gastrointestinal hormones (or gut hormones) constitute a group of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine that control various functions of the digestive organs. Later studies showed that most of the gut peptides, such as secretin, cholecystokinin or substance P, were found to play a role of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Enteroendocrine cells do not form endocrine glands but are spread throughout the digestive tract. They exert their autocrine and paracrine actions that integrate all of gastrointestinal function.
Types of Gastrointestinal hormones [ edit ]
The gastrointestinal hormones can be divided into three main groups based upon their
is a peptide hormone released from the stomach and liver and is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" since high levels of it are found in individuals that are fasting. Ghrelin antagonistic treatments can be used to treat illnesses such as anorexia and loss of appetites in cancer patients. Ghrelin treatments for obesity are still under intense scrutiny and no conclusive evidence has been reached. This hormone stimulates growth hormone release. Ghrelin controls glucose homeostasis and gastric motility Amylin
possesses an acute influence on food intake through its effects on adipocytes Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
plays a role in controlling acid secretion and satiation Oxyntomodulin
Characteristics of Prominent Forms of Principal Gut Regulatory Peptides
Molecular Weight (Da)
No. of Amino Acids
Main Gut Localization
Principal Physiologic Actions
33 (also 385, 59)
Duodenum and jejunum, Enteric nerves
Stimulates gallbladder contraction and intestinal motility; stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes, insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptides; has a role in indicating satiety; the C-terminal 8 amino acid peptide cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 retains full activity
Little gastrin 2098
Both forms of gastrin are found in the gastric antrum and duodenum
Gastrins stimulate the secretion of gastric acid, pepsinogen, intrinsic factor, and secretin; stimulate intestinal mucosal growth; increase gastric and intestinal motility
Big gastrin 3839
Duodenum and jejunum
Stimulates pancreatic secretion of HCO
3, enzymes and insulin; reduces gastric and duodenal motility, inhibits gastrin release and gastric acid secretion
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) 3326
Relaxes smooth muscle of gut, blood, and genitourinary system; increases water and electrolyte secretion from pancreas and gut; releases hormones from pancreas, gut, and hypothalamus
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic 4976
Duodenum and jejunum
Stimulates insulin release; reduces gastric and intestinal motility; increases fluid and electrolyte secretion from small intestine
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 5th edition. Elsevier Saunders. p. 1719. ISBN 978-1-4160-6164-9.
^ Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 5th edition. Elsevier Saunders. p. 1720. ISBN 978-1-4160-6164-9.
External links [ edit ]