon Ridgway (born February 18, 1949) is an American serial killer known as the Green River Killer. He was initially convicted of 48 separate murders and later confessed to nearly twice that number. As part of his plea bargain, an additional conviction was added, bringing the total number of convictions to 49. He murdered numerous women and girls in Washington State during the 1980s and 1990s. Most of his victims were alleged to be prostitutes. The press gave him his nickname after the first five victims were found in the Green River; his identity was not known. He strangled the women, usually with his arm but sometimes using ligatures. After strangling them, he would dump their bodies throughout forested and overgrown areas in King County, often returning to the dead bodies to have sexual intercourse with them.
On November 30, 2001, as he was leaving the Renton, Washington, Kenworth truck factory where he worked, he was arrested for the murders of four women whose cases were linked to him through DNA evidence. As part of a plea bargain wherein he agreed to disclose the whereabouts of still-missing women, he was spared the death penalty and received a sentence of life imprisonment without parole.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Adult life
- 3 Murders
- 4 Plea bargain, confessions, sentencing
- 5 Victims
- 6 Popular culture
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Ridgway's homelife was somewhat troubled; relatives have described his mother as domineering and have said that young Ridgway witnessed more than one violent argument between his parents. As a boy, Ridgway had a habit of wetting the bed. His mother would often be the one to discover the accidents and would bathe him immediately. She would also belittle and embarrass him in front of his family. From a young age, Ridgway had conflicting feelings of sexual attraction and anger toward her.
As a young child, Ridgway was tested with an IQ of 82, signifying low intelligence, and his academic performance in school was so poor that at one point in high school he had to repeat a year twice in order to pass. His classmates described him as congenial but largely forgettable. His teenage years, however, were troubled; when he was 16, he stabbed a six-year-old boy, who survived the attack. He had led the boy into the woods and then stabbed him through the ribs into his liver. According to the victim and Ridgway himself, Ridgway walked away laughing and saying, "I always wondered what it would be like to kill someone."
At age 21, after graduating from high school, Ridgway married a high school girlfriend. He joined the Navy and was sent to Vietnam, where he served on board a supply ship and saw combat. During his time in the military, Ridgway began spending a lot of time with prostitutes and contracted gonorrhea. This angered him, but he continued to have unprotected sex with prostitutes. Meanwhile his wife, alone and 19 years old, had an extramarital affair, and the marriage quickly ended within a year.
When questioned about Ridgway after his arrest, friends and family described him as friendly but strange. His first two marriages resulted in divorce because of infidelities by both partners. His second wife claimed that he had placed her in a chokehold. Ridgway had become religious during his second marriage, proselytizing door-to-door, reading the Bible aloud at work and at home, and insisting that his wife follow the strict teachings of their church pastor. Ridgway would also frequently cry after sermons or reading the Bible. Ridgway continued to solicit the services of prostitutes during this marriage; he also wanted his wife to participate in sex in public and inappropriate places, sometimes even in areas where his victims' bodies were later discovered.
According to women in his life, Ridgway had an insatiable sexual appetite. His three ex-wives and several old girlfriends reported that Ridgway demanded sex from them several times a day. Often, he would want to have sex in a public area or in the woods. Ridgway himself admitted to having a fixation with prostitutes, with whom he had a love–hate relationship. He frequently complained about their presence in his neighborhood, but he also took advantage of their services regularly. It has been speculated that Ridgway was torn between his uncontrollable lusts and his staunch religious beliefs.
In 1975, his second wife gave birth to a son.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Ridgway is believed to have murdered at least 71 women (according to Ridgway, in an interview with Sheriff Reichert in 2001) near Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. His court statements later reported that he had killed so many, he lost count. A majority of the murders occurred between 1982 and 1984. The victims were believed to be either prostitutes or runaways picked up along Pacific Highway South (International Blvd. 99), whom he strangled. Most of their bodies were dumped in wooded areas around the Green River, except for two confirmed and another two suspected victims found in the Portland, Oregon area. The bodies were often left in clusters, sometimes posed, usually nude. He would sometimes return to the victims' bodies and have sexual intercourse with them. Because most of the bodies were not discovered until only the skeletons remained, three victims are still unidentified. Ridgway occasionally contaminated the dump sites with gum, cigarettes, and written materials belonging to others, and he even transported a few victims' remains across state lines into Oregon to confuse the police.
