Gleaves-class destroyer

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USS-Gleaves.jpg
USS Gleaves (DD-423)
Class overview
Name: Gleaves-class destroyer
Builders: Bath Iron Works
Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company
Boston Navy Yard
Charleston Navy Yard
Puget Sound Naval Shipyard
Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation
Philadelphia Naval Shipyard
Norfolk Naval Shipyard
Operators: US flag 48 stars.svg United States
Preceded by: Benson class
Succeeded by: Fletcher class
Built: 1938–43
In commission: 1940–56
Completed: 62
Lost: 13
General characteristics
Class & type: Destroyer
Displacement: 1,630 tons
Length: 348 ft 3 in (106.15 m)
Beam:   36 ft 1 in (11.00 m)
Draft:   13 ft 2 in (4.01 m)
Propulsion: 50,000 shp (37,000 kW) (37 MW);
4 boilers;
2 propellers
Speed: 37.4 knots (69 km/h)
Range: 6,500 nautical miles at 12 kt
  (12,000 km at 22 km/h)
Complement: 16 officers, 260 enlisted
Armament:

4 to 5 × 5 in/38 cal guns
10 × 21 in torpedo tubes

2 × depth charge racks

The Gleaves-class destroyers were a class of 66 destroyers of the United States Navy built 1938–1942, and designed by Gibbs & Cox.[1][2] The first ship of the class was the USS Gleaves (DD-423). The U.S. Navy customarily names a class of ships after the first ship of the class; hence the Gleaves class. They were the production destroyer of the US Navy when it entered World War II.

Description[edit]

Gleaves-class destroyers were virtually identical in appearance to the Benson-class destroyers (DD-421), distinguishable only by the shape of their stacks—the Gleaves class had round stacks, and the Benson class had flat-sided stacks. Thus, the two classes were often collectively referred to as the Benson/Gleaves class.

Initially they were known as the Livermore- class destroyers because the design was standardized with USS Livermore (DD-429), after a requested design change — increasing temperature from 700 °F to 825 °F for follow-on ships from Gibbs & Cox.[3]

"Gleaves emerged as the class leader for all the Gibbs & Cox-designed ships, which also included all sixteen FY 1939 and 1940 ships (DDs 429–444), as Bethlehem’s follow-on bid to build more [Benson- class] ships with its own machinery was rejected."[3]

An article at the National Destroyer Veterans Association site notes:

"Some references identify the Benson-Gleaves class as the Benson-Livermore class. This was a designation for the FY 38-destroyer procurement coined by popular writers in compiling a number of fleet handbooks, for example James C. Fahey’s The Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, volumes 1–4, 1939–45. Some handbooks further split the class, adding the Bristol (DD-453) as yet another division. According to tradition, however, a class is identified by the lead ship; hence Benson-Gleaves is the proper designation for this group of destroyers."[2]

Twenty one were in commission when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Eleven were lost to enemy action during World War II, including Gwin, Meredith, Monssen, Ingraham, Bristol, Emmons, Aaron Ward, Beatty, Glennon, Corry, and Maddox.

Most were decommissioned just following World War II. Eleven remained in commission into the 1950s, the last withdrawn from service in 1956.[3] Hobson was sunk in a collision with the aircraft carrier Wasp in 1952.

In 1954 Ellyson and Macomb were transferred to the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force where they served as the JDS Asakaze and JDS Hatakaze (DD-182).

Ships in class[edit]

