Spanish West Indies
|Spanish West Indies
Las Antillas Occidentales
A map of the Spanish West Indies
|Capital||Santo Domingo (1511-1764)|
|Historical era||Spanish colonization|
|-||Treaty of Paris||1898|
It consisted of the present day nations of Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, the Virgin Islands, Anguilla, Montserrat, Guadalupe and the Lesser Antilles, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Trinidad, and the Bay Islands.
The islands that later became the Spanish West Indies were the focus of the voyages of Christopher Columbus in America. Largely due to the familiarity that Europeans gained from Columbus's voyages, the islands were also the first lands to be permanently colonized by Europeans in the Americas. The Spanish West Indies were also the most enduring part of Spain's American Empire, only being surrendered in 1898 at the end of the Spanish-American War. For over three centuries, Spain controlled a network of ports in the Caribbean including Havana (Cuba), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Cartagena de Indias (Colombia), and Veracruz (Mexico) which were connected by galleon routes.
Some smaller islands were ceded to other European powers as a result of war, or diplomatic agreements during the 17th and 18th centuries. Others such as Dominican Republic gained their independence in the 19th century.
Change of Sovereignty or Independence
- The Bay Islands were ceded to England in 1643 and then to Honduras in 1860.
- Jamaica was lost to England in 1655, confirmed in the Treaty of Madrid (1670).
- The Cayman Islands were lost to England in the Treaty of Madrid (1670).
- Haiti was lost to France in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697.
- Trinidad was lost to Great Britain in 1797, confirmed in the Treaty of Amiens in 1802.
- The Dominican Republic gained its independence in 1821 and again in 1865 from Spain, it was intermittently occupied by Haiti.
- Cuba was lost to the United States in 1898, after the Spanish-American War concluded by the Treaty of Paris (1898).
- Puerto Rico was lost to the United States in 1898, after the Spanish-American War concluded by the Treaty of Paris (1898).
The Spanish Caribbean or Hispanophone Caribbean, refers to the Spanish-speaking areas in the Caribbean Sea, namely Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. It includes regions where Spanish is the main language, and where a history of Spanish settlement and colonization influences culture, through religion, language, cuisine, and so on. It may also include South Florida, where the Spanish language is widely used.
The term is used in contrast to Anglophone Caribbean and French Caribbean, two other cultural areas which refer to colonial heritage and language. The phrase, thus, excludes countries such as Jamaica, Haiti, and the Lesser Antilles. The Hispanophone Caribbean is a part of the wider Hispanic America, which is in turn part of still-larger Latin America.
While the Spanish Caribbean countries are widely considered to be part of Latin America, it is sometimes spoken of as a region distinct from Latin America, as in the phrase "Latin America and the Caribbean (Spanish-speaking areas)"
"The Spanish Caribbean", refers primarily to:
It may also include South Florida, a region where there has been significant migration from Spanish Caribbean.
Historically, during the period of Spanish settlement and colonization of the New World, the Spanish West Indies referred to those settlements in islands of the Caribbean Sea under political administration of Spain, as in the phrase "a 1765 cedula authorized seven sea ports, in addition to the port of San Juan, to trade with the Spanish Caribbean." Until the early 19th century these territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
- Christopher Columbus
- Voyages of Christopher Columbus
- Viceroyalty of New Spain
- Spanish colonization of the Americas
- Spanish Main
- Spanish East Indies
- Spanish Empire
- Antillean Confederation
- Population history of American indigenous peoples
- Luis F. Pumarada O'Neill (July 31, 1994), PDF (32 KB), National Park Service
- (English)(Spanish) "Method of Securing the Ports and Populations of All the Coasts of the Indies" was written in 1694 and discusses the Spanish West Indies