Ridgway began each murder by picking up a woman, usually a prostitute. He sometimes showed the woman a picture of his son, to help her trust him. After having sex with her, Ridgway strangled her from behind. He initially strangled them manually. However, many victims inflicted wounds and bruises on his arm while trying to defend themselves. Concerned these wounds and bruises would draw attention, Ridgway began using ligatures to strangle his victims. He killed most victims in his home, his truck, or a secluded area. In the early 1980s, the King County Sheriff's Office formed the Green River Task Force to investigate the murders. The most notable members of the task force were Robert Keppel and Dave Reichert, who periodically interviewed incarcerated serial killer Ted Bundy from 1984. Bundy offered his opinions on the psychology, motivations, and behavior of the killer; he suggested that the killer was revisiting the dump sites to have sexual relations with his victims, and if police found a fresh grave, they should stake it out and wait for him to come back. Also contributing to the investigation was John E. Douglas, who has since written much on the subject of the Green River Killer.
Ridgway was arrested in 1982 and 2001 on charges related to prostitution. He became a suspect in 1983 in the Green River killings. In 1984, Ridgway took and passed a polygraph test (quality control protocols later developed in the FBI after careful review determined that Ridgway actually failed his polygraph test), and on April 7, 1987, police took hair and saliva samples from Ridgway. Around 1985, Ridgway began dating Judith Mawson, who became his third wife in 1988. Mawson claimed in a 2010 television interview that when she moved into his house while they were dating, there was no carpet. Detectives later told her he had probably wrapped a body in the carpet. In the same interview, she described how he would leave for work early in the morning some days, ostensibly for the overtime pay. Mawson speculated that he must have committed some of the murders while supposedly working these early morning shifts. She claimed that she had not suspected Ridgway's crimes before she was contacted by authorities in 1987, and in fact had not even heard of the Green River Killer before that time because she didn't watch the news. Author Pennie Morehead interviewed Ridgway in prison, and she said while he was in the relationship with Mawson his kill rate went down, and he truly loved her. Mawson told a local television reporter, "I feel I have saved lives ... by being his wife and making him happy."
The samples collected in 1987 were later subjected to a DNA analysis, providing the evidence for his arrest warrant. On November 30, 2001, Ridgway was at the Kenworth Truck factory, where he worked as a spray painter, when police arrived to arrest him. Ridgway was arrested on suspicion of murdering four women nearly 20 years after first being identified as a potential suspect, when DNA evidence conclusively linked semen left in the victims to the saliva swab taken by the police. The four victims named in the original indictment were Marcia Chapman, Opal Mills, Cynthia Hinds, and Carol Ann Christensen. Three more victims—Wendy Coffield, Debra Bonner, and Debra Estes—were added to the indictment after a forensic scientist identified microscopic spray paint spheres as a specific brand and composition of paint used at the Kenworth factory during the specific time frame when these victims were killed.
Plea bargain, confessions, sentencing
Early in August 2003, Seattle television news reported that Ridgway had been moved from a maximum security cell at King County Jail to an undisclosed location. Other news reports stated that his lawyers, led by Anthony Savage, were closing a plea bargain that would spare him the death penalty in return for his confession to a number of the Green River murders.
On November 5, 2003, Ridgway entered a guilty plea to 48 charges of aggravated first degree murder as part of a plea bargain, agreed to in June, that would spare him execution in exchange for his cooperation in locating the remains of his victims and providing other details. In his statement accompanying his guilty plea, Ridgway explained that all of his victims had been killed inside King County, Washington, and that he had transported and dumped the remains of the two women near Portland to confuse the police.
Deputy prosecutor Jeffrey Baird noted in court that the deal contained "the names of 41 victims who would not be the subject of State v. Ridgway if it were not for the plea agreement." King County Prosecuting Attorney Norm Maleng explained his decision to make the deal:
|“||We could have gone forward with seven counts, but that is all we could have ever hoped to solve. At the end of that trial, whatever the outcome, there would have been lingering doubts about the rest of these crimes. This agreement was the avenue to the truth. And in the end, the search for the truth is still why we have a criminal justice system ... Gary Ridgway does not deserve our mercy. He does not deserve to live. The mercy provided by today's resolution is directed not at Ridgway, but toward the families who have suffered so much ...||”|
On December 18, 2003, King County Superior Court Judge Richard Jones sentenced Ridgway to 48 life sentences with no possibility of parole and one life sentence, to be served consecutively. He was also sentenced to an additional 10 years for tampering with evidence for each of the 48 victims, adding 480 years to his 48 life sentences.