Ship Name Hull No. Builder Laid down Commission Decommission Fate
Gleaves DD-423 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 16 May 1938 14 June 1940 8 May 1946 Sold for scrap, 29 June 1972
Niblack DD-424 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 8 August 1938 1 August 1940 June 1946 Sold for scrap, 16 August 1973
Livermore DD-429 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 6 March 1939 7 October 1940 24 January 1947 Sold for scrap, 3 March 1961
Eberle DD-430 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 12 April 1939 4 December 1940 3 June 1946 Transferred to Greece, 22 January 1951
Plunkett DD-431 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 1 March 1939 17 July 1940 3 May 1946 Transferred to Taiwan, 16 February 1959
Kearny DD-432 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 1 March 1939 13 September 1940 7 March 1946 Sold for scrap, 6 October 1972
Gwin DD-433 Boston Navy Yard 1 June 1939 15 January 1941 Sunk, Battle of Kolombangara, 13 July 1943
Meredith DD-434 Boston Navy Yard 1 June 1939 1 March 1941 Sunk by enemy action, 15 October 1942
Grayson DD-435 Charleston Navy Yard 17 July 1939 14 February 1941 4 February 1947 Sold for scrap, 12 June 1974
Monssen DD-436 Puget Sound Navy Yard 12 July 1939 14 March 1941 Sunk, First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942
Woolsey DD-437 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 9 October 1939 7 May 1941 6 February 1947 Sold for scrap, 29 May 1974
Ludlow DD-438 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 18 December 1939 5 March 1941
6 June 1950
20 May 1946
22 January 1951
Transferred to Greece, 22 January 1951
Edison DD-439 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 18 March 1940 31 January 1941 18 May 1946 Sold for scrap, 29 December 1966
Ericsson DD-440 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 18 March 1940 13 March 1941 15 March 1946 Sunk as target, 17 November 1970
Wilkes DD-441 Boston Navy Yard 1 November 1939 22 April 1941 4 March 1946 Sold for scrap, 29 June 1972
Nicholson DD-442 Boston Navy Yard 1 November 1939 3 June 1941
17 July 1950
26 February 1946
15 January 1951
Transferred to Italy, 15 January 1951
Swanson DD-443 Charleston Navy Yard 15 November 1939 29 May 1941 10 December 1945 Sold for scrap, 29 June 1972
Ingraham DD-444 Charleston Navy Yard 15 November 1939 19 July 1941 Sunk in accident, 22 August 1942
Bristol DD-453 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 20 December 1940 22 October 1941 Sunk by U-371, 13 October 1943
Ellyson DD-454 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 20 December 1940 28 November 1941 19 October 1954 Transferred to Japan, 19 October 1954
Hambleton DD-455 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 16 December 1940 22 December 1941 15 January 1955 Sold for scrap, 22 November 1972
Rodman DD-456 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 16 December 1940 29 April 1942 28 July 1955 Transferred to Taiwan, 28 July 1955
Emmons DD-457 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 14 November 1940 5 December 1941 Sunk by Kamikazes, 6 April 1945
Macomb DD-458 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 3 September 1940 26 January 1942 19 October 1954 Transferred to Japan, 19 October 1954
Forrest DD-461 Boston Navy Yard 6 January 1941 13 January 1942 30 November 1945 Sold for scrap, 20 November 1946
Fitch DD-462 Boston Navy Yard 6 January 1941 3 February 1942 24 February 1956 Sunk as target, 15 November 1973
Corry DD-463 Charleston Navy Yard 4 September 1940 18 December 1941 Sunk in action, 6 June 1944
Hobson DD-464 Charleston Navy Yard 14 November 1940 22 January 1942 Sunk in collision with USS Wasp (CV-18), 26 April 1952.
Aaron Ward DD-483 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 11 February 1941 4 March 1942 Sunk in action, 7 April 1943
Buchanan DD-484 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 11 February 1941 21 March 1942 21 May 1946 Transferred to Turkey, 28 April 1949
Duncan DD-485 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 31 July 1941 16 April 1942 Sunk, Battle of Cape Esperance, 12 October 1942
Lansdowne DD-486 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 31 July 1941 29 April 1942 2 May 1946 Transferred to Turkey, 10 June 1949
Lardner DD-487 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 15 September 1941 13 May 1942 16 May 1946 Transferred to Turkey 10 June 1949
McCalla DD-488 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 15 September 1941 27 May 1942 17 May 1946 Transferred to Turkey 29 April 1949
Mervine DD-489 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 3 November 1941 17 June 1942 27 May 1949 Sold for scrap, 27 October 1969
Quick DD-490 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 3 November 1941 3 July 1942 28 May 1949 Sold for scrap, 27 August 1973
