Saba

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Saba
Public body of the Netherlands
Flag of Saba
Flag
Coat of arms of Saba
Coat of arms
Motto: "Remis Velisque" (Latin)
"With oars and sails" (English)
Anthem: "Saba you rise from the ocean"
Location of  Saba  (orange)in the Caribbean  (light yellow)
Location of  Saba  (orange)

in the Caribbean  (light yellow)

Map showing location of Saba relative to Sint Eustatius and Saint Martin.
Map showing location of Saba relative to Sint Eustatius and Saint Martin.
Coordinates: 17°38′N 63°15′W / 17.633°N 63.250°W / 17.633; -63.250
Country Netherlands
Incorporated into the Netherlands 10 October 2010 (dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)
Capital
(and largest city)
The Bottom
Government (see Politics of the Netherlands)
 • Lt. Governor Jonathan Johnson
Area
 • Total 13 km2 (5 sq mi)
Population (2013[1])
 • Total 1,991
 • Density 150/km2 (400/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Dutch
 • Recognised regional English[2]
Time zone AST (UTC−4)
Calling code +599-4
ISO 3166 code BQ-SA, NL-BQ2
Currency U.S. dollar (USD)
Internet TLD .an,[3] .nl

Saba /ˈsbə/ is a Caribbean island and the smallest special municipality (officially public body) of the Netherlands.[4] It consists largely of the potentially active volcano Mount Scenery, which at 887 metres (2,910 ft) is the highest point within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Saba, including the islet of Green Island, became a special municipality within the country of the Netherlands after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010.[5]

The island has a land area of 13 square kilometres (5.0 sq mi). As of January 2013, the population was 1,991 inhabitants, with a population density of 150 inhabitants per square kilometre (390 /sq mi).[1] Its current towns and major settlements are The Bottom (the capital), Windwardside, Hell's Gate and St. Johns.

As the island is part of the Netherlands, Dutch is the official language. Despite the island's Dutch affiliation, English is the principal language spoken on the island and has been used in its school system since the 19th century. English can therefore be used in communications of and to the government,[2] although there is a local dialect. Since 1 January 2011, the U.S. dollar has been the official currency,[6] replacing the Netherlands Antillean guilder.

Saba is home to the Saba University School of Medicine, which was established by American expatriates in coordination with the government of the Netherlands. The school adds over 300 residents when classes are in session, and it is the prime educational attraction. A.M. Edwards Medical Center is the major provider of healthcare for local residents.

History[edit]

Saba island seen from the north, with Mount Scenery's peak in the clouds

The origin of the name "Saba" is often mistakenly believed to be derived from the Arawak Indian word for "rock," which was "siba." However, the true source of the name Saba \s(a)- ba\ is of Greek and Arabic (colloquial Arabic Saba سابا and classical Arabic صباح) origin, and its meaning is from Sheba: "morning". Saba refers to the Biblical queen of Sheba.[citation needed] Christopher Columbus is said to have sighted the island on 13 November 1493, but he did not land, being deterred by the island's perilous rocky shores. In 1632, a group of shipwrecked Englishmen landed upon Saba; they stated they found the island uninhabited when they were rescued. However, there has been some evidence found indicating that Carib or Arawak Indians may have been on the island.

In 1635, a stray Frenchman claimed Saba for Louis XIII of France. In the latter 1630s, the Dutch Governor of the neighboring island of Sint Eustatius sent several Dutch families over to colonize the island for the Dutch West India Company. These Dutch family names included Heyliger, Leverock, and Vanderpool, to name just three. In 1664, refusing to swear allegiance to the English crown, these original Dutch settlers were evicted to St. Maarten by Thomas Morgan[disambiguation needed], to return within the months and years following. The Netherlands have been in continuous possession of Saba since 1816, after numerous flag changes (British-Dutch-French) during the previous centuries.[citation needed]

In the 17th and 18th centuries, its major industries were sugar and rum, and later fishing, particularly lobster fishing. In the 17th century, Saba was believed to be a favorable hideout for Jamaican pirates. England also deported its "undesirable" people to live in the Caribbean colonies, and some of them also became pirates, a few taking haven on Saba. The island of Saba is forbidding and steep, a natural fortress, and so the island became a private sanctuary for the families of smugglers and pirates. The most notable native Saban pirate was Hiram Beakes, who famously quipped, "Dead men tell no tales".[citation needed] Later legitimate sailing and trade became important, and many of the island's men took to the sea, during which time Saba lace, pulled thread work, became an important product made by the island's women. During this period of time, with most of the island's men gone out to sea, the island became known as "The Isle of Women".[citation needed]

The remains of the settlements of 1630–40 can be found on the west side at Tent Bay; these settlements were destroyed by a landslide in the 17th century.