Ridgway led prosecutors to three bodies in 2003. On August 16 of that year, the remains of a 16-year-old female found near Enumclaw, Washington, 40 feet from State Route 410, were pronounced as belonging to Pammy Annette Avent, who had been believed to be a victim of the Green River Killer. The remains of Marie Malvar and April Buttram were found in September. On November 23, 2005, The Associated Press reported that a weekend hiker found the skull of one of the 48 women Ridgway admitted murdering in his 2003 plea bargain with King County prosecutors. The skull of Tracy Winston, who was 19 when she disappeared from Northgate Mall on September 12, 1983, was found by a man hiking in a wooded area near Highway 18 near Issaquah, southeast of Seattle.
Ridgway confessed to more confirmed murders than any other American serial killer. Over a period of five months of police and prosecutor interviews, he confessed to 48 murders—42 of which were on the police's list of probable Green River Killer victims. On February 9, 2004, county prosecutors began to release the videotape records of Ridgway's confessions. In one taped interview, he told investigators initially that he was responsible for the deaths of 65 women, but in another taped interview with Reichert on December 31, 2003, Ridgway claimed to have murdered 71 victims and confessed to having had sex with them before killing them, a detail which he did not reveal until after his sentencing. In his confession, he acknowledged that he targeted prostitutes because they were "easy to pick up" and that he "hated most of them." He also confessed that he had sex with his victims' bodies after he murdered them, but claimed he began burying the later victims so that he could resist the urge to commit necrophilia.
Ridgway talked to and tried to make his victims comfortable before he committed the murders. In his own words, "I would talk to her... and get her mind off of the, sex, anything she was nervous about. And think, you know, she thinks, 'Oh, this guy cares'... which I didn't. I just want to, uh, get her in the vehicle and eventually kill her."
Later in a statement Ridgway said that murdering young women was his "career".
Before Ridgway's confession, authorities had attributed 49 murders to the Green River Killer. As mentioned above, Ridgway confessed to murdering at least 71 victims.
At the time of his December 18, 2003 sentencing, authorities had been able to find at least 48 sets of remains, including victims not originally attributed to the Green River Killer. Ridgway was sentenced for the deaths of each of these 48 victims, with a plea agreement that he would "plead guilty to any and all future cases (in King County) where his confession could be corroborated by reliable evidence."
|1||Wendy Lee Coffield||16||1982-07-08 !July 8, 1982||1982-07-15 !July 15, 1982|
|2||Gisele Ann Lovvorn||17||1982-07-17 !July 17, 1982||1982-09-25 !September 25, 1982|
|3||Debra Lynn Bonner||23||1982-07-25 !July 25, 1982||1982-08-12 !August 12, 1982|
|4||Marcia Fay Chapman||31||1982-08-01 !August 1, 1982||1982-08-15 !August 15, 1982|
|5||Cynthia Jean Hinds||17||1982-08-11 !August 11, 1982||1982-08-15 !August 15, 1982|
|6||Opal Charmaine Mills||16||1982-08-12 !August 12, 1982||1982-08-15 !August 15, 1982|
|7||Terry Rene Milligan||16||1982-08-29 !August 29, 1982||1984-04-01 !April 1, 1984|
|8||Mary Bridget Meehan||18||1982-09-15 !September 15, 1982||1983-11-13 !November 13, 1983|
|9||Debra Lorraine Estes||15||1982-09-20 !September 20, 1982||1988-05-30 !May 30, 1988|
|10||Linda Jane Rule||16||1982-09-26 !September 26, 1982||1983-01-31 !January 31, 1983|
