Raspberry

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This article is about the various species of raspberry in the plant genus Rubus. For the widely cultivated Eurasian red raspberry, see Rubus idaeus. For the eastern North American black raspberry, see Rubus occidentalis. For other meanings, see Raspberry (disambiguation).
Fruit of four species of raspberry. Clockwise from top left: Boulder raspberry, Korean raspberry, Australian native raspberry, West Indian raspberry

The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems.

Major kinds of cultivated raspberries[edit]

Fruits of a golden or yellow raspberry cultivar

Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world.

Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[1] Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries all belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants then classified as either R. idaeus subsp. idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, and the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus. Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more strongly upright, not needing staking.

The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is also occasionally cultivated in the United States, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams, preserves, and other products, all with that species' distinctive, richer flavor.

Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, and have also been found in the wild in a few places (for example, in Vermont) where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare.

Blue raspberry, is a local name used in Prince Edward Country, Ontario, Canada[2] for the cultivar 'Columbian', a hybrid (purple raspberry) of R. strigosus and R. occidentalis.[3] Rubus leucodermis is also known as "blue raspberry" in the context of blue raspberry flavor for candy, snack foods, syrups and soft drinks.[4]

Both the red and the black raspberry species have albino-like pale-yellow natural or horticultural variants, resulting from presence of recessive genes that impede production of anthocyanin pigments.[citation needed] Fruits from such plants are called golden raspberries or yellow raspberries; despite their similar appearance, they retain the distinctive flavour of their respective species (red or black). Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens.

Red raspberries have also been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of which was the loganberry. Later notable hybrids include boysenberry (a multi-generation hybrid), and tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has also been achieved.

Species[edit]

Until recently, the most commonly cultivated raspberries have been red-fruited hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.
Purple-fruited raspberry hybrids (and black raspberries) are of interest to growers because of their potential for nutraceuticals.[5]

Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include:

Several species of Rubus, also called raspberries, are classified in other subgenera, including:

Uses[edit]

Fruit[edit]

Raspberries are grown for the fresh fruit market and for commercial processing into individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or as dried fruit used in a variety of grocery products. Traditionally, raspberries were a midsummer crop, but with new technology, cultivars, and transportation, they can now be obtained year-round. Raspberries need ample sun and water for optimal development. Raspberries thrive in well-drained soil with a pH between 6 and 7 with ample organic matter to assist in retaining water.[6] While moisture is essential, wet and heavy soils or excess irrigation can bring on Phytophthora root rot, which is one of the most serious pest problems facing the red raspberry. As a cultivated plant in moist, temperate regions, it is easy to grow and has a tendency to spread unless pruned. Escaped raspberries frequently appear as garden weeds, spread by seeds found in bird droppings.

An individual raspberry weighs 3–5 g (0.11–0.18 oz),[7] and is made up of around 100 drupelets,[8] each of which consists of a juicy pulp and a single central seed. A raspberry bush can yield several hundred berries a year. Unlike blackberries and dewberries, a raspberry has a hollow core once it is removed from the receptacle.


Nutrients and phytochemicals[edit]

Raspberries, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 220 kJ (53 kcal)
11.94 g
Sugars 4.42 g
Dietary fiber 6.5 g
0.65 g
1.2 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(3%)
0.032 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.038 mg
Niacin (B3)
(4%)
0.598 mg
(7%)
0.329 mg
Vitamin B6
(4%)
0.055 mg
Folate (B9)
(5%)
21 μg
Choline
(3%)
12.3 mg
Vitamin C
(32%)
26.2 mg
Vitamin E
(6%)
0.87 mg
Vitamin K
(7%)
7.8 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(3%)
25 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.69 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
22 mg
Manganese
(32%)
0.67 mg
Phosphorus
(4%)
29 mg
Potassium
(3%)
151 mg
Zinc
(4%)
0.42 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The aggregate fruit structure contributes to raspberry's nutritional value, as it increases the proportion of dietary fiber, which is among the highest known in whole foods, up to 6% fiber per total weight.[9] Raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C, with 26 mg per 100 g serving (32% Daily Value), manganese (32% Daily Value) and dietary fiber (26% Daily Value). Raspberries also have a moderate amount of vitamin K (7% Daily Value) and are a low-glycemic index food, with total sugar content of only 4% and no starch.[9]