Geography and ecology[edit]

The vegetation of Saba is mainly composed of woodland forest with ferns and damp soil, and many mango trees. There used to be forests of Mountain Mahogany trees until a hurricane in the 1960s destroyed many of the trees, which are Freziera undulata in the family Theaceae. However, despite the common name, these trees are not related to other Mahogany species. One species of true mahogany tree is found on the island, planted at lower levels, and that is the small-leaved mahogany, Swietenia mahagoni, Meliaceae. The native mahogany trees are considered to be at risk of becoming extinct on Saba.

Visitors refer to Saba's forests as "the Elfin Forest" because of its high altitude mist, and mossy appearance. There has been a woodland reserve created and aptly named "Elfin Forest Reserve". Saba's lush plant and animal wildlife is diverse and is cared for by the Saba Conservation Foundation.

4.3 kilometres (2.7 mi) southwest of Saba is the edge of the Saba Bank, a very large submerged atoll with especially rich biodiversity. Saba Bank is the top of a sea mount and it is a prime fishing ground, particularly for lobster.

People and culture[edit]

Saba's government house
Typical Saba view

The population of Saba (the Sabans) consists of only 1,991 people who come from all over the world. The island's small size has led to a fairly small number of island families, who can trace their last names back to around a half-dozen families. This means that many last names are shared around the island, the most numerous being Hassell and Johnson. Most families are a rich intermixing of Dutch, Scottish, and African heritage. The population is also descended from the Irish who were exiled from that country after the accession of King Charles I of England in 1625; Charles exiled these Irish to the Caribbean in an effort to quell rebellion after he had forcibly procured their lands for his Scottish noble supporters.

Historically, the island was traded among the many European nations that fought for power in the region. Slaves were also imported to work on Saba. Both English and Dutch are spoken on the island and taught in schools. In more recent years, Saba has become home to a large group of expatriates, and around 250 immigrants who are either students or teachers at the Saba University School of Medicine.

Sabans are mostly Roman Catholic by faith; however, there is also a Wesleyan Church Holiness community on the island. Other religions practiced on the island include Jehovah's Witnesses, Anglican, Seventh-day Adventist, Muslim, and Jewish faiths.

As Saba is now part of the Netherlands (by becoming a Netherlands public body), the island recognises and performs same-sex marriage. The first marriage performed on the island – as well as the first same-sex marriage in the Caribbean Netherlands – was held on Tuesday, 4 December 2012, in which a male couple, a 26-year old Aruban and a 27-year old Venezuelan, were joined in matrimony.[7]

Transport[edit]

View of the village of Windwardside, taken from Mount Scenery

There is one main road, known as "The Road". Its construction was masterminded by Josephus Lambert Hassell who, despite the common opinion of Dutch and Swiss engineers, believed that a road could be built.[8] He took a correspondence course in civil engineering, and started building the road with a crew of locals in 1938.[9] After five years of work, the first section of the road, from Fort Bay to The Bottom, was completed. It was not until 1947, however, that the first motor vehicle arrived. In 1951, the road to Windwardside and St. Johns was opened, and in 1958, the road was completed. Driving "The Road" is considered to be a daunting task, and the curves in Windwardside are extremely difficult to negotiate. Driving is on the right hand side. As well as "The Road", there are also numerous small side roads, the longest one of which goes to Wells Bay in the northwest of the island.

In 1963, the island built the Juancho E. Yrausquin Airport. This 400-metre (1,300 ft) landing strip is reputed to be the shortest commercial runway in the world, and as such, is restricted. Only trained pilots flying small STOL airliners, such as the Twin Otter and the Britten-Norman Islander, may land there, as well as helicopters. Consistent air service from Sint Maarten and Sint Eustatius is available through Winair.

In 1972, a pier was completed in Fort Bay to access the island. Travel is also provided by ferry services to and from Sint Maarten with the Dawn II and The Edge.