|11||Denise Darcel Bush||23||1982-10-08 !October 8, 1982||1985-06-12 !June 12, 1985|
|12||Shawnda Leea Summers||16||1982-10-09 !October 9, 1982||1983-08-11 !August 11, 1983|
|13||Shirley Marie Sherrill||18||1982-10-20 !October 20–22, 1982||1985-06-00 !June 1985|
|14||Rebecca "Becky" Marrero||20||1982-12-03 !December 3, 1982||2010-12-21 !December 21, 2010|
|15||Colleen Renee Brockman||15||1982-12-24 !December 24, 1982||1984-05-26 !May 26, 1984|
|16||Sandra Denise Major||20||1982-12-24 !December 24, 1982||1985-12-30 !December 30, 1985|
|17||Alma Ann Smith||18||1983-03-03 !March 3, 1983||1984-04-02 !April 2, 1984|
|18||Delores LaVerne Williams||17||1983-03-08 !March 8–14, 1983||1984-03-31 !March 31, 1984|
|19||Gail Lynn Mathews||23||1983-04-10 !April 10, 1983||1983-09-18 !September 18, 1983|
|20||Andrea M. Childers||19||1983-04-14 !April 14, 1983||1989-10-11 !October 11, 1989|
|21||Sandra Kay Gabbert||17||1983-04-17 !April 17, 1983||1984-04-01 !April 1, 1984|
|22||Kimi-Kai Pitsor||16||1983-04-17 !April 17, 1983||1983-12-15 !December 15, 1983|
|23||Marie M. Malvar||18||1983-04-30 !April 30, 1983||2003-09-26 !September 26, 2003|
|24||Carol Ann Christensen||21||1983-05-03 !May 3, 1983||1983-05-08 !May 8, 1983|
|25||Martina Theresa Authorlee||18||1983-05-22 !May 22, 1983||1984-11-14 !November 14, 1984|
|26||Cheryl Lee Wims||18||1983-05-23 !May 23, 1983||1984-03-22 !March 22, 1984|
|27||Yvonne "Shelly" Antosh||19||1983-05-31 !May 31, 1983||1983-10-15 !October 15, 1983|
|28||Carrie Ann Rois||15||1983-05-31 !May 31 – June 13, 1983||1985-03-10 !March 10, 1985|
|29||Constance Elizabeth Naon||19||1983-06-08 !June 8, 1983||1983-10-27 !October 27, 1983|
|30||Kelly Marie Ware||22||1983-07-18 !July 18, 1983||1983-10-29 !October 29, 1983|
|31||Tina Marie Thompson||21||1983-07-25 !July 25, 1983||1984-04-20 !April 20, 1984|
|32||April Dawn Buttram||16||1983-08-18 !August 18, 1983||2003-08-30 !August 30, 2003|
|33||Debbie May Abernathy||26||1983-09-05 !September 5, 1983||1984-03-31 !March 31, 1984|
|34||Tracy Ann Winston||19||1983-09-12 !September 12, 1983||1986-03-27 !March 27, 1986|
|35||Maureen Sue Feeney||19||1983-09-28 !September 28, 1983||1986-05-2 !May 2, 1986|
|36||Mary Sue Bello||25||1983-10-11 !October 11, 1983||1984-10-12 !October 12, 1984|
|37||Pammy Annette Avent||15||1983-10-26 !October 26, 1983||2003-08-16 !August 16, 2003|
|38||Delise Louise Plager||22||1983-10-30 !October 30, 1983||1984-02-14 !February 14, 1984|
|39||Kimberly L. Nelson||21||1983-11-01 !November 1, 1983||1986-06-14 !June 14, 1986|
|40||Lisa Yates||19||1983-12-23 !December 23, 1983||1984-03-13 !March 13, 1984|
|41||Mary Exzetta West||16||1984-02-06 !February 6, 1984||1985-09-08 !September 8, 1985|
|42||Cindy Anne Smith||17||1984-03-21 !March 21, 1984||1987-06-27 !June 27, 1987|
|43||Patricia Michelle Barczak||19||1986-10-17 !October 17, 1986||1993-02-00 !February 1993|
|44||Roberta Joseph Hayes||21||1987-02-07 !February 7, 1987||1991-09-11 !September 11, 1991|
|45||Marta Reeves||36||1990-03-05 !March 5, 1990||1990-09-20 !September 20, 1990|
|46||Patricia Yellowrobe||38||1998-01-00 !January 1998||1998-08-06 !August 6, 1998|
|47||Unidentified White Female||12–17||1983-05-00 !Died prior to May 1983||1984-03-21 !March 21, 1984|
|48||Unidentified White Female||14–18||1980-12-00 !December 1980 – January 1984||1986-01-02 !January 2, 1986|
|49||Unidentified Female||13–24||1973-01-00 !1973–1993||2003-08-00 !August 2003|
- Before Ridgway's confession, authorities had not attributed to the Green River Killer the deaths of victims Rule, Barczak, Hayes, Reeves, Yellowrobe and 'victim 49'.