Raspberries contain anthocyanin pigments, ellagic acid (from ellagotannins, see for instance the polyphenol ellagitannin), quercetin, gallic acid, cyanidins, pelargonidins, catechins, kaempferol and salicylic acid.[10] Yellow raspberries and others with pale-colored fruits are lower in anthocyanins. Both yellow and red raspberries contain carotenoids, mostly lutein esters, but these are masked by anthocyans in the red fruits.[11]

Animal research indicates antioxidant and antiproliferative (chemopreventive) effects may be associated with phenolics and flavonoids in raspberries.[12][13][14]

Commercial production[edit]

Top producers of raspberries in tons
Shown in 2011 order
Country 2010 2011
 Russia 125,000 27% 140,000 26%
 Poland 92,864 20% 117,995 22%
 Serbia 83,870 18% 89,602 16%
 United States 36,741 8% 48,948 9%
 Ukraine 25,700 5% 28,100 5%
 Mexico 14,343 3% 21,468 4%
 United Kingdom 17,000 4% 16,761 3%
 Canada 11,864 3% 12,285 2%
 Azerbaijan 10,100 2% 11,000 2%
 Spain 9,226 2% 9,559 2%
 Total 471,322 100% 543,421 100%
Source: UN FAOSTAT [15]
Worldwide raspberry yield

Leaves[edit]

Raspberry leaves can be used fresh or dried in herbal teas. They have an astringent flavor, and in herbal medicine are reputed to be effective in regulating menses.[citation needed]

Cultivation[edit]

Cultivated raspberry, in flower in a garden

Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9.[1] Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common. A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for a year in a northern climate such as Scotland or Oregon or Washington, where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is attained, or attained earlier than the ultimate place of planting. These canes are then dug, roots and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain, where they quickly flower and produce a very early season crop. Plants are typically planted 2-6 per m in fertile, well drained soil; raspberries are usually planted in raised beds/ridges, if there is any question about root rot problems.

The flowers can be a major nectar source for honeybees and other pollinators.

Raspberries are very vigorous and can be locally invasive. They propagate using basal shoots (also known as suckers), extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, and can take over gardens if left unchecked.

Raspberries are often propagated using cuttings, and will root readily in moist soil conditions. Using cuttings preserves the genotype of the parent, and is the preferred method of propagation when making large plantings.[citation needed]

The fruit is harvested when it comes off the receptacle easily and has turned a deep color (red, black, purple, or golden yellow, depending on the species and cultivar). This is when the fruits are ripest and sweetest. Excess fruit can be made into raspberry jam or frozen.

High tunnel bramble production offers the opportunity to bridge gaps in availability during late fall and late spring. Furthermore, high tunnels allow less hardy floricanefruiting raspberries to overwinter in climates where they wouldn't otherwise survive. In the tunnel plants are established at close spacing usually prior to tunnel construction.[16]

Selected important cultivars[edit]

fruits of Rubus 'Wyoming', a purple raspberry cultivar
a young leaf of 'Glen Prosen', a red cultivar
'Schönemann'

Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected.

Two types of raspberry are available for commercial and domestic cultivation; the summer-bearing type produces an abundance of fruit on second-year canes (floricanes) within a relatively short period in midsummer, and double or "everbearing" plants, which also bear some fruit on first-year canes (primocanes) in the late summer and fall, as well as the summer crop on second-year canes. Those marked (AGM) have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Red, early summer fruiting        
  • Boyne
  • Fertödi Venus
  • Rubin Bulgarski
  • Cascade Dawn
  • Glen Clova
  • Glen Moy (AGM)[17]
  • Killarney
  • Malahat
  • Malling Exploit
  • Malling Jewel (AGM)[18]
  • Titan
  • Willamette
Red, midsummer
  • Cuthbert
  • Glen Ample (AGM)[19]
  • Glen Prosen (AGM)[20]
  • Lloyd George
  • Meeker
  • Newburgh
  • Ripley
  • Skeena
  • Cowichan
  • Chemainus
  • Saanich
Red, late summer
  • Cascade Delight
  • Coho
  • Fertödi Rubina
  • Leo (AGM)[21]
  • Malling Admiral (AGM)[22]
  • Octavia
  • Schoenemann
  • Tulameen
Red, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting
  • Amity
  • Augusta
  • Autumn Bliss (AGM)[23]
  • Joan J. (Thornless)
  • Caroline
  • Fertödi Kétszertermö
  • Heritage
  • Josephine
  • Ripley
  • Summit
  • Zeva Herbsternte
Gold/Yellow, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting
  • Anne
  • Fallgold
  • Fertödi Aranyfürt
  • Goldenwest
  • Golden Queen
  • Honey Queen
  • Kiwi Gold
Purple
  • Brandywine
  • Royalty
Black
  • Black Hawk
  • Bristol
  • Cumberland
  • Glencoe
  • Jewel
  • Munger
  • Ohio Everbearer
  • Scepter