Of note are 800 steps carved from stone that reach from Ladder Bay to the settlement known as The Bottom. Until the late 20th century, everything that was brought to the island was carried up by hand using these steps. The steps are now often used by tourists who wish to experience an intense climb.

Economy[edit]

Saba lace, also known as "Spanish work", is actually drawn thread work, and as of 2013, it is still produced on the island. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Saba lace was a major export. In the 1870s, as a young lady, Mary Gertrude Hassell Johnson, was sent to a Caracas convent in Venezuela for study—where she learned the difficult craft. On her return, lacework spread through the island. The women of Saba began a mail-order business, and would copy addresses of businesses off shipping containers from the United States, and write to the employees. Often, they would get orders for the lacework, and it started a considerable cottage industry. By 1928, the women were exporting around $15,000 (USD) worth of lace products each year.

Tourism, ecotourism, conservation[edit]

Playground on Saba

The island of Saba is relatively new to the tourism industry, with about 25,000 visitors each year. The island has a number of inns, hotels, rental cottages and restaurants. Saba is known as "The Unspoiled Queen" of the Caribbean.[10] The island is especially known for its ecotourism, having exceptional scuba diving, climbing and hiking. A non-governmental conservation organization, Saba Conservation Foundation, helps protect the nature and culture of the island.

Arriving and departing[edit]

The Juancho E. Yrausquin Airport offers flights to and from the nearby islands of St. Maarten and Sint Eustatius. There is also a ferry service from St. Maarten; the ferry boats "Dawn II" and "The Edge" both travel to Saba three times a week. In addition, there are anchorages for private boats.[10]

Diving[edit]

About 150 species of fish have been found in Saba’s waters.[11] A main draw for divers are the pinnacle dive sites, where magma pushed through the sea floor to create underwater towers of volcanic rock that start at about 300 feet (91 m) down and rise to about 85 feet (26 m) beneath the surface.[11] The waters around Saba were designated as the Saba National Marine Park in 1987, and are subject to government regulation to preserve the coral reefs and other marine life. The Saba Conservation Foundation has operated a hyperbaric chamber in case of diving emergencies, since 1991.[12]

Sports[edit]

Because it is a small island, only a few sports are played on Saba, including volleyball; the Saba Volleyball Association is a member of NORCECA.

Further reading[edit]

  • Caribbean Interlude: The Story of Saba the Rock by Joshua K. Bolles, edited by Will Johnson, March 2013, published by Will Johnson, Saba, Dutch Caribbean, First Edition by Raymond S. Simmons II, ISBN 978-1-4675-6637-7. This book is a first-person account by an American journalist of the eleven months he spent on Saba in 1931; it is profusely illustrated with black and white photographs of Saba at that time.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population of Dutch Caribbean (1 January); sex, age: Saba". Statistics Netherlands. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  2. ^ a b English can be used in relations with the government
    "Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba" (in Dutch). wetten.nl. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  3. ^ The domain for the Netherlands Antilles has remained active after its dissolution. The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code BQ was established for the entity "Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba". ("ISO 3166-1 decoding table". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2010-12-17. ) An Internet ccTLD has however not been established by the IANA, and it is unknown if it will be opened for registration.
  4. ^ (Dutch) "Wet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba
    (Law on the public bodies of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba)"
    . Dutch Government. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
     
  5. ^ "Antillen opgeheven". NOS Nieuws. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  6. ^ "Plein". Pleinplus.nl. 2009-12-02. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  7. ^ http://www.volkskrant.nl/vk/nl/2664/Nieuws/article/detail/3358216/2012/12/04/Eerste-homohuwelijk-in-Caribisch-Nederland.dhtml
  8. ^ "Saba Dutch Caribbean Travel Guide". LukeTravels.com. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  9. ^ Slawych, Diane (16 November 2006). "Saba’s road less travelled". Canoe.ca. Archived from the original on 6 August 2007. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "Welcome to Saba!". Saba Tourist Bureau. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Witte, Brian (13 July 2013). "Diving off Saba, the Caribbean’s unspoiled queen". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  12. ^ "SCF to receive subsidies for refurbishment of hyperbaric chamber and mooring system". SabaNews. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 17°38′N 63°14′W / 17.633°N 63.233°W / 17.633; -63.233