- Ridgway's confession and directions led police search crews to find the bodies of Avent, Buttram, and Malvar in August and September 2003.
- On Tuesday, December 21, 2010, hikers near the West Valley Highway in Auburn, WA found a skull in the vicinity of where Marie Malvar's remains were found in 2003. The skull was identified as belonging to Rebecca "Becky" Marrero, who was last seen leaving the Western Six Motel at South 168th Street and Pacific Highway South on December 3, 1982. The King County Prosecutor confirmed that Ridgway would be formally charged with her murder on February 11, 2011. On February 18, 2011, he entered a guilty plea in the murder of Rebecca Marrero, adding a 49th life sentence to his existing 48. Ridgway confessed to murdering Marrero in his original plea bargain, but due to insufficient evidence, the charges could not be filed. Therefore, there is no change in his current incarceration status.
- The remains of Tracy Winston were found, without a skull, in Kent's Cottonwood Grove Park in March 1986. Winston's skull was found in November 2005 near Tiger Mountain, miles away from the discovery site of the rest of her body. Police assume someone carried it to the location.
- Sandra Denise Major was not identified until June 2012. A family member asked the King County Sheriff to investigate after seeing a TV movie about Ridgway. DNA confirmed Major's identity.
Task force victims list
Ridgway is suspected of—but not charged with—murdering the remaining six victims of the original list attributed to the Green River Killer. In each case, either Ridgway did not confess to the victim's death, or authorities have not been able to corroborate their suspicion with reliable evidence.
|Amina Agisheff||35||1982-07-07 !July 7, 1982||1984-04-18 !April 18, 1984|
|Kasee Ann Lee (Woods)||16||1982-08-28 !August 28, 1982||not yet found|
|Tammie Liles||16||1983-06-09 !June 9, 1983||1985-04-00 !April 1985|
|Keli Kay McGinness||18||1983-06-28 !June 28, 1983||not yet found|
|Angela Marie Girdner||16||1983-07-00 !July 1983||1985-04-22 !April 22, 1985|
|Patricia Osborn||19||1983-10-20 !October 20, 1983?||not yet found|
- Ridgway denied killing Amina Agisheff. Agisheff does not fit the profile of any of the victims of the Green River Killer considering her age, and she was not a prostitute or a teenaged runaway.
- Although he has never been charged with her murder, Gary Ridgway did confess to killing Kasee Ann Lee. During police interrogations in 2003, Ridgway stated that he strangled Lee in 1982 and left her body near a drive-in theatre off the Sea-Tac Strip. As of July 2012, law enforcement officials have been unable to locate Lee's remains at the dump site that Ridgway indicated.
- Ridgway is a suspect in the death of Tammie Liles. Her body was discovered within a mile of the bodies of known victims Shirley Shirell and Denise Bush. Liles remained unidentified until 1998.
- Evidence exists to suggest that Ridgway murdered Keli Kay McGinness. Shortly before her disappearance, McGinness was questioned by a Port of Seattle police officer while "dating" Ridgway near the SeaTac Strip. Furthermore, during the summer of 2003, Ridgway led authorities to the bodies of several of his victims. One of those bodies (which later turned out to be April Buttram) was initially identified by Ridgway as being that of Keli Kay McGinness. According to Ridgway, he often confused McGinness with Buttram because of their similar physiques.
- Ridgway is a suspect in the death of Angela Marie Girdner. Her body was discovered within a mile of the bodies of known victims Shirley Shirell and Denise Bush. Girdner remained unidentified until October 2009.
Ridgway has been considered a suspect in the disappearances/murders of five other women not attributed at the time to the Green River Killer. No charges have been filed.
|Kristi Lynn Vorak||13||October 31, 1982||not yet found|
|Patricia Ann Leblanc||15||August 12, 1983||not yet found|
|Rose Marie Kurran||16||August 26, 1987||August 31, 1987|
|Darci Warde||16||April 24, 1990||not yet found|
|Cora McGuirk||22||July 12, 1991||not yet found|
- Cora McGuirk was the mother of National Basketball Association player Martell Webster. McGuirk disappeared when her son was four years old.