Diseases and pests[edit]

Raspberries are sometimes eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths). Botrytis cinerea, or gray mould, is a common fungal infection of raspberries and other soft fruit under wet conditions. It is seen as a gray mould growing on the raspberries, and particularly affects fruit which are bruised, as it provides an easy entrance point for the spores.

Raspberry plants should not be planted where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, or bulbs have previously been grown, without prior fumigation of the soil. These crops are hosts for the disease Verticillium wilt, a fungus that can stay in the soil for many years and can infest the raspberry crop.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  2. ^ Woolfrey, Sandra Marshall. A Country Mouse with one paw in the Village:Growing up in Prince Edward County. 
  3. ^ Hedrick, U.P.; Howe, G.H.; Taylor, O.M.; Berger, A.; Slate, G.L.; Einset, O. (1925). The small fruits of New York. Albany, New York: J. B. Lyon.  page 96
  4. ^ "Rubus Leucodermis - Exoplantus". exoplantus.fr (archived 2011-08-23). Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  5. ^ Kempler, C.; Hall, H.; Finn, C. (2012). "Raspberry". In M.L. Badenes; D.H. Byrne. Fruit Breeding 8. Springer US. pp. 263–304. 
  6. ^ Strick, B.C. "Growing Raspberries in Your Home Garden". Growing Small Fruits. Oregon State University Extension Service. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "Health and healing fact sheets, Red Raspberries". 
  8. ^ Iannetta, P. P. M.; Wyman, M.; Neelam, A.; Jones, C.; Taylor, M. A.; Davies, H. V.; Sexton, R. (December 2000). "A causal role for ethylene and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase in the abscission of red-raspberry (Rubus idaeus) drupelets". Physiol. Plant. 110 (4): 535–543. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.2000.1100417.x. 
  9. ^ a b "Nutrient data for raw raspberries, USDA Nutrient Database, SR-21". Conde Nast. 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Presents Research from the 2007 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ACS Publications, February 2008
  11. ^ Carvalho, Elisabete; Fraser, P.D.; Martens, S. (2013). "Carotenoids and tocopherols in yellow and red raspberries". Food Chemistry 139: 744–752. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.12.047. 
  12. ^ Liu M, Li XQ, Weber C, Lee CY, Brown J, Liu RH (May 2002). "Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of raspberries". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (10): 2926–30. doi:10.1021/jf0111209. PMID 11982421. 
  13. ^ Heinonen M (June 2007). "Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics—a Finnish perspective". Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (6): 684–91. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700006. PMID 17492800. 
  14. ^ Cerdá B, Tomás-Barberán FA, Espín JC (January 2005). "Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: identification of biomarkers and individual variability". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (2): 227–35. doi:10.1021/jf049144d. PMID 15656654. 
  15. ^ "Statistics from: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. 
  16. ^ "High Tunnel Raspberries and Blackberries", Department of Horticulture publication, Cathy Heidenreich, Marvin Pritts, Mary Jo Kelly., and Kathy Demchak
  17. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Glen Moy' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  18. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Malling Jewel' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  19. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  20. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Glen Prosen' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  21. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Leo' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  22. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Malling Admiral' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  23. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Autumn Bliss' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  24. ^ Spooner farms certified raspberry Plants "Planting Information"

Further reading[edit]

  • Funt, R.C. / Hall, H.K. (2012). Raspberries (Crop Production Science in Horticulture). CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-791-1

External links[edit]