Carmick DD-493 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 29 May 1941 28 December 1942 15 February 1954 Sold for scrap, 7 August 1972
Doyle DD-494 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 26 May 1941 27 January 1943 19 May 1955 Sold for scrap, 6 October 1972
Endicott DD-495 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 1 May 1941 25 February 1943 17 August 1955 Sold for scrap, 6 October 1970
McCook DD-496 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 1 May 1941 15 March 1943 27 May 1949 Sold for scrap, 27 August 1973
Frankford DD-497 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 5 June 1941 31 March 1943 6 March 1946 Sunk as target, 4 December 1973
Davison DD-618 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 26 February 1942 11 September 1942 24 June 1949 Sold for scrap, 27 August 1973
Edwards DD-619 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 26 February 1942 18 September 1942 11 April 1946 Sold for scrap, 25 May 1973
Glennon DD-620 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 25 March 1942 8 October 1942 Sunk in action, 10 June 1944
Jeffers DD-621 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 25 March 1942 5 November 1942 23 May 1955 Sold for scrap, 25 May 1973
Maddox DD-622 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 7 May 1942 31 October 1942 Sunk in action, 10 July 1943
Nelson DD-623 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 7 May 1942 26 November 1942 January 1947 Sold for scrap, 18 July 1969
Baldwin DD-624 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 19 July 1941 30 April 1943 20 June 1946 Scuttled, 5 June 1961
Harding DD-625 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 22 July 1941 25 May 1943 2 November 1945 Sold for scrap, 16 April 1947
Satterlee DD-626 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 10 September 1941 1 July 1943 16 March 1946 Sold for scrap, 8 May 1972
Thompson DD-627 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 22 September 1941 10 July 1943 18 May 1954 Sold for scrap, 7 August 1972
Welles DD-628 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation 27 September 1941 16 August 1943 4 February 1946 Sold for scrap, 18 July 1969
Cowie DD-632 Boston Navy Yard 18 March 1941 1 June 1942 27 April 1947 Sold for scrap, 22 February 1972
Knight DD-633 Boston Navy Yard 18 March 1941 23 June 1942 19 March 1947 Sunk as a target, 27 October 1967
Doran DD-634 Boston Navy Yard 14 June 1941 4 August 1942 29 January 1947 Sold for scrap, 27 August 1973
Earle DD-635 Boston Navy Yard 14 June 1941 1 September 1942 17 May 1947 Sold for scrap, October 1970
Butler DD-636 Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 16 September 1941 15 August 1942 8 November 1945 Sold for scrap, 10 January 1948
Gherardi DD-637 Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 16 September 1941 15 September 1942 17 December 1955 Sunk as target, 3 June 1973
Herndon DD-638 Norfolk Naval Shipyard 26 August 1941 20 December 1942 28 January 1946 Sunk as target, 24 May 1973
Shubrick DD-639 Norfolk Naval Shipyard 17 February 1942 7 February 1943 16 November 1945 Sold for scrap, 28 September 1947
Beatty DD-640 Charleston Navy Yard 1 May 1941 7 May 1942 Sunk in action, 6 November 1943
Tillman DD-641 Charleston Navy Yard 1 May 1941 4 June 1942 6 February 1947 Sold for scrap, 8 May 1972
Stevenson DD-645 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 23 July 1942 15 December 1942 27 April 1946 Sold for scrap, 2 June 1970
Stockton DD-646 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 24 July 1942 11 January 1943 16 May 1946 Sold for scrap, 25 May 1973
Thorn DD-647 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 15 November 1942 1 April 1943 6 May 1946 Sunk as target, 22 August 1974
Turner DD-648 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 16 November 1942 15 April 1943 Sank, 3 January 1944

Film appearances[edit]

The 1954 movie The Caine Mutiny was filmed on the USS Doyle (DMS-34) and possibly the USS Thompson (DMS-38). In the 1951 novel, the Caine is a Wickes-class or Clemson class destroyer minesweeper.

The destroyer shown in the opening and closing scenes of the movie musical On the Town is the USS Swanson, DD-443.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Benson- and Gleaves-class Destroyers". Destroyer History Foundation. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  2. ^ a b "The GLEAVES-Class Destroyers". The National Association of Destroyer Veterans. Archived from the original on 2008-01-18. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  3. ^ a b c "DD-423 Gleaves". GlobalSecurity.org. 2005-04-27. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 

See also[edit]

Media related to Gleaves class destroyers at Wikimedia Commons

External links[edit]