- Ridgway was recently[when?] ruled out in the murder of Rose Marie Kurran (sometimes spelled "Curran").
Numerous mentions of Ridgway have appeared in popular non-fiction media and in fiction.
- In 2004, Phil Hansen created and displayed artwork depicting Gary Ridgway's face, composed of 11,792 portraits of the 48 victims.
In documentaries and films (non-fiction)
- The direct-to-DVD movie Green River Killer was released in 2005.
- In a 2006 episode, the TV series Crimes That Shook the World featured a biography of the Green River Killer, Gary Ridgway (starring Frank Violi) (narration by Tim Pigott-Smith).
- In 2008, the Lifetime Movie Network aired The Capture of the Green River Killer, a TV movie loosely based on his crimes. John Pielmeier portrays Ridgway.
- The ninth episode of the 2010 American documentary show Who the (Bleep) Did I Marry? features his story and his third wife's side of it.
In print (non-fiction)
Many non-fiction books and novels have been written about the Green River murders and Gary Ridgway himself. Examples include:
- Serial Killers: Issues Explored Through Green River Murders by Tomas Guillen
- Green River Killer: The True Detective Story, a graphic novel by Jeff Jensen and Jonathan Case. Jensen's father was Tom Jensen, one of the detectives who worked on the case for 20 years.
- The Riverman: Ted Bundy and I Hunt for the Green River Killer by Robert D. Keppel
- The Green River Killer by the King County Journal Staff
- Green River Serial Killer: Biography of an Unsuspecting Wife by Pennie Morehead, telling the story of his third wife and her struggles with the truth
- Defending Gary: Unraveling the Mind of the Green River Killer by Mark Prothero with help from Carlton Smith
- Chasing the Devil by Sheriff David Reichert
- Green River, Running Red by true-crime author and former police officer Ann Rule
- Search for the Green River Killer by Carlton Smith with help from Tom Guillen
- Case of the Green River Killer by Diane Yancey
- The 1998 song "I Wanna Know What Love Is" by the Julie Ruin, the solo project of prominent riot grrrl figure Kathleen Hanna, references the Green River Killer, using him as an example of police negligence towards protecting women.
- In 2002, Seattle based songwriter & musician Damien Jurado released a song entitled 'The Killer' is based on the crimes of Ridgway.
- The 2003 seminal power electronics album "G.R." by Deathpile is devoted completely to Gary Ridgway.
- The 2004 song "Sane vs. Normal" by Mnemic. It mentions him directly by name and tells of his early encounters with police and initially eluding them along with his urge to rape and kill women.
- The 2007 song "Deep Red Bells" by Neko Case was inspired by her growing up as a teenager in the metropolis the murders occurred during the time of the murders.
- Portland- based band Poison Idea's song "Feel the Darkness" is based on Ridgway .
- The Swedish death metal band "Smothered" dedicated a song called "Green River Anthem" to Gary Ridgway in 2013.
In television (fiction)
- From 2003 to 2009, the comedy show "Reno 911!" featured a character called the Truckee River Killer played by Kyle Dunningan, which spoofed Ridgway and several other serial killers.
- The 2004 television movie The Riverman is a fictional story of Ted Bundy assisting investigators trying to identify and catch the Green River Killer.
- In a 2007 episode of Dexter (2X02), Sergeant James Doakes mentions how the "Green River Killer" case was impossible, but FBI Special Agent Frank Lundy broke it.
- In a May 2013 interview, Veena Sud stated her inspiration for The Killing season 3 (2013) came from Streetwise, Mary Ellen Mark's book of photographs about teenaged runaways in Seattle that was made into an eponymous 1984 documentary. One of the street kids Mark documented in that and later books (21-year-old Roberta Joseph Hayes), fell victim to The Green River Killer (Gary Ridgway). (Sud had stated she was "very fascinated" with Ridgway, the serial killer of numerous women and girls near Seattle and Tacoma, Washington in the 1980s and 1990s.)
- Haglund, WD; Reichert, DG; Reay, DT (1990). "Recovery of decomposed and skeletal human remains in the "Green River Murder" Investigation. Implications for medical examiner/coroner and police". The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology : official publication of the National Association of Medical Examiners 11 (1): 35–43. PMID 2305751.
- Prothero, Mark; Carlton Smith (2006). Defending Gary: Unraveling the Mind of the Green River Killer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0-7879-9548-5. Which page?
- McCarthy, Terry; Thornburgh, Nathan (June 3, 2002). "River Of Death". Time. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Guillen, Tomas. Serial Killers: Issues Explored Through the Green River Murders. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, p. 130.
- Montaldo, Charles (February 14, 2011). "Gary Ridgway: The Green River Killer". About.com. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Prothero, Mark (2006). Defending Gary, p. 117. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. ISBN 0-7879-8106-0
- Bell, Rachael. "Green River Killer: River of Death". Turner Entertainment Networks. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Keppel, Robert; Birnes, William J.; Rule, Ann (2004). The Riverman: Ted Bundy and I Hunt for the Green River Killer. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-6395-1.
- Ko, Michael (December 23, 2003). "Local News | Ridgway gave no hint he was a killer, son said". The Seattle Times (Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com). Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Robinson, Sean (November 16, 2003). "Like minds: Bundy figured Ridgway out". The News Tribune. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- Wilson, Duff (November 26, 2003). "Profiler can't recall why he said letter wasn't from Green River killer". The Seattle Times. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- "Married to a Monster". Who the (BLEEP) Did I Marry?. Season 1. Episode 9. October 13, 2010. Investigation Discovery. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. http://archive.is/yhJ8P.
- "Wife of Nation's Worst Serial Killer Shares Her Story". KIRO 7 Eyewitness News. May 22, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
- Maleng, Norm (November 5, 2003). "Statement of Norm Maleng on Ridgway Plea". Archived from the original on June 26, 2004. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
- "Anitra Mulwee". karisable.com. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
- Cold Case Files Episode 56: "Obsession: Dave Reichert and the Green River Killer", A&E, original airdate: December 15, 2005.
- Hickey, Eric (2010). Serial Murderers and Their Victims. p. 25.
- "Ridgway Reveals Gruesome Details In Chilling Confession". KIRO 7 Eyewitness News. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Green River Killer". Karisable.com. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Find An Offender - Ridgway, Gary L.". Washington State Department of Corrections.
- Johnson, Tracy; Castro, Hector (October 30, 2003). "Green River victims' list may grow by six". Seattle Post Intelligencer. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- Javier, Liza. "Remains found in Auburn, Wash. possible Green River victim", KGW.com, December 23, 2010.
- Sullivan, Jennifer (February 7, 2011). "Attorney: Ridgway will likely plead guilty to new murder charge". Seattle Times. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Castro, Hector (November 23, 2005). "Skull of Woman Killed by Ridgway Found but It Turned Up Miles from the Rest of Her Remains". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. p. B1. Retrieved August 10, 2010. LexisNexis.
- "Victim of Green River killer identified 30 years later after relative sees TV movie". Fox News. June 19, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
- "Wash. officials say Green River Killer victim ID'd". Yahoo.com. Associated Press. June 19, 2012.
- "Like minds: Bundy figured Ridgway out". The News Tribune. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Parrish, Linda W. Y. (April 11, 1990). "Cleaning Up Sea-Tac Strip -- Officials Target Prostitution, Dance Clubs". Seattle Times. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Guillen, T. (2007). Serial Killers: Issues Explored Through the Green River Murders. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. p. 145.
- "Police identify remains, look for link to 'Green River Killer'". CNN. December 16, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Prothero, M.; Smith, C. (2006). Defending Gary: Unraveling the Mind of the Green River Killer. Hoboken, New Jersey: Jossey-Bass. p. 376.
- Guillen, Tomas; Smith, Carlton (November 6, 2003). "Could killer strike again? Probably yes — despite 46 murders, little has changed". The Seattle Times.
- "PLU’s Conti plays an old-school style". The News Tribune. January 10, 2012. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
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- Cheryl McCall & Mary Ellen Mark (photographer) (1988). Streetwise. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812212681.
- Keppel, Robert. The Riverman: Ted Bundy and I Hunt for the Green River Killer. 2004, paperback. 624 pages, ISBN 0-7434-6395-1. Updated after the arrest and confession of Gary Ridgway.
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- NBCUniversal Archives: A compilation of NBC News Footage about the Green River Killer
- A copy of Ridgway's infamous letter to the press (PDF)